American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
October 2015 Issue 10

Ajinomotos Excitotoxicity: A Bitter Taste

Vivek Sharma*, Neha Gupta, Richa Dogar, Harish Verma

Govt. College of Pharmacy, Rohru Distt. Shimla, Himachal Pradesh-171207, India.


Glutamic acid primarily serves as an important excitatory neurotransmitter in central nervous system and is an important excitatory amino acid (EAA). EAA represent major brain neurotransmitters and they are present in numerous neuronal systems and are involved in almost all aspects of normal and pathological brain activity. Changes in EAA transmission have been associated with the functional impairments characterizing major neurological disorders, including epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia etc. EAA also underlie the neuronal death associated with acute CNS insults, such as ischemia and post-traumatic lesions. The neurotoxicity of EAA, referred to as excitotoxicity, is presumably mediated primarily through an excess of EAA synaptic receptor stimulation. Excitotoxins are the substances which are capable of inducing excitotoxicity. They induce excitotoxicity through over stimulation of the ionotropic NMDA or AMPA/kainate receptor subtypes. They have been shown to produce an intense membrane depolarization and a massive increase in intracellular calcium leading to cell damage. Excitotoxins also promote cancer growth and metastasis. On expopsure to glutamate cancer cells become more mobile and that enhances metastasis, or spread. Our food stuffs and diet contains these excitotoxins in high amount as they are deliberately added to food items to enhance/alter taste.  Glutamate is one such toxin added to foods usually as purified monosodium salt called monosodium glutamate or MSG. MSG is a potent excitotoxin which is the sodium salt of glutamic acid and due to its flavor enhancing properties it is used as a food additive in Asian cuisine and other diets making it a relevant aspect of the human diet worldwide. It increases the appetite by stimulating the appetite center but presently it has been debated for its safety and harmful effects. It affects almost every major organ in the body. In the present review resultant pathways associated with excitotoxicty of ajinomoto are deliberated with special reference to calcium signaling.

Keywords: Ajinomoto, excitotoxicity, glutamate.


Pharmacokinetic Differences of the Glucuronide-Conjugated Metabolites of Magnoflorine, and Jatrorrhizine between Healthy Chinese and African Volunteers

Raphael N. Alolga1*, Assogba G. Assanhou2*, Vitus Onoja2, Moses Muyaba2, Sarah W. Amadi2, Said Abasse Kassim2

1. State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, No. 24 Tongjia Lane, 210009, Xuanwumen, Nanjing.

2. School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, No. 24 Tongjia Lane, 210009, Xuanwumen, Nanjing.


This short communication reports the pharmacokinetic differences of the glucuronide-conjugated metabolites of magnoflorine and jatrorrhizine between Chinese and African male volunteers. From an earlier report, glucuronidation was determined to be one of the main metabolic pathways and these two compounds were reported to differ significantly between the two races. Pharmacokinetic parameters of half-life,t1/2, time to reach maximum concentration, Tmax, maximum plasma concentration, Cmax, volume of distribution, Vd, area under the concentration-time curve, AUC and clearance, CL were considered. Statistically significant differences were observed in almost all the parameters studied in terms of their glucuronide-conjugated metabolites. The findings indicate the differences in hepatic metabolism of these two compounds between the two races.

Keywords: conjugate, glucuronide, metabolite, pharmacokinetics, races.


A Study on the Usage of NSAIDS and Gastroprotective agents in an Orthopaedic Department

Ridhin Joy1, Sheba Baby John1, Bincy. T. Abraham1*, Sreeja. P.A1

1. Department of pharmacy practice, Grace College of pharmacy, Palakkad, Kerala, India.


NSAIDs remains as a major choice for analgesis (pain-killing), antipyretic (fever-reducing) and in higher doses as an anti-inflammatory  agent in orthopaedics. The objective of the present study was to conduct a prospective observational study to collect datas of patients those who were admitted in orthopedic department and thereby have assessment on the usage of NSAIDs and gastroprotective agents. A total of 68 subjects were included in the study, 57.35% (n=39) were male and 42.6% (n=29) were female. Maximum number of patients who received NSAIDs were in age group of 41-50 i.e.,26.4% (n=18), followed by 20.50% (n=14) 31-40 age group and 16.1% (n=11) were in between 51-60 age group. Only 8.8% (n=6) of patients were above 70 years of age and prescribed with NSAIDs. NSAIDs were mainly prescribed as the supportive treatment of fracture 41.1% (n=28) followed by Spondylosis 26.4% (n=18), Osteoarthritis 13.2% (n=9) and Joint dislocation 11.7% (n=8) etc. Diclofenac 75% (n=51) was found to be the commonly prescribed NSAIDs followed by Piroxicam 16.1% (n=11), whereas the least prescribed NSAIDs was found to be Etoxicoxib 2.9% (n=2). The result revealed that 51.4% (n=35) of the patients underwent Dual therapy followed by 48.5% (n=33) with Monotherapy. In this study 76.4% (n=52) patients were prescribed with Parenteral NSAIDs whereas, 23.5% (n=16) patients with oral route of NSAIDs and 5.8% (n=4) with topical NSAIDs. Around 89.7 %(n=61)of patients were co-prescribed with gastroprotective agents (GPA). Pantoprazole and Rabeprazole were the most frequently prescribed GPA which were accounted by 38.2% (n=26) followed by Ranitidine 10.2% (n=7).67.2% (n=41) were administered in oral route followed by 32.7% (n=20) parent rally38.2% (n=26).

Keywords: NSAIDs, gastro protective agents, fracture, spondylosis, orthopaedics.


Formulation and Evaluation of Stavudine Sustain Release Matrix Tablets Using Purified Neem Gum as Release Retardant

M Sunitha Reddy1*, Lavanya. T1

1. Centre for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad, Telangana.


Stavudine is used for the treatment HIV/AIDS. It is competitive inhibitor of reverse transcriptase enzyme. Stavudine has short half life of 1.5-3 hours and absorption of drug is 86%. To reduce frequency of dosing, adverse effects and to increase patient compliance sustain release matrix tablets of Stavudine was developed. Therefore the main objective of the present work is to prepare sustain release matrix tablets of Stavudine using Neem gum as binder alone and combinations of Neem gum and HPMC K4M (1:1). Sustain release binder property of Neem gum is not evaluated. Tablets were designed in such a way that it releases drug throughout GIT for 12 hours, by retarding the release and thus increase the half life of the drug. Stavudine showed maximum absorbance at a wavelength of 266nm. FTIR studies show no interaction between drug and excipients. Five F1-F5 formulations were developed by using various amount of Neem gum in range of 40-120 mg using non aqueous wet granulation method. Precompressional and post-compressional parameters were evaluated and were found to be within the limits. The dissolution studies were performed it showed that formulation F2 consisting of 80mg of polymer was found to release of the drug perfectly at 12 hour remaining F3, F4 and F5 shown prolong sustain release than required rate. F2 is optimized based on drug release and subjected to different kinetic models, it found to be concentration independent and by diffusion. Stability studies are conducted for optimized F2 formulation tablets, shows no much change.

Keywords: Stavudine, Sustain release matrix tablets, Neem gum, HPMC K4M


Antibacterial Activity of Processed Tamarindus Indica. L Seeds against Clinically Important Microorganisms

Shlini P1*, K R Siddalinga Murthy2

1. Department of Chemistry, Mount Carmel College, Autonomous. Bangalore, India.

2. DOS in Biochemistry, Bangalore University. Bangalore, India.


Plants are the most common source of antimicrobial agents. Their usage as traditional health remedies is most popular and it is reported to have minimal side effects. In the present communication, antibacterial activity of Tamarindus indica L have been reported that may be an alternative source to develop an alternative treatment of bacterial infection. Tamarindus indica L seeds were processed and tested for their antibacterial activity against clinically important Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Different processing methods were employed to the seeds of Tamarindus indica L such as soaking, dehulling, cooking, autoclaving and germination. Extraction of Tamarindus indica L seeds were carried out at 37˚C with methanol. The extracted materials was then determined for antibacterial activity by disk diffusion and growth inhibition studies method. The results showed that the extracts possessed the highest antibacterial activity against the bacteria, Enterobacter Sp. and Morexella Sp. Further the sensitivity of two pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli to the tannins of the processed tamarind seeds was tested. The highest activity was exhibited by the autoclaved seeds with 70.70% against Staphylococcus aureus and 46.21% against E. coli. The growth inhibition studies indicated that extracts of control, cooked and autoclaved seeds inhibit Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli more than soaked, dehulled and germinated seeds.. Similar results were obtained with the agar disc diffusion test. The potent components of Tamarindus indica L is suggested for further purification and determination of phytochemicals and other biological properties.

Keywords: Tamarindus indica L, Antibacterial activity, Agar disc diffusion assay, Growth inhibition studies.


Analytical Method Development and Validation for the Simultaneous Estimation of Cefixime Trihydrate and Ornidazole in Combined Dosage form by UV-Spectrophotometric Method

K Veena*, D Sireesha, T Rajini, M Akiful Haque, S Harshini, B Vasudha

Department of Pharmaceutical analysis and Quality assurance, Anurag group of institutions, (Formerly Lalitha College of Pharmacy), Venkatapur (V), Ghatkesar (M), Rangareddy (D). Hyderabad, Telangana, India.


A Simple, precise, accurate and economical UV-spectrophotometric method has been developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of Cefixime trihydrate (CEF) and Ornidazole (ORD) in combined dosage form. In simultaneous equation method, CEF and ORD were quantified using their absorptivity values at selected wavelengths 288 nm and 311 nm respectively. The linearity range was found to be 5-50 μg/ml for CEF and 5-50 μg/ml for ORD. Different analytical parameters such as linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were determined as per ICH guidelines. Limit of detection and quantification values CEF 1.10 and 3.33 μg/ml and for ORD 1.58 and 4.79 μg/ml respectively. The recovery values between prescribed limit of 98-102% shows that method is free from interference of excipients present in formulation. The developed method was free from interferences due to excipients present in formulation and it can be used for routine quality control analysis.

Keywords: Cefixime trihydrate (CEF) and Ornidazole (ORD), Simultaneous equation Method.


Neuropharmacological Profile of Ethanolic Extract of Baliospermum Montanum Roots in Mice

Syeda Nishat Fathima1*, G. Hemalatha2, B. Swetha3

1. Dept of Pharmacology, Jayamukhi College of Pharmacy, Narsampet, TS, India

2. Dept of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Jayamukhi College of Pharmacy, Narsampet, TS, India

3. Department of Pharmacy Practice, Jayamukhi College of Pharmacy, Narsampet, TS, India


Baliospermum montanum, Euphorbiace family commonly known as Danti in Ayurveda is of therapeutic significance and is utilized traditionally for the treatment of various ailments. The plant’s roots are considered as laxatives, anthelmintic, diuretic, diaphoretic, rube facient, febrifuge and tonic. On preliminary basis neuropharmacological profile of ethanolic extract of roots of Baliospermum montanum was assessed for Locomotor activity using Actophotometer, muscle relaxant activity using Rota-rod Apparatus, pentobarbital-induced hypnosis and Anticonvulsant activity by Maximal electroshock test was performed. Ethanolic extract of Baliospermum montanum roots decreased the motor activity and showed significant muscle relaxation along with potentiation of pentobarbital-induced sleeping time and decreased the duration of tonic hind leg extension of seizures activity. The results conclude that the extract has significant central nervous system depressant activity. Further investigations are, however, necessary to explore mechanism(s) of action involved in these pharmacological activities.

Keywords: Baliospermum montanum, CNS Depressant, neuropharmacological profile.



Dopamine Transporter Gene (SLC6A3) 3’UTR VNTR Genotype as a Marker for Subtypes of Bipolar Affective Disorder I in an Egyptian Sample

Karim Abdel Aziz2*, Nisrin M El-Saadouni1, Wafaa El-Bahaey1, Zeinab Abu Elfotouh1, Farha El-Shenawy1, Ahmed Alboraie1, Haytham Shabayek2, Dina Aly El-Gabry3, Hamdy F Moselhy2

1. Psychiatry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

2. Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.

3. Institute of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.


We aimed to investigate the distribution of alleles and genotypes of the 3’UTR VNTR polymorphism of SLC6A3 between a sample of patients with bipolar I disorder and healthy controls. We used a cross-sectional, case-control study which was carried out on 100 subjects with bipolar disorder and 50 healthy controls. The bipolar group was divided into three subgroups: 40 with bipolar disorder without psychotic features, 31 with bipolar disorder with mood-congruent psychotic features and 29 with bipolar disorder with mood-incongruent psychotic features. All participants provided a blood specimen for analysis and genomic DNA extraction. The genotypic distribution of DAT 3ˊUTR (SLC6A3) for both patients and controls was within the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. For the genotypes of DAT 3 intron VNTR, the gene frequency estimates for the whole sample indicated a significant departure from the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. Genotype frequencies showed a significant difference between the bipolar I and the control groups. There was a marginally significant higher frequency of 7/8 3 intron VNTR genotypes in the bipolar I disorder with mood-incongruent psychotic features. Among patients with a positive family history of psychosis in the three bipolar subtypes, the frequency of 3 intron DAT VNTR showed a statistically significant difference in the mood-incongruent group and 7/8 genotype was statistically significant. This study suggests that the 7/8 genotype may predispose a subtype of bipolar disorder characterized by mood-incongruent psychotic features in cases with a positive family history of psychotic disorder.

Keywords: Bipolar, Genetics, DAT, SLC6A3, VNTR.