American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
September 2013 Issue 6

Kabab Chini (Piper cubeba) & Its Healing Corollary in Unani Medicine: An Overview

*1Md. Anzar Alam, Shamim Ahmed2, Sadique Husain2, Humaira Bano2, Zaheer Ahmed2, Abdul Azeez3.

1.PG Scholars, Dept. of Moalajat, National Institute of Unani Medicine (NIUM),Under Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India, Bangalore-560091

2.PG Scholar, Dept. of Advia (Pharmacology) NIUM, Bangalore-91

3. Lecturer, Dept. of Regimenal Therapy, NIUM, Bangalore-91


Piper cubeba known as Kabab Chini in Unani Medicine, belongs to the family Piperaceae, widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions and this herb is mentioned in traditional Unani texts as an effective remedy for Renal disorder, Gonorrhoea, Leucorrhoea, Fever,  Rheumatism, Diabetes etc. It was found that the qualitative phytochemical study of this plant extract indicates the presence of many essential oils such consisting of monoterpenes: sesquiterpenes, germacene, cubebin, β-pinene etc. It chiefly possesses anti-microbial activity. Piperine is an amide (alkaloid) found naturally in plants belonging to the pyridine group of Piperaceae family, such as Piper cubeba and Piper nigrum which is widely used in various herbal cough syrups. Unani physicians on the basis of their own experience affirmed that Kabab Chini is one of the best drug for the treatment of Amra’z-e- Kullia (Renal diseases) and especially in restoring the normalcy of renal functioins. Ibn-Hubal Baghdadi (1121–1213 AD.) mentioned in his Kitab Al-Mukhtarat Fit Tibb about Kabab Chini. “Gurdon ka tanqiyah karti hai, Jigar ke suddon ko kholti hai,  unki pathri aur regh kharij krti hai.” Medicinal plants may serve as a vital source of potentially useful new compounds for the development of effective therapy to combat a variety of kidney problems. Many herbs have been claimed to possess nephroprotective properties but lacks scientific evidence. A concerted attempt has been made to highlight the healing corollary of Kabab Chini as mentioned in Unani medicine as to its nephroprotective property in the light of ancient Unani classics and recent scientific studies.

Keywords: Kabab Chini, Kababah, Piper cubeba, Nephroprotective, Unani medicine.


Emerging Trends In Bio-Synthesis and Applications of Gold Nanoparticles: A Blooming Technology

Supriya S. Shidhaye*1, Tejal S. Budhkar1, Chaitali V. Surve1, Ashwini G. Dhone1

1. Vivekanand Education Society’s College of Pharmacy, HashuAdvani Memorial Complex, Chembur (E), Mumbai- 400074


Nanotechnology is a flourishing technology and a promising approach for treatment and diagnosis of a variety of diseases. Gold nanoparticles have recently emerged as an efficient tool for a variety of medical applications. Gold nanoparticles exploit their unique chemical and physical properties for transporting and unloading the pharmaceuticals. The gold core is essentially inert and non-toxic, mono-disperse nanoparticles can be formed with core sizes ranging from 1 nm to 150 nm, further adaptability is imparted by their ready functionalization; generally through thiol linkages. They are particularly promising for their easy synthesis in various shapes and the ability to target them to interact with specific molecules. Gold nanoparticles are being manufactured from gold chloride solutions using reductive reagents, to form colloidal suspensions.The common methods for synthesis of gold nanoparticles have been enlisted. The current review elaborates on the emerging and eco-friendly biosynthetic methods to synthesize gold nanoparticles. The biosynthetic processes involve predominantly green synthesis by using plants and their extracts and also fungus and bacteria. The biosynthetic process proves to be a boon over the chemical and other synthetic procedures by being economic, non-toxic and compatible. Gold nanoparticles have found their application in countless fields involving medicine and biology, cancer therapy, gene delivery, environmental sciences and in analytical technology. The present review explains the versatile gold nanoparticles and their innumerable applications.

Keywords: Gold nanoparticles, biosynthesis, plant extracts, bacteria, fungi, cancer therapy.


Agrimonia eupatoria Linn. A Traditional Herb and its Scientific Testimony- A Review.

Mohammad Asim Khan,1* Anzar Alam,2 Md. Nazamuddin,1 S Javed Ali,2 Md. Qutubuddin2

1. PG Scholar, Dept. Of Ilmul Advia (Pharmacology), National Institute of Unani Medicine (NIUM), Kottigepalya Bangalore-560091

2. PG Scholar Dept of Moalajat, NIUM, Bangalore-560091


Plants are utilized as remedial agents since time immemorial in both organized (Ayurveda, Unani) & Unorganized (folk, ethnic, inhabitant) form that have been revered for their medicinal value. Traditional system of medicines primarily Unani (Greco Arab) and Ayurveda uses plant as a whole or part of it for healing many ailments. Such as, A. eupatoria (Agrimonia/agrimony) is one of the most vital plants found in India which is used for its abiding properties of curing a number of diseases. The herb posses highly therapeutic value especially for treatment of lifestyle diseases such as Diabetes, Hypertension and Obesity, accompanied by low-grade inflammation.  Research on medicinal plants is one of the leading areas of research globally. Modern era researches and scientific reports also revalidate its usefulness as imperative medicinal herb. The integral objective of reviewing this manuscript is to bring to lime light the litrarery and scientific validation of Agrimonia eupatoria.

Key words: Agrimonia, Unani Medicine, Traditional Medicine, Therapeutic Uses


Ustukhuddus A Traditional Herb with Versatile Pharmacological Activity: An Overview

Danish Mand1*,Humaira Bano2, Anzar Alam1, Shamim Ahmed2

1.Dept. of Moalajat, National Institute of Unani Medicine (NIUM), Maghdi Main Road, Bangalore (Karnataka)-560091

2.Dept. of Ilmul Advia, National Institute of Unani Meddicine (NIUM), Kottigepalya


Plants are of the main sources of medicine and a large numbers of drugs in use are derived from plants. The therapeutic uses of plant are secure, inexpensive & effectual as their ease of accessibility. Among the plants known for medicinal value, the plants of genus Lavendula belonging to family Lamiaceae are very imperative for their therapeutic potentials. Lavendula stoechus Linn, known as Ustukhuddus is such plant origin drug familiar in Unani literature which possesses a lot of pharmacological actions viz; Dafe Tashannuj, Dafe Suda, Mufarreh Qalb Wa Dimagh, Muqawwi Aasab, Jaroobe Dimagh etc. and few are scientifically evaluated and many are yet to be evaluated.  The present review attempts to cover the up to date complete literature analysis on Ustukhuddus with esteem to its phytochemistry, pharmacognostic characters and it’s a variety of pharmacological activities.

Keywords: Traditional Medicine, Ustukhuddus, Lavendula stoechus Linn, Antioxidant


Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Some Novel 3-Methyl Pyrazol-5-One Derivatives as Potential Antimicrobial Agents

Shweta S. Bule*, M. R. Kumbhare, P. R. Dighe

1. S.M.B.T College of Pharmacy, Dhamangaon, Igatpuri, Nashik, Maharashtra, India. 422-403.


In the present research work, the motto was to develop new chemical entities as potential antimicrobial agent. The recent expansion of antimicrobial drug research has occurred because there is a critical need for new antimicrobial agents to treat these life threatening invasive infections. In the present study three series of new substituted pyrazolone derivatives (3i, 7a-l) were synthesized by the condensation reaction of pyrazolones with various substituted aromatic aldehyde (5), further intermediate reacts with a benzyl chloride. These newly synthesized compounds were characterized by IR spectra. New compounds were screened for their antimicrobial studies against S. aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli and P.aeruginosa, C.albicans, A.niger. The results revealed that compounds substituent showed significant antibacterial activity against all tested microorganisms and fungi as compared to the standard drug Streptomycin, fluconazole.

Keywords: 3-methyl pyrazol-5-one, pyrazolone, antimicrobial



Urinary tract infections in Maiduguri-city, Nigeria: a 2005-2009 clinical survey of Fluoroquinolones Activities against Staphylococcus Aureus acting as second most isolated Etiological Pathogens.

John David Ohieku1*, Rilwanu Aminu Magaji1

1.Departmen of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Administration, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B. 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria


The increasing resistances to several antibiotic classes have forced pressures on fluoroquinolones (FQs) use. Even among FQs, resistances are growing due to rapid spreading of adaptive measures. We investigated Staphylococcus aureus urinary tract infections (UTIs) to understand its infectivity patterns, sensitivity trends to FQs, multi-fluoroquinolone resistant patterns, and fluoroquinolones’ interactivity relations from January 2005 to December 2009. 211 (13.3%) Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from 1590 urine cultured samples having its peak infectivity in 2006 with 28.4% and least proportion (10.9%) in 2005.  Staph aureus UTIs were higher in women (41.7%) than men (20.4%) in those between 10 and 30 years, but beyond this age range, this trend was reversed (16.6% for men and 3.3% for women). The overall activities of the FQs during the 5 years periods range from 41% in norfloxacin to 85% in ofloxacin and resistance rates of the pathogen have out-grown sensitivity for norfloxacin and nalidixic acid. Age dependent increase in resistance was correlated for ciprofloxacin (P=0.003) and norfloxacin (P<0.01) up to 50 and 60 years respectively and overall resistance change (23.9% in 2005 to 47.1 in 2009) of FQs was found to be significant (P<0.01). The activities of ciprofloxacin against norfloxacin-resistant and pefloxacin-resistant Staph aureus were consistently higher than ofloxacin (P<0.005 and P<0.05 respectively). Co-fluoroquinolone-resistant Staph aureus increased from 8.7% in 2005 to 24.1% in 2009. Most ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin resistant Staph aureus UTI may have no suitable alternative among the quinolones currently in use in the region, necessitating the need for the introduction of newer quinolones.

Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, Staph aureus UTI, Urinary Tract Infection, uropathogenic Staphylococcus aureus, norfloxacin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Ciprofloxacin, Fluoroquionolones


Development and Validation of a New UV Method for Analysis of Balofloxacin

S. Malathi*1 T.Sivakumar2

1. PSG College of Pharmacy, Coimbatore.

2. NANDHA College of Pharmacy, Erode.


A new, rapid sensitive, simple and cost effective UV method was developed for the estimation of balofloxacin in bulk as well as in pharmaceutical formulations. The absorbance of balofloxacin was measured in 0.1N sodium hydroxide at new wave length (λmax 290). The linearity range was found to be 1-9 μg/ml.The method was tested and validated for various parameters as per ICH specification. The result demonstrates that the developed procedure is accurate, precise and reproducible. Proposed method is applicable for the estimation of balofloxacin in different dosage forms and results are in good agreement with label claim.

Key words: Balofloxacin, 0.1N Sodium hydroxide, UV method.


Anti-inflammatory activity of the rhizomes of Anaphyllum wightii Schott. P.L.

P.L.Rajagopal1*, K.R.Sreejith2 S.S. Kiron 3,V.B.Narayana Swami 4

1. Academy of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Pariyaram Medical College, Kannur, Kerala, S. India.

2. Asst.Professor, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Academy of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Pariyaram Medical College, Kannur, Kerala, S.India.

3. Asst.Professor, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Academy of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Pariyaram Medical College, Kannur, Kerala, S.India

4. Professor and Principal, Department of Pharmacognosy, Karaveli College of Pharmacy, Mangalore, Karnataka, S.India


Plants have been used as an alternative remedy for the treatment of various ailments since ancient times. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the Anaphyllum wightii  were studied. The prevention of hypotonicity induced HRBC membrane lysis was taken as a measure of the anti inflammatory activity. The anti inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extract was comparable to that of the standard drug Diclofenac sodium. The ethanolic extract of the rhizomes of Anaphyllum wightii has significant anti inflammatory activity in comparison with the  aqueous extract of the same plant.

Keywords: Anti-inflammatory, invitro, Anaphyllum wightii , Rhizomes, HRBC Membrane stabilisation.


Molecular Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Biofilm Forming Escherichia Coli

Shweta Sharma1, Bharti Mahajan1, Rakesh K. Patidar1, K.N. Sahare1, Mayuri Khare1, Vinod Singh1*

Department of Microbiology, Barkatullah University, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India


Antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli is consistently highest for antimicrobial agents that have been in use the longest time in human and veterinary medicine. This study was carried out to detect the location of antibiotic-resistant gene in biofilm forming E. Coli isolates by molecular approaches. The investigated genes included CEF (E1) Cefidinir and AZT (E2) Aztreonam. According to biochemical experiment, E.coli isolates were recognized from sewage water. After that Antibiotic susceptibilities of E. coli isolates were tested against 14 antimicrobial agents by the disk diffusion method. The resistance of E. coli was found against cefidinir and Aztreonam. Biofilm forming ability of E. Coli was investigated by Microtitre plate assay, cover slip assay and tube assay. E. coli shows biofilm forming ability by all 3 methods. Further, we have done molecular characterization of resistant E. Coli. Detection of the 16s rRNA gene using universal primers was done. PCR technique was used to detect specific antibiotic resistance genes. The results indicate that biofilm forming resistant isolate EC1 (E. coli strain 1) contains Cefidinir resistance gene at 742bp on 100bp ladder marker and EC2 (E. coli strain 2) contains Aztreonam resistance gene at 478bp in the context of 100bp ladder marker. Both biofilm forming resistance isolates of E. coli harbour antibiotic resistance genes. The present study explores; in vitro qualitative estimation of biofilm production of E. Coli isolated from sewage and correlates it with antibiotic resistance.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, Biofilm, antibiotic-resistance genes, Aztreonam, Cefdinir, PCR (Polymerase chain reaction)


Design of Medicated Cream for Scalp Infections

Purushotham K. Rao1, Niranjan GV2, Saran Solleti3,Prashanth Sagre4, SK Patil 4, Muntasibalikhan1.

1. H.K.E.S’s College of pharmacy (M. R. Medical College Campus), Gulbarga. K.S. India.

2. Director. CDC, Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Services, Karnataka, Bangalore, K S. India

3. Laurentian university, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada.

4. Dept. Of Dermatology, MR Medical College and General Hospital, Gulbarga, K.S. India


Psoriasis is most frequently affects the skin of the elbows, knees, scalp, lumbosacral areas. It is the typical lesion well-demarcated, pink to salmon-colored plaque covered by loosely adherent scales that are characteristically silver white in color. Several topical therapies are available for the treatments of Scalp psoriasis like emollients, keratolytics, corticosteroids, tar, anthralin, vitamin D analogues and retinoids. .Currently available medications such as ointments and solutions are often greasy, sticky, odorous, difficult to apply, require frequent application, and are expensive causes poor patients compliance. In proposed work it is planned to prepare cream formulations of non-greasy and water removable, and improve patient’s compliance. This cream is o/w emulsion based formulation contain suitable combination of oil phase and aqueous phase along with preservatives, was prepared and subjected to various physiochemical parameters like drug content, pH, spreadability, tube extrudability, viscosity and IR studies. In-vitro drug release was carried out in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) and compared with marketed formulation. Stability studies of formulation were also done at ambient temperature (30oC&40 oC) for the period of six months as per ICH guidelines. The formulations were subjected for primary skin irritation test in rabbits, guinea pigs, and healthy human volunteers for 72 hours and observed for any skin rashes, inflammation, itching, or redness. Drug content, pH, Spreadability, Tube extrudability of the formulation was found to be 95.47%, 7.2, 12.28gm.cm/sec, 96.14% respectively. From rheogram it is concluded that formulation shows pseudoplastic flow property. From our study it is revealed that salicylic acid  cream formulation should be useful for treatment of scalp psoriasis.

Keywords: Psoriasis, salicylic acid cream


Extractive Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Racecadotril in Pure and Pharmaceutical Formulations

Lanka Venkateswara Rao1*, Surreddy Vijaya Mani Vardhan2, Rambabu Chintala3

1*Department of Chemistry, D.M.S.S.V.H .College of Engineering, Machilipatnam, AP, India.

2Department of Biochemistry, K.U.Dr.MRAR  P.G. Centre, Nuzvid, AP, India.

3Department of Chemistry,Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, AP, India.



Two sensitive extractive spectrophotometric methods have been developed and validated for the estimation of Racecadotril in pure and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The developed methods are based on the formation of colored ion-association complex of drug with Tropaeolin  ooo[TPooo] and Alizarin  red-s  [ARS] extractable in chloroform. The optimum conditions such as effect of concentration of dyes, pH etc on color development have been established for these methods The extracted complexes showed absorbance maxima at 482 and 420nm for these developed methods. Beer’s law is obeyed in the concentration ranges between 8-40µg/ml for the two methods respectively. These newly developed methods can be applied for the determination of other drugs in commercial capsules and results of analysis were validated statistically in accordance with ICH guidelines.

Keywords: Racecadotril, Spectrophotometric methods, Tpooo,ARS, Chloroform.