AJPHR

American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
DOI: 10.21276/ajphr
June 2017 Issue 6
1

Antidiabetic Effects of Olive Oil Against Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes In Rats

Khadijah Saeed Bahamash1,  Elham Hamed Al Gahdali1,  Huda Mohammed Alkreathy2*Sawsan Omer Khoja1

1. Department of Biochemistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

2. Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus, a prevalent health issue throughout the world, is characterized by abnormal insulin secretion caused by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which affects the integrity of the lysosomal membrane affecting lysosomal enzymes. It is diagnosed by the presence of hyperglycemia. Natural products as antioxidants can constrict the effect of these ROS. Therefore, treatment of diabetic patients with antioxidant, such as extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) may be of advantage in attenuating certain complications. This study aimed to evaluate the antidiabetic role of olive oil against hyperglycemia in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Thirty-six healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups (6 rats per group). Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ. Group 1 served as non-diabetic control (NC) and group 2 as diabetic control (DC). Animals in groups 3, 4 and 5 were treated with metformin, olive oil and combination of olive oil with metformin respectively. Rats in group 6 were given olive oil orally for 2 weeks daily before induction of diabetes and then throughout the study. All treatments were gavaged orally for six weeks. The effect of olive oil was assessed by measuring the changes in body weight of rats, determination of glycemic control and estimation of oxidative stress markers. The results showed the significant increase in blood glucose level, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. While as the body weight of rats and insulin were significantly reduced in DC rats. Moreover, MDA level remained higher in diabetic rats treated with metformin and/or olive oil. In contrast, pretreatment with olive oil significantly decreased blood glucose and HbA1c levels. Furthermore, treatment of olive oil with metformin decreased blood glucose and HbA1c levels but it increased total antioxidant capacity (TAC) significantly. In conclusion, pretreatment with olive oil to protect against diabetes and the combined treatment of olive oil with metformin to animals might offer additional antidiabetic and antioxidant effect to metformin. Therefore, it could be a promising strategy for diabetes therapy. We recommend more investigations on humans to study the complementary effect of combination of olive oil and metformin on body tissues.

Keywords: Antidiabetic, Antioxidant, Olive oil, Oxidative stress, Rats, Streptozotocin. 

2

Inhibition of Biofilm Forming Bacteria by Plant Extracts

Shlini. P1*, Preeti Sharma1, Priyanka. K. Prasad1

1.Department of Chemistry (PG Biochemistry). Mount Carmel College. Palace Road. Bangalore - 560 052. Karnataka. India.

ABSTRACT

Biofilms are the main cause for increase in virulence and antibiotic resistance of microorganisms. Both gram positive and gram negative pathogens are known to produce biofilms. Due to the production of biofilm the bacteria adhere to the surface strongly and are protected from any antibiotic agents. The present study is aimed to inhibit the biofilms produced by gram negative E. coli isolated from UTI samples (UPEC), using plant extracts. Plants like Magnifera indica, Punica granatum, Catharanthus roseus and Manikara zapota were extracted to check for their antimicrobial as well as antibiofilm activity by well diffusion assay and biofilm assay. All the plant extracts were screened for antibiofilm activity. The result indicated that Punica granatum extract had a good inhibition capacity. The further scope in this field of study is to target AHL formation and hence, inhibit biofilm. The inhibition of biofilm helps in reducing many infections due to reduction in the virulence of bacteria that is mainly due to formation of biofilm, making the pathogens weak and more susceptible to antimicrobial agents.

Keywords: Biofilms, Magnifera indica, Punica granatum, Catharanthu sroseus and Manikara zapota.

 

3

Types and Current Trends In Floating Drug Delivery System

Shyam  S Kumar1*,Nl. Gowrishankar1, Fasila. VP1, Shahna Shirin VP1

1.Prime College of Pharmacy, Kodumbu PO, Palakkad

ABSTRACT

Floating drug delivery system is a recent advancement in pharmaceutical technology which has also several advantages over the conventional drug delivery systems. Those advantages of floating system can be used in the treatment of world’s most affective diseases like cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovascular diseases are group of diseases which are many of the time fetal for the patients due to problems associated with the oral conventional tablets. These problems can be overcome by this delivery system. With an increasing understanding of polymer behavior and the role of the biological factors, it is suggested that future research work on the way of floating drug delivery system should be aimed to control accurately the drug input rate into the gastrointestinal tract for the optimization of the pharmacokinetic and toxicological profiles of cardiovascular agents. This review gives an overview of cardiovascular disease, floating drug delivery system & role of floating drug delivery system in treatment of heart patient.

Keywords:  FDDS, Gastro retentive, Enhanced Bioavailability 

4

Need for the Change of Anticoagulants In The Reproductive Age Group Women

Chandran Shanthi1, N.K.Mahalakshmi1*

1.Madurai medical college, TNMGR medical university

ABSTRACT

Hemorrhagic ovarian cysts usually result from haemorrhage into a corpus luteum or other functional cysts. It is a frequent and potentially life threatening complication in women on chronic anticoagulation therapy. Surgical management has been a traditional approach in managing hemorrhagic ovarian cyst. However conservative management is now dominating the trend in carefully selected patients .For prevention of recurrence of ovulation related bleeding it is mandatory to use a ovulation suppressing agent during the monthly  follow up. Here we present two case reports who had been receiving oral anticoagulants – Vit K antagonist for prosthetic heart valves and are treated as a result of ruptured corpus luteal cyst. One was treated surgically other was treated conservatively. They were discharged with advise of DMPA for ovulation suppression in the follow up. Even though VKA’S are cost effective and efficacious in preventing valve thrombus, because of life threatening hemorrhage and periodic INR monitoring necessitate the need for researches to find an safe and effective alternative newer oral anticoagulants for women in reproductive age group.

Keywords: Hemorrhagic ovarian cysts, anticoagulants , hormone therapy

5

Comparative Efficacy of Alphamethrin, on Gene Expression of Wingless Lac Z and Engrailed Lac Z, the Transgenic Forms of Drosophila melanogaster

Sanjay Kumar1*, P.N. Saxena2

1. Dept. of Zoology, Acharya Narendra Dev College (Delhi University), New Delhi- 110019, India

2. Dept. of Zoology, School of Life Science, Khandari Campus, Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Agra- 282001, India

ABSTRACT

Type II Pyrethroid exhibited its potential against transgenic forms of Drosophila melanogaster. The intrastrain crosses and respective observations with regard to genetic expression on the imaginal disc have revealed the potentiality of the experimental compound alphamethrin on both transgenic flies, wingless lac Z and engrailed lac Z . The reduction in wing size in both the forms (wingless lac Z and engrailed lac Z) is also an outcome of engrailed gene which acts as a pleotropic gene governing different functions in different parts of Drosophila. The differential expression of gene in the two transgenic forms reflect differential interaction in terms of reduced response of pyrethroid with the concerned gene.

Keywords: Pyrethroid, LC50, Imaginal Disc, Lac Z

6

Assessment of Health Outcome In Post PTCA Myocardial Infraction Patients by Using SAQ-7 Questionnaire

Gayathri.M1*, Karthikeyan.V1, Anoop Gopinathan2

1.Department of Pharmacy Practice, Grace College of Pharmacy, Kodunthirapully, Palakkad, Kerala-678004, India

2.Department of Interventional cardiology, Meditrina Welcare Hospital, Palakkad, Kerala-678004, India

ABSTRACT

To monitor and assess the health outcome of PTCA patients by using SAQ-7 questionnaire. A prospective study was conducted in Meditrina Welcare Heart Centre, Palakkad from November 2016- April 2017. A total of 189 cases were collected. Patients of age between 31 and above underwent PTCA are included in the study. The majority of the patients are males (78%). Assessment of health outcome after PTCA by using SAQ-7 questionnaire show that 59.45% has good health outcome (SAQ7 score ranges from 91-100) as compared to health outcome before PTCA majority have poor health outcome (22.75%) From the study it shows that the majority of the patients have improved their health outcome after PTCA.

Keywords: MI, PTCA, SAQ-7

7

Screening of antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of the leaves of Acalypha wilkesiana Muel.Arg

Fonkoua Martin1, Ngaluh Justine2, Edoun Ebouel Ferdinand Lanvin1, Mbah Nteppe Lionel1, Mbouobda Hermann Désiré2, Ngondi Judith Laure1

1.Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon

2.Higher Teacher’s Training College, The University of  Bamenda, Bamenda, Cameroon

We investigated the phytochemical content, the antioxidant capacity and the anti-diabetic properties of aqueous and hydroethanolic (50%) extracts of the leaves of Acalypha wilkesiana Muell. Arg. A phytochemical screening was carried out to identify the different bioactive metabolites. The polyphenolic content and the antioxidant capacity of both extracts were determined using Folin-ciocalteu and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) methods respectively. In vivo studies were conducted in normal and streptozocin induced diabetic male rats. The effect of both extracts on postprandial blood glucose level was determined in 16 fasted normal rats. The effect of the extracts on fasting blood glucose was determined in streptozotocin induced-diabetic rats (400 mg/kg) for 5 hours. The hydroethanolic extract contained more polyphenols compared to the aqueous extract (218,51 ± 17,41 vs 111,02± 12,15 mg equivalent catechin /g of extract; p<0,05) . The antioxidant capacity was also higher with hydroethanolic extract (294,99 ±54,29 vs128,11 ± 7,18 equivalent catechin /g of extract; p<0,05). Administration of both aqueous (33.03% vs 52.58% ;p<0.006) and hydroethanolic extract (7.87% vs 52.58% ; p<0.001), 30 minutes before oral starch load suppressed the rise in postprandial glucose .The hydroethanolic extract inhibited the increase in blood glucose level compared to the aqueous extract which did not have an effect. The same extract also exhibited good hypoglycaemic activity in diabetic rats. The Acalypha wilkesiana Muell. Arg leaves offers an attractive therapeutic approach in the treatment of diabetes by decreasing both fasting and postprandial hyperglycaemia.

 Keywords: Acalypha wilkesiana, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, hyperglycaemia

8

Stability Enhancement of Fruits and Vegetables using Chitosan Coatings.

T.A.Daptardar 1*, Y.N. Gavhane1

1. Government College of Pharmacy, Karad, Maharashtra, Pin: 415124 India.

ABSTRACT

Post harvest spoilage of fruits and vegetables is a common major problem and ways to reduce this spoilage are constantly explored. Chitosan is a natural polymer which obtained from deacetylation of chitin. It is a versatile polymer and its coating has proved to increase the shelf life of the fruits and vegetables. Present review summarizes different fruits and vegetables whose shelf-life has been increased using chitosan coatings. The coating being biodegradable and non-toxic for consumption has wide applications in the near future.

Keywords: Chitosan, coating, mangoes, raspberries, tomatoes.