American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
September 2017 Issue 9

In Vitro Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory and Antiarthritic Activity of Citrus Limetta Peel

Desai S*1, Desai A1, Kanzaria S1, Mishra P1, Meshram DB1

1. Pioneer Pharmacy Degree College, Sayajipura, Vadodara-390019


The present study aims on assessing the anti arthritic activity using bovine serum albumin and anti-inflammatory activity using human red blood cell membrane stabilization model. Citrus limetta, commonly known as sweet lime, belongs to family Rutaceae. It is a rich source of flavanoid, d-limonene, alkaloids, steroids, volatile oils and polyphenols. Various extracts of sweet lime peel at different concentrations (50, 100, 200, 400 and 800µg/ml) showed the significant ameliorating effect of hypotonic saline induced RBC membrane damage when compared against standard drug aspirin whereas ameliorating effect by inhibiting protein denaturation on bovine serum albumin in vitro model against standard drug diclofenac sodium. Protective effect on heat induced protein denaturation can be used as a tool to study the in vitro anti-arthritic activity whereas protective effect on heat and hypotonic saline-induced erythrocyte lysis is known to be a very good index of anti-inflammatory activity of any agent. The results of the present study revealed that at various concentrations of Citrus limetta peel extracts when subjected to in vitro anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory activity showed % inhibition to be significant when compared with standard drug. Thus Citrus limetta fruit peel demonstrates a potential anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effect which may be attributed to its anti-oxidant property.

Keywords: Citrus limetta, anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory, sweet lime


In Vitro Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of pericarp of Teminalia catappa

Bhavani Boddeda2, Deepthi K2, Swathi Putta1*

1.Pharmacology Division, AU College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Andhra University

2.Vignan Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Visakhapatnam.


The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous leaf extract of Teminalia catappa (ALTC).  Antioxidant activity of the ALTC was determined by following some well established methods for free radical scavenging such as superoxide, hydroxyl, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and DPPH radical scavenging activities using ascorbic acid as standard. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by using HRBC membrane stabilization assay and albumin denaturation assay using diclofenac as standard.  Treatment with ALTC showed dose dependent activity against superoxide, hydroxyl, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and DPPH radicals. The ALTC showed significantly stabilization of membrane and denaturation of protein at a concentration range of 100-500µg/ml.  The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of Teminalia catappa might be due to the anthocyanins in pericarp.

Key words: Teminalia catappa, Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory activity


Pharmacognostical study of Ipomoea Digitata Linn. Roots

Iswori Prasad Padhy1*, Rajashree Panigrahi1, Ghanshyam Panigrahi1

1. Royal College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Berhampur, Odisha, 760002. India.


Ipomoea digitata Linn. of family convolvulaceae with the synonym elephant potato and  commonly known as Bilaikand (Hindi) is an extensive perennial climber, with large ovoid or elongated tuberous roots. Root part of the plant used to cure various aliments by the locals and tribes in different part of India. Pharmacognostical studies (microscopical studies in the transverse section, proximate analysis and phytochemical investigations) are carried out to facilitate proper identification and standardisation of the crude drug.

Keywords: Pharmacognostical study, Ipomoea digitata, Root. 


Monitoring of Lipid Profile in Diabetic Mellitus Type 2 Patients Controlled and Uncontrolled in Sana’a, Yemen

Qais Abdu Alwareth 1 , Saeed AL-Shaibany 1 , Mohammed Amood AL-Kamarany 2,3 *, Ali AL-Meery 1 , Ibtisam AL-Zabidy1

1.Biochemistry  Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a  University, Yemen

2.Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Clinical Pharmacy ,  Hodeidah University,

3.Tihama foundation for medical - pharmaceutical studies and research, Hodeidah, Yemen


Diabetic Milletus(DM).is the most frequent endogenous cause of fat metabolism- disorder. Therefore, the study aims to monitor the lipid profile  in  DM type 2 patients controlled and uncontrolled in Sana’a , Yemen. The study included 150 subjects from major public hospitals in Sana'a city, Yemen. 50 were diagnosed with DM type 2 controlled as group I and 50 were diagnosed with DM type 2 uncontrolled as group II. 50 subjects were healthy volunteers as control group. The biochemical parameters namely Fasting Blood Sugar (FBG) , and Glycelated Hemoglobin (HBA1c) were assayed in three groups. Data obtained were analyzed using suitable statistical tools. The lipid profile namely total cholesterol  mg/dl , triglyceride mg/dl HDL mg/dl, and LDL mg/ were assayed in DM type 2   controlled and uncontrolled and compared with control healthy group. The results were  described namely (166 ± 31 mg/dl ; 196 ± 50 ; 131 ± 28 ) , (146± 60 mg/dl ; 193 ± 94 ; 92 ± 30 ) , (37± 8.2 mg/dl , 36 ± 14, 42 ± 12 ), and (80 ± 25 mg/dl , 95 ± 30 , 76 ± 25) respectively.   According to above results , non different significant (p > 0.05) in all parameters of lipid profile was observed between DM  type 2  controlled and uncontrolled groups . while the results were observed different significant (p < 0.05) in serum levels of total cholesterol , triglyceride and LDL between controlled and healthy group and also non - different significant (p > 0.05) in serum levels of HDL between both . In addition, different significant (p > 0.05) in all parameters of lipid profile was observed between uncontrolled and control healthy groups .The study outcome concluded  that the hyperlipidemia may progressive in DM type 2 patients uncontrolled.

Keywords: Diabetic mellitus, type 2 , lipid profile , insulin resistance ,  controlled , uncontrolled 


Assessment of Adverse Drug Reactions Reported in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in South India.

Binu KM*, Denna Sara Joy, Avanthi Reddy, H. Doddayya

Department of Pharmacy Practice, N.E.T Pharmacy college, Raichur, Karnataka – 584103


The aim of the study was to detect, document, assess and report the suspected adverse drug reactions.  A prospective-observational study on adverse drug reactions was conducted in a 1000 bedded multi-specialty hospital. Suspected ADRs were analyzed for causality, severity and preventability using appropriate validated scales. A total of 65 ADRs were identified in 2280 admissions during the study period. Severity of the suspected ADRs assessed using Modified Hartwig and Siegel Scale. The study revealed that 2(1.6%) suspected ADRs were severe, 5(8%) ADRs were moderate and 58(90.4%) ADRs were mild in severity. Causality assessment was done by using WHO and Naranjo scale. The assessment by Naranjo scale showed that 16 (24.8%) ADRs were possibly drug-related, whereas 43(65.6%) were classified as probably and 6(9.6%) ADRs were definitely related to the drug, while the assessment done by using WHO scale revealed that 16(24.8%) ADRs were possibly drug-related,18 (27.2%) ADRs were probably drug-related, whereas 7(9.6%) were classified as certainly related to drug. Nine patients (13.8%) were admitted due to an Adverse. Preventability of suspected ADRs assessed by using Modified Schumock and Thornton scale, revealed that 17(26%) ADRs were definitely preventable while 1 (2%) ADRs were probably preventable and 47(72%)of the drug reactions were not preventable. Intervention was required in all ADRs as it indirectly contributed to affect the patient’s Quality Of Life. Our ability to anticipate and prevent such ADRs can be facilitated by the establishment of standardized approaches and active reporting of suspected ADRs.

Keywords: Adverse drug reactions, Causality, Hospital, Monitoring, Naranjo’s scale, WHO scale


Diagnosis of Tuberculous Meningitis by Using TRC4 and IS611O Primers in Bangladesh

Abu Naser Ibne Sattar1, Sanjida Khondakar Setu1, Md. Towfique Hasan Firoz2. Dr. Saleh Mohammad Shahedul Islam 3.

1.Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Shahbag, Dhaka 1000

2.Department of Radiation Oncology, National Institute of cancer Research & Hospital (NICRH), Dhaka

3. Lieutenant Colonel, Medicine Specialist & Gastroenterologist, Combined Military. Hospital, Bogra, Bangladesh.


Meningitis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and presents particular challenges in terms of diagnosis and management. The prevalence of TB meningitis remains largely underestimated due to nonspecific clinical manifestation. At early stages diagnosis is largely based on microscopy and culture which are often less sensitive and time consuming. This study was aimed to evaluate the diagnostic potentials of urinary polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by using TRC4 and IS6110 primers. Further the results were also compared by culture on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) media and AFB smear by Zeihl-Nelson (ZN) staining. A total of 20 CSF samples were studied from clinically suspected cases of tubercular meningitis. All the samples were processed for conventional ZN staining, TB culture on LJ media and TB-PCR by IS6110 and TRC4 primers by standard protocols. Of the total 20 samples, 12 cases were diagnostically positive TB meningitis samples among which bacteriological test was positive in only 1(8.33%) cases. PCR assay detected MTb in 10(83.33%) patients by TRC4 primers and in 8 (66.67%) patients by IS6110 primers. Since some strains of MTB may lack the IS6110 element in their genomeusing TRC4 primer instead of IS6110 is superior in diagnosing tubercular meningitis by PCR assay.

Keywords: Tubercular meningitis, TRC4, IS6110.


Anti pyretic activity of Swertia chirata buch-ham (Chiraita talkh) on Albino rats (wistar strain)

Md. Gheyasuddin1, Mir Yousuf Ali2, Md Tanwir Alam*3

1.Dr Md. Gheyasuddin, P.G. Dept. of Ilmul Advia (Pharmacology) Govt. Nizamia Tibbi College, Hyderabad

2.Dr. Mir Yousuf Ali, Prof. & HOD Ilmul Adiva (Pharmacology), Govt. Nizamia Tibbi College, Hyderabad

3Dr Md Tanwir Alam, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Community Medicine (TST), Govt. Tibbi College & Hospital, Kadam Kuan, Patna:800003.


Fever (pyrexia) is defined as an elevation of core body temperature above the level normally maintained by the individual. The idea that fever is a method of therapy may be traced back to the early days of written history. “Give me the power to produce fever, and I will cure all disease,” is a quotation attributed to Hippocrates more than 2300 years ago. Hippocrates had ideas as to the significance of fever, and modern concepts as to its possibilities.  Ruphos of Ephesus, 450 years afterwards, said: “If indeed any were so good a physician as to be able to produce fever, it would not be necessary to look for any other remedy in sickness”. In Unani system of medicine several hundred of plants are used as therapeutic remedies. A large number of these medicinal plants unfortunately, have not been investigated with the help of allied science like chemistry and pharmacology. In Unani various plant drugs are used for the treatment of fever; Swertia chirata is one of the important drug of them mentioned as antipyretic in classical Unani text. The present study shows that methanolic extract of Swertia chirata (MESC) in the dose of 800 mg/kg body weight possesses a significant antipyretic effect and reducing the yeast induced elevated body temperature in Albino rats, its effect is compatible to that of standard antipyretic drug paracetamol in the dose of 200 mg/kg body weight.

Keywords: Pyrexia; Fever; Humma; Antipyretic; wertia chirata; Albino Rats. 


Physiopathology and Management of Diabetes Mellitus (Type 2) in Unani System of Medicine

Syed Rashid Ali1, Khalid Zaman Khan2, Md Tanwir Alam3*

1. Officer, Government of Bihar, PHC Pachrukhi, Siwan, Bihar, India.

2.Dept. of Kulliyat, AKTC, AMU, Aligarh, UP, India.

3.Dept. of Community Medicine (TST), Govt. Tibbi College & Hospital, Kadam Kuan, Patna


The term Ziabetus Shakri is being used for Diabetes Mellitus in Unani System of Medicine; considered as metabolic disorder at various levels. The disease is classified as; (1) Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (2) Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. In former type body is absolutely unable to produce insulin while in later type body produce either insufficient insulin or glucose metabolism in the body refracts insulin. Both are metabolic disorder but type 2 has a greater relation with other metabolisms of the body than Type 1. No doubt in the modern era new drugs, better insulin, and superior monitoring techniques have been developed but cost and side effects of these interventions cannot be isolated. This is the reason to have a look on other systems of medicine which are helpful not only in controlling of the disease but also modifying its risk factors and improving quality of life. Unani System of Medicine which is one of the oldest and most popular systems of medicine can deal with this dangerous and life threatening disease in a very systemic and optimal way. In this paper an attempt has been made to explore the physiopathology of the disease and accordingly its management by Unani System, of Medicine.

Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus; Ziabetus Shakri; Regimenal Therapy; Unani System of Medicine; US; Tibb.


Complete description of Khar-E-Khasak (Tribulus terrestris Linn.): a potent medicinal herb for Nephrolithiasis

Md Najibur Rahman1, J.U.Takmili2, Md Tanwir Alam*3, Md Neshat Ahmad4

1.Dept. of Moalejat, Govt. Tibbi College & Hospital Patna, Bihar.

2.Dept. of Moalejat, ZVM Unani Medical College & Hospital, Pune, Maharastra.

3.Dept. of TST(Community Medicine), Govt. Tibbi College & Hospital Patna, Bihar,

4.Dept. of Moalejat, ZVM Unani Medical College & Hospital, Pune, Maharashtra.


Unani system of medicine is well known and famous way of treatment in Indian sub continent. India is the hub and savior of this ancient and rational system of medicine; included as giant part of Indian System of Medicine combined comes under AYUSH. Hundreds of herbal drugs in various forms for range of disease are in use as single as well as in compound form in this system. Khar-e-Khasak (Tribulus terrestris linn.) is a multi action single herbs being prescribed in various forms and combination since ages. Khar-e-Khasak is a drug mentioned in the Unani & Ayurvedic system of medicine for various ailments but mainly as a diuretic, Lithotriptic and Litholytic. In this research article authors try to mention the complete description of the said drug; modern as well as traditional both. Their physical as well as chemical characteristics are also being mentioned so as it may be referred as complete information for future research and readers.

Keywords:  Khar-e-Khasak; Tribulus terrestris linn.; diuretic; Lithotriptic; Litholytic; Unani.