American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
November 2015 Issue 11

A Literary Review on Herbs Used in Siddha Medicine for Hypertension

G.Dhanalakshmi*1, V.Banumathi1, M. Pitchiah Kumar1,D.Mantela1, V.Velpandian1

1. Post Graduate departmentof Gunapadam (Pharmacology), Government Siddha Medical College, Chennai, Tamilnadu. Pin: 600106.


Hypertension commonly referred to as ‘high blood pressure’, is a medical condition in which the blood pressure is chronically elevated. In this modern era several antihypertensive drugs are available. But these medicines have many side effects such as palpitation, tachycardia, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, increased risk of developing diabetes, and reduced renal function and life threatening complications. Globally about 80% of the population using herbal medicines for their primary health care, particularly in developing countries. In herbal medicine the treatment for essential hypertension can bring the blood pressure level in to the normal range. WHO recently encourages, utilization of herbs and traditional herbal medicines, for national healthcare programs, as they are easily available at lower cost and comparatively safe medicines.In this article such herbs used in Siddha medicine have been studied and discussed for the therapeutic management for hypertension. In Siddha system the disease hypertension was described as Rakthaazhutham, Rakthathikkam, Azhutham. RakthakothippunoiandNaadiirukkam.All herbs reviewed in this article are useful in the treatment of hypertension. Among studied herbs, Rough chaff(Acyranthesaspera), Indianpennywort (Centella asiatica),Coriander(Coriandrumsativum),Cumin (Cuminumcyminum),Cardamom (Elettaria cardamom),Roughbryon (Melotheriamaderaspatn),Pepper (Piper nigrum), Arjun tree(Terminaliaarjuna), Land caltrops (Tribulusterrestri), Winter cherry (Withaniasomnifera), Ginger (Zingiberofficinalis) has Antihypertensive effect and cardiac tonic. Ginger (Allium sativum) and Deodar (Cedrusdeodara)reduces the blood cholesterol level and decreases the hypertension. Water lily (Nympheaalba)and Long pepper Piper longumshowed ACE inhibitor activity and reduces the blood pressure.

Keywords: herbs, Siddha,Rakthaazhutham, Hypertension, Blood pressure.


A Brief Description of Pharmacoeconomics

Dev Priya1*, Suresh Purohit1, B.L.Pandey1, Prabhat Upadhyay1

1. Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.


Pharmacoeconomics is a young science that will improve with application. Its need is undeniable, especially in developing countries. Pharmacoeconomics is a sub-discipline of the field of health economics, which itself is a relatively new sub-discipline of economics, only formerly appearing in the economics scientific literature since the 1960s. Accuracy of cost-effectiveness estimates depends on the quality of input variables; validity of surrogate end points; and appropriateness of modelling assumptions, including model structure, time horizon and sophistication of the model to differentiate clinically and economically meaningful outcomes. Economic analysis alongside pivotal clinical trials are often inconclusive due to the suboptimal collection of economic data and protocol-driven costs. The two fundamental components of pharmacoeconomic studies are measures of costs and measures of outcomes that are combined into a quantitative measure or ratio. It can be done using various methods like Cost-minimization analysis (CMA), Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), Cost-utility analysis (CUA), and Cost-benefit analysis (CBA). Cost involves all the resources that are used to produce and deliver a particular drug therapy.The need for pharmacoeconomic evidence has fundamentally changed the strategic imperatives of research and development (R&D). Therefore, professionals in pharmaceutical R&D have to be familiar with the principles of pharmacoeconomics, including the selection of health policy-relevant comparators, analytical techniques, measurement of health gain by quality adjusted life-years and strategic pricing of pharmaceuticals.

Keywords: Pharmacoeconomics, Cost effectiveness analysis, Drug therapy. 


A Review on Bronchodilator Herbs in Siddha Medicine

S.Deepa*1, V.Banumathi 1, V.Velpandian 1, M.Ramani1, M.Pitchiahkumar1

1. Post Graduate Dept. of Gunapadam (Pharmacology), Govt. Siddha medical college,Arumbakkam, Chennai-600106, Tamilnadu, India.


Siddha system of medicine is one among the ancient systems of medicine treasured with a wide range of therapeutics for a vast range of diseases. Bronchial asthma is a chronic respiratory disorder threatening physically and mentally a major group of population especially in India 15-20 million asthmatics. Today several synthetic Bronchodilators and Antihistamine drugs available. Side effects of prolonged usage of these drugs became a great matter of concern. Several herbals in Siddha system ensure a safe and effective line of treatment in these chronic disorders. Some of the herbs indicated for Bronchial asthma are Acoruscalamus, Alpiniagalangal, Carumcopticum, Clerodendrumserrsatum, Justiciabeddomei, Ocimum sanctum, Piper longum, Taxusbaccata, Vitexnegundo, Zingiberofficinale. These herbs possess potent bronchodilator and Antihistamine properties. Hence thisreview is mainly focusing the ethno pharmacological activities of the herbals in management of Bronchial asthma and providing a better wellbeing for the society with safe line of treatment.

Keywords:Siddha system, Bronchial asthma, Antihistamine, Bronchodilator, Herbs


A Review on Herbs Used in Ancient Cosmetology

A Geetha*1, V Banumathi1, M Pitchiah Kumar1, L Naansi agnes1, V Velpandian1

1. Post Graduate DepartmentofGunapadam (Pharmacology), Government Siddha Medical College, Chennai, Tamilnadu. Pin: 600 106.


The aim of this review was to investigate the possibility of comparing the performance of different herbs used in cosmetics. Cosmetic products made up of mixture of herbal ingredients used by all age group of persons to keep their skin, hair healthier and oral hygiene. Claimed effects and safety of this cosmetic product depends on the ingredients incorporated. By adopting proper methodologies and techniques risk factors of ingredients incorporated in cosmetics can be determined and managed at safety here. This paper enlightened the herbal used in the cosmetic for the long time. This review encourage the industrialist, cosmeticians, pharmacist and researchers  to carry and publish more cosmetic herbs studies which would help to explore the myth of herbal cosmetics in front of consumers that will beneficial in terms of human health.

Keywords: Cosmetic herbs, hair care, skin care, nail care, oral hygiene.


Somatostatin Receptor Agonists and Non-Cancer Respiratory Hypersecretion - A Critical Assessment

Luca Spaccapelo, MD, Clinical Pharmacologist

Science for Business Consulting, via Dionisotti 31, 42124 Reggio Emilia, Italy


Based on a review of the literature regarding the pathophysiology of hypersecretion across various conditions involving respiratory dysfunction, it would appear there are three main underlying causes for excessive sputum production: hypersecretion of mucus glycoprotein and other glandular products from mucus-producing cells, increased transepithelial chloride secretion, mediated via PGE2, PGF, TxB2, excessive transudation of plasma proteins into the respiratory tract. These factors may operate independently or in combination. Asthma is characterised by inflammation, increased luminal mucus, with an increased ratio of MUC5B/MUC5AC and MUC2 present in the mucus, epithelial fragility with loss of ciliated cells, goblet cell hyperplasia, submucosal gland hypertrophy, ‘tethering’ of mucus to goblet cells and plasma exudation. COPD and CF have a similar presentation but with a higher MUC5B/MUC5AC ratio and susceptibility to infection. In contrast with the copious sputum production commonly seen in bronchioalveolar carcinoma, bronchorrhoea is not a common feature of CF, asthma, COPD or other conditions with bronchiectasis, where sputum volumes are lower, and the clinical issue may be related more to the viscosity of mucus than to its quantity. Although dramatic positive effects on the BAC-related bronchorrhoea were seen with octreotide and gefitinib treatment, it is therefore doubtful whether agonist of the SST receptor is of clinical usefulness in these other conditions. The reduction in sputum production in BAC seen with both octreotide and gefitinib is likely a result of modu­lation of the EGF receptor, which is known to be involved in goblet cell metaplasia, even if other mechanisms of action cannot be ruled out.  As such, the mechanism of action is potentially relevant also for other pathologies, although currently available EGF-R inhibitors (gefitinib, erlotinib) and somatostatin are perhaps less well adapted for chronic therapy. In conclusion, bronchorrhoea appears to be a sporadic rather than characterising manifestation of asthma, COPD, cystic fibrosis and non-CF bronchiectasis. As a therapeutic target, therefore, bronchorrhoea is not perceived as a high value proposition in these indications, considering existing treatment options and the clinical and regulatory complexities inherent in demonstrating a favourable risk/benefit ratio in a medically plausible subset of patients.

Keywords: Somatostatin Receptor Agonists, Hypersecretion, Bronchorrhoea, COPD, Octreotide


Development and Validation for the Simultaneous Estimation of Pioglitazone Hydrochloride and Glimipride in Mixed Dosage Form by UV- Spectrophotometric Method

RajiniTalla*, K.Veena, M. Akifulhaque, D.Sireesha, B.Vasudha, S. Harshini

Department of Pharmaceutical analysis and Quality assurance, Anurag group of institutions (Formerly lalitha college of pharmacy) Hyderabad, Telangana, India.


A Simple, precise, accurate and economical spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of Pioglitazone hydrochloride (PIO) and Glimipride(GLM) in combined dosage form. In simultaneous equation method, Pioglitazone hydrochloride (PIO) and Glimipride (GLM) were quantified using their absorptivity values at selected wavelengths, viz., 267nm and 227nm respectively. The linearity range was found to be 5-50μg/ml for Pioglitazone hydrochloride (PIO) and 5-50μg/mlGlimipride(GLM).The accuracy and reproducibility of the proposed method was statistically validated by recovery studies. The simultaneous equation method permits simple, rapid and direct determination of Pioglitazone Hydrochloride (PIO) and Glimipride (GLM) in commercially available combined dosage form without previous separations and analysis.

Keywords: Pioglitazone Hydrochloride (PIO) and Glimipride (GLM), Simultaneous equation Method.


Sexual Dysfunction and Sex Hormone Levels in Egyptian Opioid-Dependent Males

S. Abdelazim1, S F Abolmagd1, H Abdalla2, D A Enaba1, S M Elsheikh1, H F Moselhy3*

1. Psychiatry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

2. Andrology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

3. Psychiatry Department, College of Medicine, UAE University, United Arab Emirates.


Sexual dysfunctions are noted in chronic opioidaddicts, including reduced libido and sexual performance, erectile dysfunction, and delayed ejaculation in males. The aim of the present study is to assess sex hormone levels and the effect of opioid dependency on sexual function in male patients compared with non-users male.The study comprises 30 male patients with opioid dependency and 30 healthy controls presenting to the inpatient addiction unit of Kasr El Aini University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt, from November 2012 to March 2013. Data were collected using the Sexuality Scale and International Index of Erectile Function (ILEF). Sex hormone levels were measured.More than half (56.6%) had an intermediate level of sexual esteem while 23.3% had a low level.Additionally, 36.6% suffered mild erectile dysfunction while 3.33 % reported severe erectile dysfunction. Furthermore, 20% had severe sexual desire dysfunction, and almost half (46.6%) had mild to moderate orgasmic dysfunction. Finally, 30% had low levels of testosterone,50% had high prolactin levels, and 30% of the opioid-dependent group had high levels of luteinizing hormone which was statistically significant.Our findings suggest that there is a strong correlation between sexual dysfunctionamong male opioid dependents and high levels of luteinizing hormone.

Keywords:Opioid Dependent, Egypt, Testosterone, Luteinzing Hormone, Prolactin


GC-MSAnalysisof Oil Isolated and Antioxidant Activity of ShorearobustaOleoresin

Shakkeela Yusuf1*, K K Srinivasan2

1. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cheruvandoor Campus, Ettumanoor, Kottayam, Kerala, India-686631.

2. Department of Chemistry, ShriMadhwaVadiraja Institute of Technology and Management, (Affiliated toVITU,Belgavi), BantakalUdupi, Karnataka -574115.


Shorearobusta widely distributed in moist and dry forest in the tropics, has been paradoxically described as deciduous, semi-decidous or evergreen species. The resin is astringent sweet acrid, cooling anodyne, vulnerary, antibacterial, deodorant constipating and detergent. It is useful in hyperhydrosis, vitiated conditions of pitta, wound ulcers, pruritis, fractures, fever, diarrhoea, dysentery etc. The main aim of the present study was to carry out the in vitro antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract Shorearobusta oleoresin and GC-MS analysis of the oil obtained from petroleum ether fraction by column chromatography. In vitro antioxidant activity screening was done by oxygen radical scavenging assay such as DPPH and Iron chelating method and the IC50 was found to be 357.44and 151.27µg/mlusing ascorbic acidas standardwith IC50 value of 52.28 and 17.85µg/mlrespectively.Total antioxidant was 94.95µg equivalent to that of ascorbic acid.Thirty chemical constituents have been identified by GC-MS; the major chemical constituents are 7-Tetracyclo []undecano (7.23%), Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (7.06%),3-Octenoic acid, methyl(tetramethylene)Si (6.25), Ursa-9(11),12-dien-3-ol (4.96%), phenol (4.68%) and 1-Fluoroforskolin (4.08%).

Keywords: Shorearobusta, GC-MS,antioxidant,radical scavenging,Column chromatography, chemical constituents.


Nutrition in Transition: Current Dietary Trends around Forest Concessions of the Congo Basin

Pauline Donn1,4 , Tang Erasmus Nchuaji4, Ngondi Judith L4 , Julius Tieguhong1,7, Donald Iponga5 , Obadia Tchingsabe3, Robert Fungo 6, Mathurin Tchatat3, Jean Marie Kahindo2

1. Bioversity International

2. University of Kisangani

3. Institut de Recherche Agricole pour le Développement

4. University of Yaounde1

5. Institut de Recherche en Ecologie Tropicale

6. Makerere University, School of food Technology, Nutrition and Bio-engineering

7. TTRECED-Cameroon, P.O. Box 33297 Yaounde, Cameroon.


The goal of this study was to understand the relationship between timber exploitation and changes in dietary patterns of communities adjoining forest concessions in the Congo Basin.About 724 households were randomly selected from thirty four communities living in six forest concessions of the Congo Basin. Food consumption pattern data was collected using a validated food-frequency questionnaire in 2012. Results showed that food consumption patterns varied across the selected communities: In the Democratic Republic of Congo a typical forest-agricultural dependent dietary pattern was noticed consisting of greater intake of corn, banana, caterpillars, bush meat, groundnuts, cassava leaves, wild fruits and lower consumption of processed food. A mixed pattern was noticed in Cameroon consisting of high consumption of cassava, banana, groundnuts, fresh fruits, wild fruits and low intake of bush meat, frozen meat, green leafy vegetables and fats. A westernized dietary pattern was noticed in Gabon characterized by greater intake of tubers such as cassava, coco yam, yam, banana, cassava leaves, moderate consumption of frozen meat, milk, eggs, tomatoes, and lesser intake of green leafy vegetables and fruits. Processed foods of high lipid content like margarine and butter in addition to protein rich cheese were found in the dietary profile of the Gabonese concessions. As observed in our study, nutrition transition is fastest in the forest concessions of Gabon, slow in those of Cameroon, and slowest in the forest concessions of the DRC.

Keywords:Dietary trends, forest concession, forest dietary profile, nutrition transition, Congo basin.


Development of a RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Atorvastatin Calcium and Clopidogrel Bisulphate in Pharmaceutical Formulation

P.Venkateswar Rao1*, Konda Ravi Kumar2, N. Srinivasa Rao1

1. Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Vikas College of Pharmacy, Vissannapet, Krishna Dist, A.P

2. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Hindu college of Pharmacy, Amaravathi road, Guntur, A.P.


An isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatograpic assay method was developed for the quantitative determination of Atorvastatin calcium (ATOR) and Clopidogrel bisulphate (CLOP) in combined dosage form. A Zodiac C18, 250x4.6mm, 5µm column and OPA Buffer: ACN (70: 30,v/v) as mobile phase. The flow rate was 1mL/min and effluents were monitored at 241 nm. The retention times of Atorvastatin and Clopidogrel were 5.8 min and 3.5 min respectively. The correlation coefficient was found to be 0.99947 (for ATOR) and 0.99944 (for CLOP). The proposed method was validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, and robustness. The method was successfully applied to the estimation of Atorvastatin and Clopidogrel in combined capsule dosage form.

Keywords:RP-HPLC, Atorvastatin, Clopidogrel, Formulation, Capsule, Validation.


Accuracy of Medication History at Hospital Admission (Patient Reconciliation) in Khartoum State/ Sudan 2015

Rasha Rifaat Mohammed Binni1*, El Amin Ibrahim El Neama2

1.   B. Pharm Pharmaceutical pharmacy, MSD Clinical Pharmacy- University of Khartoum/ Sudan

2.  Professor of pharmaceutical microbiology - University of Khartoum/ Sudan


A major reason for medication errors and adverse drug effects is lack of knowledge of the patient’s in home medication use. Secondary medication interviews improve the medication history compared to the history routinely written in hospital files. The current study is designed to study the accuracy of medication history at Hospital Admission(Patient Reconciliation)in Khartoum State hospitals. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional questionnaire hospital-based study, carried out in five internal medicine. Firstly, patient variables were recorded in data sheet. Secondly, medication interview process was conducted and recorded the collected data in a medication interview questionnaire form. Thirdly, discrepancies were identified and classified.A pharmacist interviewed 265 patients. In the hospital medical records regarding to past prescribed medication/s only 179 (67.6%) of patients had records. In the BPMH interview questionnaire, 213 (80%) of patients were taken past prescribed medication. 209 (78.9%) of patients were taken past non prescribed medication. Regarding to discrepancies a total of  265 patients, 211(80%) of  patients had 488 discrepancies in pre admission past prescribed medications. On another hand, a total of 209 patients had 318 discrepancies in pre admission non prescribed medications. Finally, Our findings showed that there no difference between physicians’ specialties in the frequency and depth of information of  medications history.The data presented reveal problem areas in inaccurate medication history at admission. This has the potential to cause harm to patients if it remains undetected. Pharmacists could potentially play a major role in ascertaining accurate and complete medication histories.

Keywords:Medication history, Patient reconsilation,