American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
November 2017 Issue 11

Glutamate toxicity in Neurological diseases

Ajaz Ahmad Waza1*, Shabir Ahmad Bhat1, Zeenat Hamid2

1. Centre of research for development (CORD), University of Kashmir, Srinagar, J&K, 190006, India.

2. Department of Biotechnology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, J&K, 190006, India.


Glutamate is a neuro transmitter and is responsible for communication between cells. Under pathophysiological conditions its concentration is increased within the brain and results in glutamate toxicity. Increased glutamate in the brain can elicit damage and ultimately neuronal death. Glutamate toxicity is associated with various neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), multiple sclerosis and head trauma. However, it should be noted here that the molecular mechanism behind the glutamate toxicity is not fully understood and is quiet complex. Reducing glutamate toxicity is considered to be the most essential strategy to combat various neurological disorders. In this review, we have summarized previous studies to understand the cellular effects associated with the glutamate toxicity

Keywords: Glutamate toxicity, Neurological disorders, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Glutamate transporter-1


A Study on Prescribing Pattern of Antidiabetic Drugs in Type-2 Diabetic Patients In A Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital

P.Venkata ramana1, SK. Reshma2*, S. Susmitha2, Danish Ahmad khan2

1. Department of pharmacy practice, P.Rami Reddy Memorial College of Pharmacy, Kadapa.

2. Department of Pharmacy Practice, P.Rami Reddy Memorial College of Pharmacy, Kadapa.


Prescribing pattern monitoring studies are a tool for assessing the prescribing, dispensing and distribution of medicines. The main aim of this study is to facilitate rational use of medicines. Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by the existence of hyperglycaemia due to malfunctioning insulin secretion, insulin action or both. The main aim of this study is to study the prescribing pattern of anti-diabetic drugs in a Type-II diabetes mellitus in a tertiary care teaching hospital. This Prospective observational study performed for a period of 6 months in general medicine department Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical sciences. A total 320(100%) patients were recruited under inclusion criteria upon taking of ICF based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. In this study we found a higher incidence in age group of 45-65 years. Mean age of patients came out to be 57.36 ± 8.80 years. Average number of drugs per prescription was 3.99 because of polypharmacy practice in diabetic patients. Biguanides and Sulfonylureas are the most commonly prescribed antidiabetic drugs that were in line with other studies. Among biguanides metformin was most commonly prescribed drug. Maintaining better glycemic control is a therapeutic goal for Type 2 DM patients, which can reduce the frequency of complications and thereby improves quality of life. A strong conclusion of this study highlights the necessity for patient education and counselling on usage of antidiabetic and associated drugs, regular checkups of blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, dietary changes with low calorie food, and rectification of diabetic problems.

Keywords: Prescribing pattern, diabetes mellitus, rational use of drugs, better patient care.


A Comparative Study of Collagen Granule Dressings versus Conventional Dressings in Chronic Wounds

Anju Nagar1*, RS Meena2

1. Department of Surgery, Govt. Medical College, Kota, Rajasthan, India.) 324001


Wounds can cause painful lengthy hospital stay, multiple stages of surgeries, and enormous financial burden. During the last decade, various new dressing materials developed, like calcium alginate, hydro- colloid membranes and fine mesh gauze. These have disadvantage in that they become permeable to bacteria. Biological dressings like collagen on other hand, create the most physiological interface between the wound surface and environment, and impermeable to bacteria. Biological dressing’s collagen granule dressing has advantage over conventional dressing in terms of, non-immunogenic, non-pyrogenic, being natural, easy application and decreased days of healing.

Keywords: Collagen dressing, chronic Wounds, Wound Healing, Wound History, wound dressing


Purification, Characterization and In Vitro Anti microbial Activity of Proteins from Marine Bacterium – Bacillus sp

Manikandan P1, Tamizhazhagan V1, Gnanasekaran A1, Senthikumar PK1*

Annamalai University, Chidambaram


Three purified proteins G-I, G-II and G-III were obtained from Bacillus sp using the techniques of DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow Chromatography, filtration chromatography. anion exchange chromatography, molecular determination by SDS page gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The purity of G-I, G-II and G-III was measured by DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow Chromatography. G-I, G-II and G-III were measured by SDS-PAGE to have molecular weights of 14.4 k Da and 94.4 k Da, and three bands appear in the molecular weights of 46 k Da band 35 k Da and 32 k Da band respectively. The amino acid analysis of purified compound G-III was determined because greater antimicrobial activity of G-III compound. The amino acid analysis using technique of automatic amino acid analyzer (Shimatzu-High performance liquid chromatography LC 4A) 20 µl of the purified sample was injected into single column and analyzed using sodium buffer system. G-I, G-II and G-III inhibited the clinical pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. By antimicrobial activity of Agar well diffusion assay. Test the clinical pathogens shoe the greater activity of G-III and Zone of inhibition various concentration of (25 µl, 50 µl, 75 µl, 100 µl). G-III shows the maximum results of 18.2mm and 15.4mm against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Keywords: Bacillus sp; protein; purification; in vitro antimicrobial activity.


A Prospective Randomized Study of Diathermy versus Scalpel Skin Incision.

Anju Nagar1, Mahesh kumar bagriya2, RS Meena3

1. Senior Professor and head of department., (Department of Surgery, Govt. Medical College, Kota, Rajasthan, India.) 324001


Diathermy is widely used for underlying tissue dissection, cutting, and hemostasis even though a fear of excessive scarring and poor wound healing have curtailed its widespread use for skin incision. Only few surgeons employ diathermy in making a skin incision with fear of producing deep burns and resultant scarring. 

Keywords: Diathermy, incision, scalpel



Formulation and Evaluation of Nail Lacquer Containing Antifungal Drug

S. H. Majumdar1, A.S. Kulkarni1, M. B. Rajage*1 , A.S.Bhongale1

1. Department of Pharmaceutics, Satara College of Pharmacy, Satara (Maharashtra)


The area between nail and skin are generally affected one that are hard to reach, hence nail drug delivery is interesting and gaining importance. However, the effectiveness of topical therapies is limited by minimal drug permeability through nail plate. Since it is challenging approach to deliver the drug through the nail skin at infected area. The present investigation focuses on the formulation and optimization of medicated nail lacquer containing itraconazole for transungual drug delivery system using nitrocellulose as polymer and two different penetration enhancers (thioglycolic acid and DMSO). The prepared formulation was evaluated for the different parameters like drying time, water resistance, antifungal activity, in vitro diffusion studies and stability studies. Among all formulated batches, A2 batch containing (thioglycolic acid and DMSO) showed better (51.58%) drug release compared to all batches. Findings of the study suggest that combination of permeation enhancers (thioglycolic acid: DMSO 3:6) shows better results compared to other batches. The stability studies of A2 at 40± 2oC5%RH for 2 months does not showed any physical changes during study period and stable at storage conditions. It can concluded that, the nail lacquer formulation containing itraconazole is patient friendly and it is effective dosage form for treating fungal nail infection.

Keywords: Ungual drug deliveries, antifungal nail lacquer, Itraconazole, DMSO, Thioglycolic acid.


Effect of Experimentally-induced Diabetes on the Cerebellum of Albino Rats: A Histological and Histomorphometric Study

Muhamed Faizal1, Aijaz Ahmed Khan1*

1.Department of Anatomy, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India


Diabetes mellitus is a common serious metabolic disorder with well-known serious secondary complications. Long term hyperglycemia induced- neurotoxicity leads to many adverse effects on various parts of both central and peripheral nervous system. The mechanisms responsible for the diabetes-related neuro-chemical alteration and structural abnormalities in the brain are not fully understood as yet. The aim of this current experimental study was to carry out a histological and histomorphological analysis of the diabetes-related changes in the cerebellar cortex of STZ-induced diabetic rats. 36 Albino rats weighing approximately 250 g were included in the study and divided in to control and diabetic groups and each group having 6 rats. Diabetic group received single dose of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg/bw, i.p.) and control animals received normal saline. The induction of diabetes was confirmed by measuring the blood glucose levels from the lateral tail blood and blood sugar level above 250 mg/dL were considered diabetic. After experimental period all groups’ rats were sacrificed and coronal sections were taken from the cerebellum and stained with Cresyl violet, LFB, and PSR. The number of Purkinje and thickness of different layers of the cerebellum was evaluated for histomorphometry. Light microscopic studies and biochemical estimation revealed that there is reduction of number as well as diameter of Purkinje cells and reduced thickness of molecular and granular layer of cerebellar cortex. There is progressive increase in the amount of collagen fibers around tunica adventitia of cerebellar cortical as well as medullary vessels and choroid plexus of fourth ventricle. Alteration of biochemical changes in the form of increased serum creatinine level and decreased serum total protein was also noticed with increasing duration of hyperglycemia. It is therefore concluded that long-standing hyperglycemia leads to reduction of number Purkinje cells and thickness of cerebellar cortical layers; increased collagen around cerebellar vessels and choroid plexus in conjunction with the biochemical changes appear to promote the cerebellar functional alterations observed in chronic diabetics.

Keywords: Cerebellum, Collagen, Diabetes, Neuropathy, Purkinje cells, STZ-induced


Is Acute Hepatocellular Injury By Statins, A Class Effect?

Aashiq Ahamed Shukkoor*, Nimmy Elizabeth George1

1. PSG College of Pharmacy, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India.


Hepatotoxicity is one of the primary causes of Acute liver failure. It is rarely encountered because of its low incidence and lack of research. Pharmaceutical preparations are currently serious contributors to hepatotoxicity. Susceptibility factors that predispose the individuals to drug induced liver injury have not been identified. An unabridged instrument should be made for evaluation of drug induced hepatotoxicity. We present a case report of a 49 year old male, a case of unstable angina who developed signs of idiosyncratic hepatocellular injury in response to Atorvastatin 80mg. His liver enzymes had strikingly elevated, which resolved on withdrawal of the drug. No other concomitant drugs taken by the patient could attribute to this phenomenon. The patient was then prescribed with Rosuvastatin 10mg per day for cardiovascular risk reduction after a temporary statin free period. This demonstrated a lack of class effect on statin induced hepatotoxicity. Although many case reports are available on statin induced transaminitis, this case report stands out due to the presence of clinically significant symptoms of Acute hepatocellular  injury, strikingly elevated liver enzymes and positive outcome with a switch over to another statin.

Keywords: Hepatotoxicity, Atorvastatin, Acute liver failure


Comparative study of Immunization among various states of India

Saumya Verma1*, Tanu Priya Gupta1, Spriha Pandey1, Rajneesh Gautam2

1.Department of Statistics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-India

2.Department of Environmental Science, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar Central University, Lucknow-India


Immunization has been one of the most significant, cost-effective and stimulatory public health interventions. India, along with the whole world, stands committed to the welfare of children, as reflected in the theme of 'World Immunization week, 2017,' viz. ‘Vaccines work’. The early twentieth century witnessed the challenges in expansion of different diseases i.e. Polio, DPT etc. in all of the Indian states. Despite a lot of reduction in disease burden of vaccine preventable diseases through childhood immunisation, considerable progress needs to be made in terms of ensuring efficiency and equity of vaccination coverage. In India according to National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4) factsheets at least 6 out of 10 children have received full immunisation in 12 out of 15 states/union territories which can be considered quite high from the findings of complete immunisation in NFHS-3 i.e. 44% only.

Keywords: Immunisation, NFHS-4, Vaccination, Infant mortality, Disease burden.