American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
June 2016 Issue 6

Pregnancy and Its Complication

Vrigu Kumar Bhuyan1*, Biswajit Das1

1.Girijananda Chowdhury Institute of pharmaceutical Science, Guwahati, Assam


Pregnancy is the period from conception to birth. After the egg is fertilized by a sperm and then implanted in the lining of the uterus, it develops into the placenta and embryo, and later into a fetus. Pregnancy usually lasts 40 weeks, beginning from the first day of the woman’s last menstrual period and divided into three trimesters, each lasting three months. It include sign and symptoms, stages of pregnancy, nutrients required during pregnancy, complication, risk factor, food safety and things to avoid during pregnancy.

Keyword:  Pregnancy, Placenta, Trimester, fertilization, Abortion.


Reverse Logistic Disposal Practices of Household Pharmaceutical Medicines And Its Impact On Environment In Trichy, Tamil nadu

S. Saravanan*1, T. Manoj Kumar1

1. Department of Management Studies, Anna University (BIT Campus), Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India


Reverse logistics refers to managing a supply chain in reverse direction from the consumers to the manufacturers. Reverse logistics is the part of supply chain management practice that flow of products and information from the customers to the manufacturers for the purpose of value recreate and proper disposal. To explore the knowledge, attitude, beliefs about drug wastage and methods adopted by customers to dispose unused medicines at home. Storing numerous medicines in the home or throwing excess medicines in the trash without first securing them can lead to misuse. This study reviewed various published journals and identified various disposal practices to build a conceptual model for disposal practices of household medicines. By extending that research, a specific study that carried out in Tiruchirappalli district in Tamilnadu state. A total of 300 customers were participated in this study from various medical stores. Questionnaire was aimed to examine the disposal practices of pharmaceutical medicines and its implication on environment. Collected data was analyzed by using SPSS. The main objective of this study is to estimate the quantum of medicines disposed by customers and its impact on environment.

Keywords: Disposal of Medicines, Environmental hazards, Household medicines, Reverse logistics practices.


Antioxidative and Free Radical Scavenging Properties of Piper Cubeba (Piperaceae) In Mercury Intoxicated Mice, Mus Musculus

G. Jagadeesan1*, E.V. Shakeela1

1.Division of Toxicology, Department of Zoology, Annamalai University, Annamalainaga -608 002


This experimental study was carried out to evaluate the protective potential of Piper cubeba in mercury induced changes in Hepatic antioxidant activities after short-term dose of the heavy metal in mice. Twenty four, two month old male mice were divided equally and randomly into four groups viz., I, II, III and IV.  Group I served as control.  Group II and III were oral dosed on mercury chloride at sub lethal dose (5mg of HgCl2/ Kg body weight of animal) on every day for4 7 days respectively. After 7th day the group III animals alone again fed with the methanolic extract of Piper cubeba fruits at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight for another 7 days.  There was significant decrease in protein metabolism, catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in group II animals, simultaneously an increased in the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) was also recorded in group II animals.  Group IV animals did not show any significant alteration in protein metabolism and antioxidant properties of the animal.  The mercury intoxicated mice again treated with methanolic extract of P. cubeba restoring the liver to reorganize its protein metabolism and antioxidant properties to near normal level/ a little over untreated control.  The result suggested that medication of P. cubeba nullify the mercury toxicity in mice.

Keywords: Piper cubeba, Glutathione, Catalase, LPO etc.,


Current practice of the combination therapy of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors and alpha-1 adrenergic blockers in the treatment of BPH/LUTS in non-neurogenic bladder and the emerging issues in Saudi Arabia – a preliminary report.

Atif Abdulhamid Katib1*, Husam Atif Katib1,  Sara Khalid Alem1

Senior Urology Consultant (Saudi Arabia)


Both ED and LUTS secondary to BPH are found to be increasingly prevalent as men age. The presence of PDE5 receptors within corpus cavernosal smooth muscle is well established. However, isoforms PDE1 and PDE4 have also been found distributed throughout the lower urinary tract mediating smooth muscle relaxation at the bladder neck, prostate, and proximal urethra. Recently, PDE5 inhibitors have been approved to treat LUTS/BPH patients with or without ED. Our objective was to report the highs and lows of doctors and patients preliminary experience surrounding the combination of PDE5 inhibitors and alpha-1 adrenergic blockers in the treatment of LUTS/BPH. We aim at highlighting the points necessary to come up with judicious recommendations and guidelines. In this review we have studied the up-to-date papers in PubMed published on the pharmacological effects of PDE5 inhibitors on LUTS/BPH. Furthermore, we focused on the papers ascribed to combining PDE5 inhibitors with alpha-1 adrenergic blockers to treat LUTS/BPH with or without ED. In addition, we presented our early experience in Saudi Arabia surrounding the pros and cons of the combination therapy along with the patients ‘experience. Clinical trials have shown a diversity of clinical applications of PDE5 inhibitors. One of which is in treating LUTS/BPH "patients’ experience" whether alone or in combination with alpha adrenergic blockers. Tadalafil 5 mg has gained the first licensure for the daily use for LUTS/BPH "patients’ concerns" with or without ED. This paper has presented our early experience on the combination therapy and expressed the patients ‘concerns in details. In current practice, the application of the combination therapy of PDE5 "inhibitors’ preparation" and alpha-1 adrenergic blockers fits better patients who complain of LUTS/BPH and ED simultaneously. Patients who have achieved a steady level of improvement on alpha blockers alone, and expect more, might benefit from the dual therapy. In addition, many BPH patients on 5-alpha reductase inhibitors choose to add on PDE5 inhibitors` preparation to their medications in attempt to overcome the sexual dysfunction drawbacks of the former drug. On the other hand, several issues have been encountered like the concomitant use of nitrate preparations with PDE5 inhibitors, the exorbitant cost of the uninsured daily dose, and the existing comorbidity that patients in Saudi Arabia often have.

Keywords: LUTS/BPH, ED, combination therapy, PDE5 inhibitors, Alpha blockers.


Bioremediation of chromium (VI) by Haloalkaliphilic Bacteria Isolate from alkaline environment

Tambekar DH1, Tambekar SD2,  Adhao AD1, Darade RV1

1.Post Graduate Department of Microbiology  Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati 444602 (India)

2.Dept. of Microbiology, Dhote Bandhu Science College, Gondia, 441614


Most of the industrial effluent contains various chemical compounds such as chromium, which is pulmonary carcinogen and health hazardous to living system. Generally, the industrial effluent is alkaline, hence, attempt was made to isolate the bacteria from alkaline environment, having ability to survive and remediate the chromium. In the present study, twelve sample of water, matt and sediment were collected from alkaline Lonar Lake and bacterial strain were isolated in nutrient broth (pH 10) containing 100μg/mL of chromium. The bacterial isolate was characterized morphologically and biochemically and identified as Lysinibacillus mangiferihumi by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The chromium remediation ability of the strain was estimated by the Spectrophotometric method of Di-phenyl carbazide and it showed that 89% of chromium reduction in 96 h of incubation. Thus, it indicated that the isolated Lysinibacillus mangiferihumi bacillus could remediate and detoxify hexavalent Chromium (VI) to trivalent Chromium (III) in alkaline environment.

Keyword: Bioremediation, chromium, Lysinibacillus mangiferihumi, haloalkaliphiles Lonar lake


A Comprehensive Prospective Clinical Study of Hydatid Disease: A Case Study of Kota (Rajasthan)

Surendra Kumar1, Seema Meena3, R.S.Meena2

1 IIrd year Resident, Department of general surgery, Government Medical College and Associated Group of Hospitals  Kota  (Rajasthan), 324001, India

2 Senior Professor and Head Department of Surgery Government Medical College and  Associated Group of Hospitals Kota (Rajasthan),324001,India

3rd year resident Department of anesthesiology ,Government Medical College and Associated Group of Hospitals Kota (Rajasthan), 324001, India


Hydatid disease has a worldwide distribution and is also well recognized and documented in India. The present study has been done on 50 patients suffering from hydatid disease of various sites and treated during Jan 2014 to Jan 2015 at Government Medical College and Associated Group of Hospitals, Kota, with the aim of studying the clinical manifestations of hydatid disease of different sites and/or organ system and of analyzing the morbidity and mortality of hydatid disease. The age, sex, h/o dog contact, duration of hospital stay, clinical presentation, treatment advised, findings and difficulties encountered during operation, and postoperative management of patients as well as morbidity and mortality were recorded and analyzed. We observed that the mean age was 32 years. The sex incidence revealed female preponderance in the study (M:F/1:3). Females were the dominant sex affected by the disease. Hydatid of the liver was more common, especially in the right lobe. Pain in the abdomen was the most common presenting complaint. Lump in the abdomen was the most common clinical finding. Patients with pulmonary hydatid presented to the hospital earlier than the patients with abdominal hydatid. excision and external drainage was the most commonly performed surgery. The most common postoperative complication was wound infection. Majority of patients were from rural areas (47) and the remaining (3) from urban areas. Pain was most common symptom.

Keywords:Clinical Study, Hydatid Disease 


Development and Characterization of Floating Microspheres of Acyclovir As Gastroretentive Dosage Form

Srikrishna.T1*, P.V.Prasad1, Md.Nayeem, 1 Sk.Mubashira1, M.Sai Giridhar1

1.Department of Pharmaceutics, Narayana Pharmacy College, Chinthareddypalem, Nellore-524002 A.P., India


In the present study, an attempt has been made to prepare floating microspheres of Acyclovir designed as gastroretentive dosage form for the Herpes simplex virus infection as well as vericella zoster infection. The floating microspheres were prepared using Ethylcellulose by Non-aqueous Solvent Evaporation technique which offers advantage of short processing time and gives high encapsulation efficiency. Formulations were characterized for their particle size, practical yield, percentage entrapment efficiency, buoyancy, drug-polymer compatibility (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), in vitro drug release and model fitting kinetics. SEM analysis shows that spherical microspheres with porous surface were formed. The particle size of microspheres was in the range of 262.6±2.52 to 348±2.49µm. Percentage encapsulation efficiency was between 71.6±0.53 to 91.6± 0.32%. Microspheres remained buoyant for more than about 12 h. The results of FTIR spectroscopy indicated the stable character of acyclovir in microspheres and also revealed absence of drug-polymer interaction. The formulation F5 showed results of in vitro drug released (95.56%) and acyclovir microspheres showed release from slow to sustained for more than 10hr. The release obeys zero order model. All the stability studies for the formulation F5 showed no significant change in the percentage drug release studies and percentage buoyancy. The results of factorial batches revealed that the concentration of ethyl cellulose and stirring speed significantly affected drug encapsulation efficiency and particle size of the microspheres. Thus we can conclude that floating microspheres can successfully be developed to sustain the drug release.

Keywords: Floating microspheres, buoyancy, Solvent Evaporation technique, Ethyl Cellulose, in vitro release.


Evaluation of effect to Ivermectin exposure on metabolic enzymes and blood glucose of rohu (Labeo rohita) fingerlings

Md Aklakur*1, N. P. Sahu1, S. Dasgupta1, M.M. Gatne2 and A. K. Pal1

1.Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Versova, Mumbai 400 061, India

2. Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Bombay Veterinary College, Parel Mumbai, India


The ivermectin is mostly used an anti-parasitic drug for treatment of Argulosis and other ectoparasite diseases. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of acute exposure (96 h) of different concentration of ivermectin in the water on metabolism and blood glucose level of rohu (Labeo rohita) fingerlings. The graded level of ivermectin such as 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, 15.0 and 17.5 μg/L in water were selected and a test was conducted in triplicate for each concentration with 10 fishes in each tub of 100 L capacity. At the end of the experimental period of 96 hrs, activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and blood glucose level were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) with respect to concentration of ivermectin, while the activities of  lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and transaminase enzymes (alanine amino transferase and aspartate amino transferase) were significantly increased  (P < 0.05) in exposed groups compared to the control. A negative correlation was recorded between the level of ivermectin concentration in water and blood glucose level. The gross observations noticed were sluggishness, inactivity, dark body color, disorientation and imbalance in swimming.

Keyword: Ivermectin, Rohu, Blood Glucose, Toxicity, Metabolic Enzymes.


Isolation and Characterization of Quercetin 3,7-O-β-d-diglucoside from Cascabela thevetia (Flowers)

M.M.Senthamilselvi1 S.Solomon 2*  N.Muruganantham3

1. Principal, Government Arts College, Ariyalur, Tamil Nadu, India.

2. Department of Chemistry, Periyar E.V.R. College (Autonomous), Trichy, Tamil Nadu, India.

3. Department of Chemistry, Roever Engineering College, Perambalur, Tamil Nadu, India.


The present work deals with the isolation, identification of the compound from the flowers of Cascabela thevetia. The structure of the isolated compound was elucidated by physical and chemical methods. The isolated compound was characterized using various spectroscopic data such as UV, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS.

Keywords: Cascabela thevetia, UV, NMR (1H, 13C) and MS, Quercetin 3,7-O-β-d-diglucoside 


Access and Utilization of Immunization Services in Urban Slums of Aligarh

Ali Jafar Abedi*1,   Zulfia Khan1, M. Athar Ansari1, Sadia Rehman Safwi1, Saira Mehnaz1

1.Department of Community Medicine, JN Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh.


Immunization is one of the most cost-effective health investments, with proven strategies that make it accessible to even the most hard-to-reach and vulnerable populations. Though the immunization coverage in our country has increased to a large extent, still significant number of children residing in slums are incompletely immunized. Therefore the present study was conducted to assess the coverage of primary immunization in urban slums, and to assess the barriers of immunization if any. A coverage evaluation survey was done among children aged 12-23 months in urban slums of Aligarh by the resident doctors and interns of department of Community Medicine, JN Medical College, WHO-cluster survey methodology was used and 420 children were included in the study. The method used for the determination of the vaccination status was the vaccination card and the recall method. Data were collected, compiled and tabulated using SPSS 21.0 version. Out of 420 children only 25% of the children were fully immunized, 40.7% were not immunized and 34.3% partially immunized. The coverage for BCG was found to be 57.6% (CI= 50.92 to 64.28), the difference in coverage between BCG and Measles was 29.5 % (CI= 35.67 to 23.33), DPT-1 and Measles 19.3 % (CI=24.63-13.97) and between DPT-1 and DPT-3 was 17.6 % (CI= 22.75- 12.45). Lack of information was the major cause of children not getting the vaccine(s) as 71.5 % respondents were not fully aware of the programme. The present study shows that the status of complete immunization is depressingly  low in the study area. The area grieved from both accessibility and use of immunization services. The present study accentuates the imperious need for trivial interventions to tackle the issues of both dropout and non-assessibility, which are the main reasons of partial immunisation and unimmunization respectively.

Keywords: Immunisation, Slums, WHO-Cluster, Children