American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
January 2014 Issue 1

Qualities and Purification Methods of Potable Water Described In Unani Literature

Md Tanwir Alam1*, Abdul Haseeb Ansari2, Arish Mohammad Khan Sherwani2, Aisha Perveen2, Shaista Perveen2

1.Allama Iqbal Unani Medical College (AIUMC), Muzaffarnagar, U.P., India.

2.National Institute of Unani Medicine (NIUM), Kottigepalya, Bangalore, Karnataka, India


Historical evidences prove that the success and failure of civilization depends upon its distance from the water resources. Those which lies near the rivers and sea cost flourishes well. Examples are Mesopotamian civilization (Euphrates & Nile river), Indian valley civilization (river Ganga) etc. Right from the human evolution better say evolution of life, water is the primary and vital need for the existence of life. As the civilization advances, the thrust to get the pure water become more vigorous. Water is necessary for many house hold purposes like agriculture, food production, drinking, washing and preparing many household items and many more. We use streams, rivers, ponds as well as ground water reservoirs as source of water. But these sources aren’t always clean. Since ancient times, the need of pure water resulted in the development of water purification methods. Initially they didn’t know the microbes, but the visual impurities. So mainly they used to purify the water from visual pollutants. Various plants like Amla and Khus etc., were used to purify the water. Here in this paper authors describe the different methods of purification of water mentioned in ancient unani literature in addition with methods to neutralize the ill effect of contaminated water if consumed.

Keywords: Unani System of Medicine; Water Purification; Hard water; Churning.


Management of Seborrhoeic Dermatitis In Unani Medicine

Ehsan Rauf

1.Department of Moalajat (Unani Medicine), Ajmal Khan Tibbiya College, Aligarh Muslim University Aligarh, Up, India.


In Unani system of Medicine the term Seborrhoeic dermatitis is not present but the term “Hazaz wa Abriya” is present. The signs and symptoms of Hazaz are similar to Seborrhoeic Dermatitis.Hazaz are small particles which shed from the head in the form of scales without ulceration.In Modern Medicine it is defined as “A very common chronic dermatosis characterized by redness and scaling and occurring in regions where the sebaceous glands are most active, such as the face and scalp, the presternal area, and in the body folds”. Mild scalp Seborrhoeic Dermatitis causes flaking, i.e. dandruff. Its exact cause is still unknown but it is presumed that over growth of Yeast Malassezia furfur may play a part in the development of Seborrhoeic Dermatitis. According to Unani Medicine it is caused by saline phlegm (balgham-e-shor), dryness in temperament(mizaj).The treatment of Seborrhoeic Dermatitis in Unani Medicine is depend upon the cause. If the cause is excessive dryness in temperament, moist the temperament for this purpose apply moist oils such as Roghan-e-banafsha, Roghan-e- Kaddu. Local Application of Jali (Detergent) drugs is also beneficial.

Keywords: Seborrhoeic Dermatitis, Haza wa Abriya, Mizaj.


In-situ Forming Parenteral Drug Delivery: A New-fangled Loom In Therapeutics.

Riyaz Ali Osmani1*, Rohit R. Bhosale1, Prasanna P. Ghodake2, Bhargav R. Harkare2, Mithun A. Thombare2,

1.Department of Pharmaceutics, Satara College of Pharmacy, Satara-415 004 (M. S.) India.

2 Satara College of Pharmacy, Satara-415 004 (M. S.) India.


The parenteral route is the most common and effective route of administration for the drugs that have poor bioavailability and narrow therapeutic window. Recently, controlled and sustained drug delivery has become the standard in modern pharmaceutical design and an intensive research have been undertaken in achieving much better drug product with high degree of effectiveness, reliability and safety. This interest has also been sparked in parenterals; by the advantages offered by in-situ forming parenteral drug delivery systems such as ease of administration, reduced frequency of administration, decreased body dosage and thus reduced undesirable side effects, localized delivery for a site specific action, improved patient compliance and comfort. The in-situ formation of drug delivery system depends on factors like temperature modulation, pH change, presence of ions and ultraviolet radiations; from which drug get released in a sustained and controlled manner. Utilization of many biodegradable and biocompatable polymers in formulation of these systems, overcome the possibilities of adverse reactions. From manufacturing point of view even, these systems are cost effective in comparison with conventional parenteral drug delivery systems. Hence, in-situ forming parenteral drug delivery systems seems promising, as they offers a range of advantages over conventional parenteral delivery systems, and may escort to a new path in therapeutics in near future.

Keywords: Controlled Parenteral Drug Delivery, Parenteral Depots, Polymeric Conjugates, Bioerodible Systems, Implants, Targeted Drug Delivery.


Perception of community pharmacists towards patient counseling and continuing pharmacy education program in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor states of Malaysia

Kingston Rajiah*1, Kamal Preet Kaur1, Shreeta Sivarasa1,LeowYeow Ming2

1.Department of Pharmacy practice, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur -57000, Malaysia.

2.Community Pharmacist, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia -47300


Malaysia is one of the front-runners amongst developing countries, whereby clinical practice and pharmaceutical care is dominating the picture of professional pharmacy practice. The most accessible health professionals to the general public worldwide are known to be the community pharmacists. A positive pharmacist perception, behavior and attitude are pivotal towards the implementation of pharmaceutical care. Convenience sampling was done. The sample size was determined using RAOSOFT calculator by using 95% confidence level with 0.05 statistical significance. Study information sheet was shown and concern (either verbal or written) was obtained prior to the study. The community pharmacies’ lists were obtained from Malaysian Pharmaceutical Society for sample selection. A total of 220 community pharmacists completed the questionnaire. There were male (48%) and female (52%) respondents, and most of the pharmacists were Chinese (98%). Almost half of the respondents were in the age group of 25 to 35 years old (49%) and experiences for most of them in community practice were above 10 years (53%). Many of the respondents responded their working hour per day was 8-10 hours  Overall, almost all the community pharmacists had positive perception towards patient counseling and continuing education program in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor states of Malaysia. Further research is needed to evaluate perception of community pharmacists in different states of Malaysia and explore more on continuing education program in Malaysia.

Keywords: Community pharmacists, patient counselling, continuing pharmacy education program


Anti-Diabetic Activity of Ochna Obtusata Leaves In Alloxan Induced Rats

Rajitha Indukuri 1*, Venkata sunitha G 2, Srikanth G 3, Leena Priyanka B 1, Asha latha M.A 1,Raju kumar P 1.

1.Department of Pharmacology, Maheswara Institute of Pharmacy,

2.Department of pharmaceutics, Vignan institute of pharmaceutical sciences , Nalgonda.

3.Department of pharmaceutics , sri sai college of pharmacy, Kodada


This  study  was  conducted to  investigate the   anti- diabetic effect of ethnolic extract of  Ochna obtusata leaves in Alloxan induced diabetic Wistar albino rats. The anti-diabetic activity was assessed by determining and comparing the fasted blood glucose level in the test group (200,400 mg/kg) with that of the diabetic control group and glibenclamide 20mg/kg was used as a reference standard. In the alloxan-induced diabetic rats Ochna obtusata produced a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose levels. It acts in a dose dependant manner to bring back the raised blood sugar levels to normal. The 400mg/kg treated group has showed maximum reduction  in blood glucose (148.26 mg/dl) which is closer to that of standard Glibenclamide (145.71 mg/dl). We can conclude that  ethnolic extract of  Ochna obtusata is capable of managing hyperglycemia induced by alloxan. The extract seems to be  one of the potential sources  for the development of a novel phytotherapy for diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: Anti diabetic activity, Ochna obtusata, Alloxan  induced diabetis , Hypoglycemic activity.


Evaluation of Antityphoid Activity of Coscinium Fenestratum

Anitha. S1*, Suresh GS1, Ramaiah. M2, Vaidya VP3

1.Chemistry Research Centre, SSMRV Degree College Jayanagar, Bangalore – 41. 

2.NMKRV College for Women with PG and Research Centre, Jayanagar, Bangalore – 11.

3.Kuvempu University, JnanaSahyadri, Shankaraghatta – 577451.


The Plant Coscinium fenestratum belonging to the family stercularaceae contains alkaloids as the chief constituent. In the present study an attempt was made to isolate alkaloids from the extract showing the significant antityphoid activity. The plant was collected from the region of Kerala and was authentified by Department of Botany in Kerala University. The whole plant was air dried and ground into fine powders and subjected for successive extraction using petroleum ether, chloroform, butanol, ethanol, methanol and water. In the present investigation, the successive extracts were tested for anti typhoid activity against Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi A and Salmonella paratyphi B organism in comparison with standard antibiotic ciprofloxacin using dimethyl formamide as blank. The extracts were dissolved in dimethyl formamide and inoculated in the agar nutrient media. The zone of inhibition was studied in triplicate analysis to evaluate the antityphoid activity. The zone of inhibition observed with ciprofloxacin was 36+0.2mm (S. typhi), 39+0.5mm (S. Paratyphi A) and 42+0.3mm (S. Paratyphi B). The chloroform extract showed 28+0.3mm (S. typhi), 32+0.2mm (S. Paratyphi A) and 35+0.5mm (S. Paratyphi B). This revealed the antityphoid activity of Coscinium fenestratum.

Keywords: Coscinium fenestratum, S. Paratyphi A, S. Paratyphi B


Synthesis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of a Novel Series of new BenzoxazoleDerivatives

Kankanala Naveen Kumar1, KondaSwathi1, Bindhu Minugonda1, MandaSarangapani1*

1.Medicinal Chemistry Laboratory, University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kakatiya University, Wararagal-506009, A.P., India


In the present investigation we have synthesized a series of new 2-arylidene-N-(benzoxazole-2-yl) hydrazine carboxamide and 2-arylidene-N-(5-chloro benzoxazole-2-yl) hydrazine carboxamide derivatives (VIIIa-VIIIf& VIIIA-VIIIE). The newly synthesized derivatives were characterized by using the data of IR, 'H NMR and Mass Spectral analysis. Thus synthesized and characterized targeted compounds were further screened for their anti-inflammatory activity by using Carrageenan - induced paw edema rat model. Among all the newly synthesized derivatives, Compounds VIIIa-c and Compounds VIIIA-C were reduced the inflammation very significantly , thus these compounds showed promising anti-inflammatory activity and compounds VIIId-VIIIf& VIIID-VIIIF showed moderate anti-inflammatory activity.

Keywords: benzoxazoles, IR,' HNMR, Mass Spectroscopy and anti-inflammatory activity