American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
January 2015 Issue 1

A Review on Life Plant- Bryophyllum Pinnatum

Maralkar Sudhir1, Shetkar Madhav*1, Sonawane Lalit 1, Wakode Suraj 1, Poul Bhagwatrao1

1. Maharashtra College of pharmacy, Nilanga (413521), Latur (413512) Maharashtra. India.


Bryophyllum pinnatum belongs to the family crassulaceae  was widely used in traditional medicine especially in the tropical areas like in tropical Africa, tropical America, India, China, and Australia. Is a perennial herb grows 3-5 feet tall, fleshy dark green leaves that are distinctively scalloped and trimmed in red, and bell like pendulous flowers. It is widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of variety of ailments like anthelmentic, immunosuppressive, hepatoprotective, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic, nephroprotective, antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity and analgesic, anticonvulsant, neuropharmacological and antipyretic. It is well known for its haemostatic and wound healing properties. This review covers detailed ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry and bioactivities of Bryophyllum pinnatum. A number of active compound groups including alkaloids, triterpenes, lipids, flavonoids, glycosides, bufadienolides, phenols and organic acids have been covered. The present review was designed to highlight the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Bryophyllum pinnatum.

Keywords: Bryophyllum pinnatum, chemical constituents and pharmacological effects


Nanogel As A Smart Vehicle For Local Drug Delivery In Dentistry

Kshitija Prasad*1, Geetha Vijay1, Nisha K Jayakumari1, Ashwini Dhananjaya1, Lalithambika Valliyil1

1. No 80 3 rd cross 6 th main T R NAGAR, Bangalore, KA, India


The nanoparticulate systems are materials having less than 100 nm at least in one dimension. Various nanoparticulate drug delivery systems include biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles, polymeric micelles, solid nanoparticles, lipid-based nanoparticles, nano liposomes, nano hydrogel, magnetic nanoparticles, quantum dots etc. As a family of nanoscale particulate materials, hydrogel nanoparticles (recently referred to as nanogels) have been the points of convergence of considerable amount of efforts devoted to the study of these systems dealing with drug delivery approaches. Interestingly, hydrogel nanoparticulate materials would demonstrate the features and characteristics hydrogels and nanoparticles separately posses, at the same time. Thus, there are many advantages of the nanoparticles including hydrophilicity, flexibility, versatility, high water absorptivity, and biocompatibility. The specific properties which help use of nanogel in medicine, especially dentistry, are the long life span of the drug and the possibility of it being directed to the desired area. Owing to the fact that the concept of nanogels in dentistry is in its infancy, the need arises to disseminate the available information so as to spurt activity in this important area. Here we review the properties, advantages, disadvantages, classification and application of nanogel in dentistry and specifically in periodontics.

Keywords: Hydrogel, Nanogels, Dentistry.


Selected Medicinal Plants of Order Lamiales Used in Traditional ‎Medicine

Archna Sharma1, Alka Sharma1, Vijay R Kumar1, Ashwini Kumar2*

1. Govt PG College Kaladera, Jaipur.

2. Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur.


Among the medicinal plants, out of 30,000 species estimated to be used by the indigenous and ethnic societies of world, around 10,000 have been used by traditional systems of medicines of respective countries such as in Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homeopathy medicines in India. Natural products are the important source of bioactive compounds and have potential for the development of novel therapeutic agents. Over the last decade there has been a growing interest in drugs of plant origin.  A wide range of products can be obtained from plants i.e., perfumes, insecticides, flavoring agents, coloring agents, medicines etc. Lamiales order has two important family Lamiaceae and Acanthaceae among others and both the families are pan tropical in distribution. The Acanthaceae is a large (ca, 4000 species in some 230 genera) pantropical family. The present paper reviews some of the important plants of these families having medicinal value.

Keywords: Acanthaceae, Lamiaceae, Ocimum, Justicia, Traditional medicines.



Prosenjit Chakraborty1, Abhimanyu Thakur*2, Partha Pratim Mahata1, Chandrakant Kumar Prasad2, Aishwarya Roy2

1. BCDA College of Pharmacy & Technology, 78, Jessore Road, Hridaypur, Barasat, Kolkata.

2. Dept. of Pharmaceutical Science, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi, Jharkhand.


Pharmacogenomics is moving beyond single-gene effects to study the effects of inheritance in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic pathways involving multiple gene products. Pharmacogenomics aims to develop rational means to optimize drug therapy with respect to the patient’s genotype to ensure maximum efficacy that had a minimal serious event. In this kind of occurrences there is an advantage of personalized medications in which drugs and drug combinations are optimized for each individual’s unique genetic makeup. However, the translation of Pharmacogenomics to the bedside will require the education of physicians and other healthcare professionals in clinical genomic science generally and in its application to therapeutics in particular. Patients will also have to become informed regarding application of genomics to drug selection and dosage. In the present article, an attempt has been made to review the scenario of Pharmacogenomics and to assess the extent of knowledge and its acceptability in the field of healthcare.

Keywords: Pharmacogenomics, Players, Genetic Abnormalities, pharmacists, Health education.


Green House Gas Emissions and Climate Change: Options to Mitigate ‎Climate Change

Priyadarshini Agnihotri1, Ashwani Kumar2*

1. Head of the Department, Geography Department SGN Khalsa PG College Sriganganagar.

2. Former Head of the Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302004. India.


Increasing levels of greenhouse gas emissions are cause of global concern. The Kyoto Protocol shares the ultimate objective of the Convention to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of Green House Gases at a level that will prevent dangerous interference with the climate system. . Current biomass use,although not sustainable in some cases, replaces fossil fuel consumption and results in avoided CO2 emissions, representing about 2.7 to 8.8 % of 1998 anthropogenic CO2 emissions. The global biomass energy potential is large, estimated at about 104 EJ/a. hence, biomass has the potential to avoid significant fossil fuel consumption, potentially between 17 and 36 % of the current level and CO2 emissions potentially between 12 and 44 % of the 1998 level. There is significant scope then to integrate biomass energy with agriculture, forestry and climate change policies. Improved agronomic practices of well managed biomass plantations will also provide a basis for environmental improvement by helping to stabilize certain soils, avoiding desertification which is already occurring rapidly in tropical countries.

Keywords: Kyoto protocol, greenhouse emissions, fossil fuel, plantations, biofuels. Climate change.


Comparative Pharmacognostical and Analytical Studies of Root Barks of Species Used as Patala in Ayurvedic System of Medicine

Sneha Kalaskar1*, Harisha CR1, Vd B.R.Patel1, Shukla VJ1

1. I.P.G.T. & R.A., Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India – 361 008


Herbal drug market is becoming more and more competitive day by day. Dashamoola is important group of ten plants whose roots are used for variety of purposes. Patala is one of the plants from this Dashamoola group. Its commonly accepted botanical source is Stereospermum suaveolens (Roxb.)DC. Stereospermum suaveolens (Roxb.)DC is identified as NT (Near threatened) species thus there is need to evaluate substitute for it to increase the source plants.1 Radermachera xylocarpa (Roxb.) K. Schum. can be used as substitute for Stereospermum suaveolens (Roxb.)DC.2 Free hand selections and organoleptic examination was done of all samples, microscopic characters, ash values, LOD, extractive values, Tannin content & other phyto-chemical analysis. Transverse section of both the samples show presence of stone cells, micro-crystals of ca-oxalate, simple and compound starch grains, brown content (Tannin). Phytochemical study reveals presence of a wide range of phytoconstituents like Glycosides, Steroids, alkaloids, Tannins and Flavonoids in both extracts. The quantitative estimation of Tannin in S. suaveolens root bark is 2.511%w/w and R.xylocarpa root bark 9.207 %w/w.

Keywords: Patala; Stereospermum suaveolens(Roxb.)DC.; Radermachera xylocarpa b.&hk;Root barks; Pharmacognosy, Analytical study.


Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Interactions of Neem Leaf Extract with Glimepiride in Stz Induced Diabetic Rats

G.Sumalatha1, M. Vidyavathi*2, J. Vidya Sagar3

1. Vaagdevi Institute of pharmaceutical sciences, Bollikunta, Warangal

2. Institute of pharmaceutical technology, SPMVV, Tirupati

3. Senior scientist, Relysis, Hyderabad.


Herb Drug interaction is a challenging concept, since the consumption of herbal and other drugs is not documented in patient’s profile. With this aspect the present study was designed to investigate the pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic effect of neem leaf extract (NE) on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of Glimepiride in diabetic rats. All the pharmacokinetic parameters such as Cmax, AUC0-n, AUCtot, t1/2 are increased and clearance and Vd are decreased when compared with control group. In Pharmacodynamic study the blood glucose levels are estimated, total antioxidant status in diabetic rats by using DPPH method and oral glucose toleranc test were performed. Combination has improved the total antioxidant status. The results revealed that combination of Glimepiride with neem leaf extract leads to enhancement of bioavailability of Glinepiride, this suggest that neem leaf extract might be beneficial as an adjuvant to Glimepiride in diabetic patients.

Keywords: Neem leaf extract, Glimepiride, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics. 


Interventions in Chronic Disease Management: a Review of the Literature on the Role of Community Pharmacists.

T Thoopputra1, D Newby2, J Schneider3, S.C. Li4*

1. PhD candidate, School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW.

2. Assoc. Professor PhD, Discipline of clinical pharmacology, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW.

3. Assoc. Professor, PhD, Discipline of Pharmacy and Experimental Pharmacology, School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, Newcastle, NSW.

4. Professor, PhD, Discipline of Pharmacy and Experimental Pharmacology, School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, Newcastle, NSW


There is a limited number of studies evaluate the performance of existing chronic diseases management and its outcomes in community pharmacy. This study aimed to evaluate published evidence in chronic disease management in community pharmacy internationally. A literature review was performed covering the period from January 2000 to March 2013 using EMBASE, Medline and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts. Published studies involving interventions carried out by community pharmacists with the evaluation of interventions in clinical, humanistic or economic outcomes focusing on five chronic diseases, namely; diabetes, cardiovascular disease, asthma, mental illness and cancer were included. Duplicate articles were removed electronically (Endnote®) and the remaining articles were screened to assess their eligibility according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Full copies of the potential eligible articles were obtained and each study was further reviewed by the reviewers independently. From 2,973 articles identified, 91 manuscripts were included in the final analysis. Limited number of interventions in cancer and mental illness was identified. Approximately 87% of total studies reported interventions in population with existing diseases. Less than 10% reported interventions in at risk and healthy population. Clinical outcomes were reported in majority of the identified studies (51%), while humanistic and economic outcomes were reported less frequently. Our review found positive evidences of community pharmacy-based intervention in five chronic diseases. Further intervention in healthy and at risk population is strongly encouraged, particularly in cancer and mental illness. Humanistic and economic outcomes should also be measured to allow evaluating the holistic impact of community pharmacists’ interventions.

Keywords: Community pharmacy, chronic disease, disease management, health promotion, prevention, pharmacy practice.


The Positive Implications for the Application of the International Ship & Port Facility Security and its Reflects on Saudi’s Ports

A. Elentably1*

1. Faculty of Maritime Studies, King Abdul-Aziz University, Saudi Arabia.


The research paper summed up on the requirements of the application code security and safety of ships and ports (ISPS) and the technical aspects necessary for the application by the Saudi marine Ports. The requirements of the international code of safety and security of ships and ports such as: Additional tasks to be undertaken by port management. Activities and tasks that will port authorities. The impact of the elements of the maritime transport. Application and amendments to the deck. Government requirements. Special requirements for the management of ships. Application optimized for the requirements of the code ,Also interested in the research paper the mechanism of how to put these requirements into effect and the positive impact associated with the application. And also the requirements of the bridge on the ship ,beside clarification of the interconnections between the parties to the transfer process, such as administration of the commercial maritime fleet operations, control to the owners and how the administrative process for the crew to apply the appropriate code on the deck of ships and mutual relations with the insurance and chartering operations as well as the role of the port facility, to arrived How can the ports of Saudi Arabia to benefit from the positive application of code requirements and to enable these requirements with the parties to the process of maritime transport.

Keywords: ISPS-Port-Security-Safety-Shipping-seafarers


Medication Prescribing Errors in Hospitals at Ibb City-Yemen

Salah G.Mojali1*, Bader F. Al-shabrain1, Fuad A.A.Awwad2

1. Department of Health Administration, College of Business Administration, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

2. Department of quantitative analysis, college of Business administration, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.


The specific objectives addressed in this paper are to examine the types, and the causes of prescribing errors among the doctors, nurses and pharmacists at Ibb city hospitals in Yemen. The data were drawn by using a questionnaire, a sample random sampling procedures to select 388(doctors, nurses and pharmacists) from the private and the governmental hospitals at Ibb city in Yemen, using a descriptive analysis. The researcher found that the participants agree about the unintentional mistakes as a first common types of the prescribing errors with the overall µ= 3.81, intentional violation mistakes as second types of the prescribing errors with the overall µ= 3.75 and the intentional mistakes as a third common types of the prescribing errors with the overall µ= 3.68. The participants agree about the staff as the first common causes with the overall µ= 3.93, lack of knowledge and environmental condition as the second common causes with the overall µ= 3.90, lack of patient necessary information and lack of system and supervision are the third common causes with the overall µ= 3.89, prescriber lapse and slip as the fourth common causes with the overall µ=3.87. These finding are the first to document the types and the causes of medication prescribing errors in Yemen.

Keywords: Causes, errors, physician-prescribing, types.


Toxic Levels of Lead in Milk of Lactating Cows in Dareta Village Zamfara State

Mas’ud Eneji Sadiq*1, Mujeeb-ur-Rehman2, Zubair Abdulkarim Isah3, Farida Isah Bature1

1. Biochemistry Department, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, PMB Nigeria.

2. H.E.J Research Institute of Chemistry, International Centre for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan

3. Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research, North-west Zonal Headquarters, BirninKebbi .PMB 1047 Kebbi State, Nigeria.


Dareta village in Zamfara State, Nigeria is one of the worst affected by lead poisoning in the 2010 crisis in the State. This paper focuses on assessing the levels of heavy metals especially lead in milk of cattle grazing in this area after the post remediation exercise. Fresh milk was collected from lactating cows from different herds. The samples were digested and analyzed for presence of selected heavy metals using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy method. Lead and Cadmium were detected in all samples analyzed with values ranging from 0.095±0.005-0.309±0.009mg/L and 0.012±0.001-0.017±0.004mg/L respectively. Values of the essential elements zinc, copper and iron fell within permissible limits in milk. In conclusion the high concentrations of lead and cadium in milk samples analyzed indicate persistence of contaminating levels of Pb in the surrounding environment which constitute long term health risks to the local community.

Keywords: Mining, Lead toxicity, Milk.


Ingredients Identification and Pharmaceutical Analysis of Brihat Jeevakadya Taila - A Compound Ayurvedic Formulation

Mata Shweta P*1, Vaghela D.B2, Dhiman K.S3, Harisha C.R4, Shukla V.J5

1. Final year Scholar, Department of Shalakya Tantra, Institute of Postgraduate Teaching And Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat.

2. Asst. Prof., Department of Shalakya Tantra, Institute of Postgraduate Teaching And Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India.

3. Prof. Department of Shalakya Tantra, Institute of Postgraduate Teaching And Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India.

4. Pharmacognosy Laboratory, Institute of Postgraduate Teaching And Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India.

5. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Institute of Postgraduate Teaching And Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India.


‘Migraine’ comes from the Greek word, hemicranias, which means pain affecting one side of the head (classical Migraine) may affect the entire head. In Ayurveda Ardhavabhedaka there is severe headache in half portion of the head either left or right. So we can correlate Ardhavabhedaka with Migraine. Migraine (Ardhavabhedaka) is one of the most disabling of neurological disorders. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified migraine among the world’s top 20 leading causes of disability. A clinical study was conducted on this problem with Brihat Jeevakadya Taila (BJT). It was inferred from the results that it was promising result effect in the treatment of Migraine. Till date there is no data regarding evaluation of BJT. It was aimed to develop the pharmacognostical and phytochemical profile of BJT. The samples were subjected to organoleptic, physicochemical analysis and High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) examination by optimizing the solvent systems. The pharmacognostical study of ingredients of BJT shows the presence of Prismatic crystal, Stellate trichome, Oil globule, Border Pitted vessels etc. Pharmaceutical analysis showed that the loss on drying value was 0.1493% w/w, Specific gravity 0.9197, Refractive index 1.4780, Iodine value 72.21 and High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography at 254 nm and 366 nm resulted into 8 & 7 spots respectively. These parameters of pharmacognosy and pharmaceutical analysis can become the baseline for future.

Keywords: Brihat Jeevakadya Taila, HPTLC, Pharmacognosy, Physicochemical.


Formulation and Evaluation of Sustained Release Matrix Tablets of Boswellia and Liquorice

Ankita Raizada*1, Sanjula Baboota2, Javed Ali2, Anil Bhandari1, V.K Purhoit1, Hina Chadha 3

1. Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, 342001.

2. Jamia Hamdard University, New Delhi, 110001.

3. Vishveshwarya Institute of Medical Sciences, Greater Noida, (U.P), 203207.


Various conventional dosage forms are available in the market of the plants boswellia and liquorice. The drawbacks associated with their conventional dosage forms which are fluctuation in drug blood level, patient’s inconvenience, poor patient compliance, increased chances of missing the dose of a drug high dose potency etc. can be solved by formulating sustained release formulations of  these herbal drugs. Different formulations of boswellia and liquorice sustained release tablets were formulated using wet granulation method. The tablets were subjected to physicochemical studies, in vitro drug release studies, kinetic modeling and stability studies to find out the best formulation. Drug content was carried out by HPLC fitted with a C18 column using UV detector. The in vitro release studies were conducted for 24h using USP type 2 apparatus. The dissolution profile comparison of the prepared batches was done. The dissolution data profile was fitted into zero order, first order, Higuchi and Korsemeyer-Peppas models to identify the pharmacokinetics and mechanism of drug release. In vivo anti-inflammatory effects of the optimized formulations were evaluated by carrageenan-induced hind paw edema method. The results of the accelerated stability study for six months revealed that storage conditions were not found to have made any significant changes. The release of formulation F-4 of boswellic acid and F-6 of liquorice was prolonged for 24h and once daily matrix tablet was formulated.

Keywords: Sustained drug delivery, Wet granulation, Anti-inflammatory, Matrix tablets, Release kinetics etc.


Detailed Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Evaluation of Quassia Amara linn. Heart wood - Emerging Herb for Diabetes

Ankush Gunjal*1, Manisha Walunj2, Harisha CR3, Mandip Goyal4, VJ Shukla5

1. Ph.D Scholar, Department of Kayachikitsa.

2. Ph.D Scholar, Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishaijya Kalpana.

3. Head, Pharmacognosy Laboratory.

4. Assistant Professor, Department of Kayachikitsa.

5. Head, Pharmaceutical Chemistry Laboratory.


In Ayurvedic texts the description of ‘Apathyanimittaja Prameha’ which is generally seen in obese individuals have a clear cut resemblance with type-2 diabetes and physicians believe in treating diabetes with herbal dietary supplements among which Quassia amara Linn. is a small indigenous tree native of Suriname. Detailed investigation of Transverse section including its powder of heartwood of Quassia amara Linn. was carried out. Preliminary organoleptic features and results of powder microscopy reveals presence of tannin and large amount of fibres. The information generated by this particular study will provide relevant pharmacognostical and physiochemical data needed for proper identification and authentication of heartwood of this particular species.

Keywords: Heartwood, pharmacognosy, physiochemical analysis, Quassia amara.


Proximate Composition, Minerals and Amino Acid Composition of a Two Edible Mushroom Termitomycetes microcarpus and T. heimii

Johnsy G*1, Kaviyarasans V1

1. CAS in Botany, University of Madras, Maraimalai campus, Chennai 25.


Mushrooms are balanced food and good source of proteins, amino acids and minerals. The mushrooms were harvested fresh, sun dried, pulverized and analyzed according to standard procedure. Proximate analysis showed higher level of protein (30.43 and 26.77 %), crude fibre (9.09 and 10.83%), carbohydrates (34.35 and 33.3%), ash (9.1 and 7.1%), and low fat (3.27 and 2.11%s). The mushroom was also found to contain variable amount of minerals. Mineral analysis of both species indicated the presence of potassium, sodium, magnesium, manganese, calcium, copper, zinc, phosphorus and iron. The most abundant component of the essential amino acid and non-essential amino acids were histidine (11.57 and 10.58mg/g) and glutamic acid (10.39 and 11.11 mg/g) are present in both species. Mushrooms are popular food all over the world. These findings showed that the mushrooms are the good source of nutritive food.

Keywords: Proximate analysis, Termitomycetes microcarpus, T. heimii, minerals, amino acids.


Formulation and In vitro-Evaluation of Transdermal Patch of an Antihypertensive Drug –Atenolol

P. Manikandan*1, Geethu V S1, R.Nethaji1, N.S.Surenderan1, G.Babu2

1. Department of Pharmaceutics, Devaki Amma Memorial College of Pharmacy, Chelembra, Malappuram-673634, Kerala, India.

2. Department of Pharmaceutical chemistry, Devaki Amma Memorial College of Pharmacy, Chelembra, Malappuram-673634, Kerala, India.


Drug delivery through skin would provide a useful alternative to oral drug delivery, which has numerous side effects. Transdermal drug delivery systems are becoming more popular in the field of modern pharmaceutics. The purpose of this research was to develop a matrix-type transdermal therapeutic system containing drug Atenolol with different ratios of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymeric systems (HPMC, EC and PVP) by the solvent evaporation technique by using 30% w/w propylene glycol as plasticizer, tween 80 as permeation enhancer and 4%PVA as baking membrane. The physico chemical properties like λmax determination, solubility determination, permeability coefficient determination, partition coefficient determination and physic chemical compatibility determination were done. The physic chemical properties of drug found out were in accordance with IP standards and the physico chemical compatibility of the drug and the polymers studied by infrared spectroscopy suggested absence of any incompatibility. Formulated transdermal films were physically evaluated with regard to thickness, weight variation, drug content, flatness, folding endurance, percentage of moisture content and water vapour transmission rate. Most of the formulations indicated good physical stability. In-vitro permeation studies performed by Franz diffusion cells. From the studies HPMC and P       VP are selected for optimisation and further studies are carried with these polymers with different ratios.

Keywords: Atenolol, Transdermal patch, Poly vinyl alcohol, Propylene glycol, in-vitro.


In vivo and In vitro Investigations on Rotenoids from Cyperus Rotundus (Linn.)

Renu Sarin1*, Krishna Samariya1

1. Laboratory of Bioactive compounds and Plant Tissue cultures, Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.


Cyperusrotundus is an important medicinal plant widely used in traditional medicine around the world. An in vitro tissue culture of this plant was raised for investigating its naturally occurring insecticidal compound- the rotenoids. Callus of C. rotunduswas initiated from young rhizomes on MS basal medium supplemented with different concentrations of growth hormones. Five rotenoids viz., elliptone, tephrosin, rotenone, sumatrol and deguelin were identified from plant parts (rhizome and leaves) as well as callus cultures on the basis of  thin layer-chromatography, Gas liquid-chromatography and high performance liquid -chromatography. Rotenoid content was higherin rhizome (6.7 mg/g.dw) in comparison to leaf and calli (4.6 mg/g.dw and 6.2 mg/g.dw respectively).

Keywords: Cyperus rotundus, Callus culture, rotenoids


Synthesis and Antibacterial Study of Some New Benzimidazole Substituted Quinoline Derivatives

Sukhen Som1*, Mohammed Saif Ulla Khan1, Noor Fathima Anjum2

1. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry. M.M.U College of Pharmacy. K.K.Doddi, Ramanagara- 562159, Karnataka. India.

2. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Bangalore-560035, Karnataka. India.


As many scientific and technical observations are pouring informations about the activity and effectiveness of synthetic and semi synthetic derivatives related to quinolines and benzimidazoles it was concern to explore this two leads in a single molecular entity.  The present study embodied the synthesis and evaluation of antibacterial activity of a series of benzimidazole substituted quinoline derivatives condensed with different amines. The derivatives were synthesized in moderate to good yields. The characterizations for the synthesized derivatives were done by IR, 1H NMR and Mass spectral analysis. The compounds were then subjected for antibacterial screening, among them 4c and 4d showed appreciable activity against all the strains used. In the light of the results obtained from antibacterial studies, these derivatives can be further thoroughly investigated for future prospect.

Keywords: Benzimidazolo quinoline, antibacterial activity, cyclisation.



Evaluation of Antibacterial and Antimutagenic Potential of Acokanthera oppositifolia and Leucaena leucocephala

Savita Chaurasia*, Preeti Sharma

Department of Biotechnology, IMS Engineering College, NH-24, Adhyatmik Nagar, Ghaziabad.Uttar Pradesh -201009 India.


Human beings have used plants for the treatment of diverse ailments for thousands of years. Plant derived chemicals are detoxify carcinogens therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate antibacterial and antimutagenic potential of A.oppositifolia and L.leucocephala. Three different solvent extracts of both plants were used to screen antimicrobial activity against two human pathogenic bacteria: E.coli (gram negative) and B.subtilis (gram positive) by disk diffusion assay and MIC also determined by using microdilution assay and antimutagenic potential screened by employing AMESassay against direct acting mutagen Etbr with S. typhimurium TA100 and TA98 strains.The range of antibacterial activity in A. oppositifolia varied from 17±0.73mm to 25±0.8mmagainst E.coli and 18±0.16 to 24±0.14 mm zone of inhibition against B. subtiliswhile, this ranged varied from 12±0.21to 27±0.47mm against E. coli.and19±0.5 to 25±0.26 mm against B. subtilis in L. leucocephala. The antimutagenic range of inhibition percentage varied in A. oppositifolia from 57.97% to 98.93% with TA98 and 84.67% to 99.65 with TA 100. In L. leucocephala the range varied from 5.85% to79.78% with TA98 and 93.93% to 99.54% with TA100. Among all extracts chloroform& acetone extract of A.oppositifoliaandmethanol & acetone extract of L. leucocephalahas got highest antimutagenic and antibacterial potential. Finding of the results we reported that, all the extracts possess significant antibacterial and antimutagenic activityso these plants can be used in the treatment of variety of ailments.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Antimutagenic, Microdilution, Ames, Pathogenic.


Effect of Plumbago zeylanica Linn Root Extract on Haematological Parameters in Laboratory Animals

Kakjing D. Falang*1, Mary O. Uguru1, Olorunyomi A. Obanewo1

1. Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria.


Plumbago zeylanica Linn enjoys considerable folkloric used in the management of many medical conditions and literature sources contain reports of its many pharmacological effects. Despite this widespread use, its haematological effects and toxicity remain largely unknown. This study investigates the haematological effects of Plumbago zeylanica Linn root extract in laboratory animals. Oral acute toxicity (LD50) was assessed by Lorke’s method and haematological effects by the 14 day repeated oral dose procedure.  Sixteen albino Wistar rats divided into four groups were used for the haematological investigations. Group one was the control and received distilled water only by the oral route. Groups two to four received 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg body weight respectively of the root extract daily. After 14 days animals were sacrificed and blood collected for haematogical investigations. We found oral acute toxicity of the root extract to be more than 5000 mg/kg body weight. There were no statistically significant differences in haematological parameters - red blood cells, haemoglobin, total white blood cell counts and differentials and; haematological indices (parked cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration) – in treated animals relative to the control group at the P < 0.05 level. The root extract of Plumbago zeylanica Linn displays no haematological toxicity as it showed no effect (adverse or otherwise) on haematological parameters in laboratory animals. This justifies the extensive folkloric use to which the plant has been deployed.

Keywords: Haematological indices; medicinal herb; Plumbago zeylanica; repeated dose oral toxicity


Efficacy of Oral Ocimum Sanctum in Prevention of Uv Induced Photoaging in Mice Model

M P Femijas*1, kingshuk Lahon1, K Manimekalai1, Israel Raja Johnley1

1. Department of Pharmacology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Pillaiyarkuppam, Puducherry, 607402


Photoaging is the term used to describe the characteristic changes that appear in the skin when it is chronically exposed to Ultra Violet (UV) rays. Photoaging is associated with increased risk of causing skin cancer. Antioxidants play an important role in prevention and treatment of photoaging. To evaluate the preventive efficacy of oral Ocimum sanctum against photoaging in mice model. Six weeks old Swiss Albino mice of either sex weighing 25g to 35g were divided into three groups A, B, C (n=6). Group A was given UV irradiation alone, group B was given UV irradiation and oral Ocimum sanctum, group C was neither given UV irradiation nor oral Ocimum sanctum, for 8 weeks. Groups A, B and C were sacrificed and evaluated for moisture content, epidermal thickness by histopathology and antioxidant property by TBARS assay. Results were expressed as Mean ± SEM. Statistical analysis were done by One way ANOVA and student’s unpaired t test. Efficacy in prevention: Moisture content of group A (11.57±0. 29) showed significantlylower value than group B (21.96 ±2. 1). Group B has a lower value compared to group C (27.56 ±2. 4). On TBARS assay, Group A (1.083±0.03) value is more than group B (0.459±0.01), Group B value is more than group C (0.536±0.01). On histopathology examination group A showed atrophy of epidermis. B showed near normal histology and C showed normal histology. This study has proved that oral Ocimum sanctum can be used for prevention of photoaging. It warrants further study in humans before including them in the prophylaxis of photoaging.

Keywords:Photoaging, Ocimum sanctum, UV irradiation.


Halophytes for Saline Lands, Their Economic Potential and Demonstration of Salt Tolerance

Priyadarshini Agnihotri1, Ashwani Kumar2*

1. Head of the Department, Geography Department SGN Khalsa PG College Sriganganagar.

2. Former Head of the Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur.


Increasing land degradation is posing a great threat to the perspectives of improving food and fodder production. Salinity stress is limiting agricultural crop productivity.  One of the most serious forms of land degradation is secondary salinity/sodicity (i.e. Salinity developed due to saline water irrigation), which is prevalent in arid and semiarid regions of world. The production capacity of such lands is inhospitable because of their poor physical and chemical properties, altered ecosystem, and disturbed nutrient cycling resulted from land overuse and continual addition of chemicals. Such problems are now the major determinants of global crop productivity and consequently reclamation of such soil resources is the most urgent requirement for world food production and sustainable development. However growing halophytes has been tried to reclaim such land.

Keywords: Salinity, Biodiversity, Salsola, Atriplex, sodicity.


Antagonistic Activity of Lactobacillus Against Uti Pathogens

J. Umasankari*1, C. Sekar2

1. PG and Research department of Microbiology, Mohamed Sathak College of Arts & Science, Shollinganallur, Chennai.

2. Dept of Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, India.


Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most frequent community-acquired infections in world wide. The antimicrobial activity lactobacillus and its bacteriocins production were studied. A total 25 isolates were obtained from 35 urine samples. The most recurrently encountered pathogens were E. coli (9) 25.71%, Klebsiella pneumonia (7) 20%, Proteus mirabilis (4) 11.42%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa(4) 11.42%, and Candida albicans 1(2.8%) respectively. It was observed that the lactobacillus sp effectively inhibit the UTI pathogen such as E.coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Candida albicans. Based on antimicrobial activity, the potential strains were selected for optimization of bacteriocin activity at different temperature and pH value. The effect of NaCl on bacteriocin activity was also studied. It was clearly noted that theLactobacillus showed very strong inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.5mm) and Klebsiella pneumonia (13.2mm), strong inhibition against Proteus mirabilis (12.1mm)and moderate inhibition against Escherishia coli (10mm) and Candida albicans (10.0mm). The activity of bacteriocin was stable between the pH 4.0 to 5.0 and it didn’t show any antimicrobial activity above pH 5.0. The activity of bacteriocin was stable at temperature less than 800C and above 1% NaCl concentration increased the production of bacteriocin from 25-75%. Thus the above study indicates that Lactobacillus can be used as a alternative therapy to treat the UTI infection and to overcome the emergency of rapid increase of drug resistance UTI pathogens.

Key words: Urinary tract infection, Lactobacillus, Antimicrobial activity, bacteriocin.


New Series of Complexes of Molybdenum with Biologically Active Schiff Bases

Zamir Ahmed Mirza1*, Mohd Saleem2, Mohd Riaz2, Farkhana Kosser1, Saima Irm Mirza1

1. Faculty of research and Development, Sainath University, Ranchi

2. Department of Chemistry, Govt. Degree College, Rajouri, J&K.


Metal complexes of the type, [MoO(NCS)4 L-L] (where L-L are amine substituted biologically active Schiff bases with general formula , R1N = CHR2. Here R1 is 4-aminosalicylic acid & R2 is 4-chloro-benzaldehyde, 2-chloro-benzaldehyde, salicyladehyde , vanillin and benzaldehyde) have been prepared by reaction of ammonium tetra-isothiocyanato-oxomolybdate (VI) with the corresponding ligand in aqueous medium in the presence of hydrochloric acid. The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, infrared spectroscopy and 1HNMR spectroscopy. The metal complexes have been screened against different bacteria for their biological activities. The metal complexes show more potent biological activities as compared with Schiff base ligands.

Keywords: Schiff bases, Benzaldehyde, Elemental analysis, Biological activities,1HNMR spectroscopy.


Analysis of Risk Factors in Nontraumatic Perforation Peritonitis- Review from A Rural Medical College

Shashikant H Kulkarni1, Vinod V Prabhu2*, Aslam A Shivani2, MrsAlka D Gore3

1. Professor in surgery, BharatiVidyapeethUniversity, Medical College & Hospital, Sangli.Maharashtra.

2. Associate professor in surgery, BharatiVidyapeeth University, Medical College & Hospital, Sangli.Maharashtra.

3. Assistant professor in statistics, BharatiVidyapeeth University, Medical College & Hospital, Sangli.Maharashtra.


The objective was to retrospectively analyze data of non-traumatic gastrointestinal perforations in a 10 year period from a rural medical college and statistically evaluate the risk factors for mortality. A retrospective study of four hundred and sixty four patients admitted in a span of ten years (between January 1997 to December’2006) was done and data regarding clinical presentation, operative findings, postoperative course were studied and analyzed. The cases of traumatic perforation were excluded. The data was analysed using chi square and binary logistic regression tools. The mortality was 13.79%. The risk factors identified by statistical tools were, factors such as age above 50 years, delay of more than 24 hours for hospitalization, shock on admission (if systolic blood pressure was less than 90 mmHg), associated comorbid conditions, colonic or rectal perforation, prolonged operating time (more than 90 minutes for simple closure and more than 120 minutes for resection) andpost operative complication. The mortality in cases of gastrointestinal perforation depends upon number of the risk factors and their severity. Age of 50 years, shock on admission, pre-existing illness and post operative complications appear to be the more significant factors.

Key words: intestinal perforation, peritonitis, risk factors.


Fixed Drug Eruptions – A Study in Tertiary Care Hospital

Sarala N*1, Harish S1, Bhuvana K1, Rajendra O2

1. Departments of Pharmacology, Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College, Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research, Tamaka, Kolar, Karnataka.

2. 375, I E CRS, 6TH Blk Banashankari III STG, Banashankari 3rd Stage Bangalore Karnataka.


To study the clinical spectrum of occurrence of Fixed Drug Eruptions (FDEs) to different classes of drugs in a tertiary care hospital. Study was conducted by department of Pharmacology, Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College, Kolar for a period of two years. The data was collected from both in and out patients attending to the Dermatology. A total of 94 adverse drug reactions were collected of which 18 were diagnosed as FDEs. Among them 10 were males and 8 females aged between 2- 60 years. Thirteen FDEs were due to NSAIDs and 5 due to antimicrobials. In all these patients the lesions manifested over the extremities, and 10 of them also had it over the lips and 2 patients on genital and oral mucosa respectively. Diclofenac has caused most of the FDEs. Hyperpigmentation is the common presenting feature. Dechallenge and therapeutic rechallenge was observed in all the patients.

Keywords: Fixed Drug Eruption, Dechallenge, Rechallenge.