American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
June 2014 Issue 6

A Liquid Chromatography method for the Simultaneous Determination of Safranal and Piperine in Some Marketed Proprietary Chyawanprash Products

Partha Ganguly1*, Amartya Kumar Gupta1, Dipankar Banerjee1, Rahul Singh1, Chandrakant Katiyar1

1.R&D Healthcare Division, Emami Ltd., 13 B.T. Road, Belghoria, Kolkata-700 056.


A rapid and simple HPLC method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of safranal and piperine in some marketed proprietary Chyawanprash products. Analysis was performed using C18 column (250 x 4.6 mm) by isocratic elution with acetonitrile: water (77:23) and detection at 308 nm using Ultra Violet (UV) detector. The calibration plot was linear over the range studied (safranal: 0.5-10 ppm; piperine: 2.5-50 ppm) with a correlation of 0.999 for safranal and 0.999 for piperine. The method was also validated for the linearity, range, precision, recovery and detection limits. Thus, the method is suitable for routine analysis of safranal and piperine in marketed proprietary Chyawanprash products.

Keywords: Safranal, Piperine, HPLC, Chyawanprash


Phytochemical investigations and in vitro evaluation of Mikania micrantha Kunth. ex H.B.K leaf extracts for antimicrobial and antioxidant properties.

Dasgupta Debaprotim1*, Dash Suvakanta1

1.Girijananda Chowdhury Institute of Pharmaceutical Science (GIPS), Azara, Hathkhowapara, Guwahati -781017, State- Assam,


The present investigation evaluates the antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of Mikania micrantha (MM), which is a rich ethnomedicinal plant with wide range of medicinal properties confirmed through literature reviews. The preliminary extraction of the dried leaves with various solvents (Petroleum ether, Dichloromethane (DCM), Ethyl acetate (EA) and n-Butanol (NB)), followed by phytochemical screening, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The antimicrobial susceptibility studies were conducted against gram (-) and gram (+) bacteria. The antioxidant activity was performed through reducing power, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid methods. The antimicrobial activity shows good result for butanolic fraction (zone of inhibition 14-20 mm and MIC 1-6 mg/ml).The antioxidant activity of butanolic extract of M. micrantha (BEMM) shows good profile for total phenolic content (24.78 mg GAE/g MM), absorbance in reducing power method (1.89 nm), percentage inhibition for ferric thiocyanate method (79.97%) and thiobarbituric acid method (74.46%) respectively. The current result supports the medicinal use of the leaf which acts as an antimicrobial and antioxidant agent. The present work has the nobility as no such work has been done with the above plant.

Keywords: Asteraceae, Repuji Buddu, lincomycin, BEMM.


Evaluation of Lead in Crops Grown along the Bank of River Tiga, Kano Nigeria

I.A. Yakasai1*, S.I. Yakubu2, M. Bala1, M. T. Odunola1

1. Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

2. Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Administration, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria


Contamination of vegetables (cabbage, tomatoes, onions and lettuce) with Lead (Pb) through the use of untreated irrigation water at farmlands located in the bank of River Tiga along Zaria-Kaduna road during dry season was determined. Samples of untreated water (as control) were collected from six different locations and vegetable crops were also collected from three different irrigation farms along the bank. The vegetable crop samples were digested using standard methods. Both the samples of water and vegetable were analyzed for Pb using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The levels of Pb found in vegetables were: 2.5, 1.7, 1.8 and 1.8 parts per million (ppm) for cabbage, tomatoes, onions and lettuce respectively. These levels of Pb were within Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) limits in the vegetable crops. Also, concentration of Pb in the water was found higher compared to vegetable crops. Evaluation of transfer factor (TF) of Pb from water to vegetables showed: tomatoes > onions = lettuce > cabbage. Generally, lead has no benefit to human body. Despite the low level of Pb in the samples, vegetable crops grown from these farms may pose health risk to the consumers in a long-term.

Keywords: Lead, Vegetable Crops, Water, Transfer Factor, Tiga


Acute Oral Toxicity Study of Terminalia bellerica Gum Polysaccharide In Swiss Albino Female Mice As Per OECD Guideline 423

Das Biswajit* 1, Dash Suvakanta1, Choudhury Ramesh Chandra2, Chakraborty Jashabir1

1.Girijananda Chowdhury Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Guwahati, Assam.

2.Department of Zoology, Berhampur University, Berahampur, Odisha


Toxicology is the important aspect of pharmacology that deals with the adverse effect of bio active substance on living organisms prior to the use as drug or chemical in clinical use. As per the OECD guidelines, in order to establish the safety and efficiency of a new drug, toxicological studies are very essential in animals like mice, rat, guinea pig, dog, rabbit, monkey etc under various conditions of drug. Toxicological studies help to make decision clinically without its clinical trial as well as toxicity studies. The present study has been under taken to study the adverse or hazardous effects of polysaccharide extract from Terminalia bellerica gum (TBG) and establish the safety over, Swiss albino mice of female sex as per OECD guidelines 423. All the animals were acclimatized to laboratory conditions for one week prior to the experiment and mice were sequentially administered orally the extract of Terminalia bellerica gum (TBG) in dosage of 50, 300, 2000 mg/kg body weight. All the animals were observed for mortality and different signs of toxicity for 14 days. No mortality or any significant changes were observed at 2000 mg/kg body weight.

Keywords-OECD guideline 423, Terminalia bellerica gum, polysaccharide, Swiss albino mice



Degradation of Phenol by Selected Strains of Bacillus Species Isolated from Marine Water

Aysha OS1, Mumtaj. K2

1.Head, PG & Research Department of Microbiology, Mohamed Sathak College of Arts & Science, Sholinganallur, Chennai-600 119

2. PG & Research Department of Microbiology, Mohamed Sathak College of Arts & Science, Sholinganallur, Chennai-600 119


Several external factors can limit the rate of biodegradation of organic compounds. These factors may include temperature, pH, oxygen content and availability, substrate concentration and physical properties of contaminants. Each of these factors should be optimized for the selected organism for the maximum degradation of the organic compound of choice. The optimization of the substrate concentration in phenol biodegradation is particularly important since it inhibits the growth of the organism at higher concentrations. Thus the present study was planned to provide scientific justification for the biodegradation of phenol by Bacillus sp., which were isolated from marine water. Marine water samples were collected and processed for the isolation and identification of phenol degrading bacterium. Based on the morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics the isolates were identified as two different species of Bacillus. Basal minimal medium was prepared and inoculated with these two different species of Bacillus for the study of biodegradation of phenol. Biomass study was carried out to measure the cell growth of Bacillus sp., against phenol. At different time intervals of 24 hrs, 48 hrs, 72 hrs, 96 hrs and 120 hrs the turbidity of the culture was measured and observed for biomass study at 600 nm. After 120 hrs the highest biomass was observed in both strains which were indicated by increased cell growth. Cell free supernatant was collected and degradation of phenol was measured by rapid colorimetric method using 4-amino antipyrine. Optimization of various parameters was carried out to analyse the effect of various temperatures, pH, Nacl concentrations, urea concentrations, phenol concentrations, glucose concentrations on phenol degradation. After the appropriate time period of degradation, the concentration of phenol in the culture medium was measured by the technique of Thin Layer Chromatography using the Rf values of samples compared with Rf values of standard phenol solution. Rf values were found to be 0.8 and 1.0 for SI and SII isolates. Therefore, the result revealed that the Bacillus strains isolated from marine water have the ability to degrade phenol which is one of the hazardous pollutants of environment and these strains could be used as an effective biodegrading agents of phenol which degrade phenol in to non-toxic by-products.

Keywords : Phenol, biomass, degradation, marine, Bacillus, 4-amino antipyrine, minimal medium.


Analytical HPTLC-Densitometry Method for the Development and Validation of Citicoline Sodium and Methylcobalamin in Combined Dosage Form.

Shweta D. Singh*, Falgun A. Mehta1, Killol S. Chokshi2

1.Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Indukaka Ipcowala College of Pharmacy, New Vallabh Vidyanagar, Anand, Gujarat, India


A simple, precise, rapid, selective, and economic high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method has been established for simultaneous analysis of Citicoline Sodium and Methylcobalamin. HPTLC method was developed using on precoated silica gel F254 G60 plates as stationary phase, using methanol: acetonitrile: water: triethylamine (8.5:1.5:1:0.5 v/v/v) as mobile phase. The plates were scanned at approximately 254 nm for both Citicoline sodium and Methylcobalamin respectively. In HPTLC method both the drugs were resolved using proposed mobile phase and Rf value was found to be 0.39 for Citicoline sodium and Rf 0.61 for Methylcobalamin. The method was found to linear in the range 1000-6000 ng/band for citicoline sodium and methylcobalamin respectively. This HPTLC procedure is economic, sensitive, and less time consuming than other chromatographic procedures. It is important tool for analysis of combined dosage form. Proposed method can be successfully applied for the quantitative determination of Citicoline Sodium and Methylcobalamin in Bulk drug and Pharmaceutical dosage form.

Keywords: Citicoline (CITI), Methylcobalamin(MCA), HPTLC, Method Development, Validation.


Development and Validation of UV Visible Spectrophotometric Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Melatonin and Pyridoxine in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

Sangeeta Rathod1*, Ankita Bhavsar1, Bhagirath Patel1

1.Department of Quality Assurance, Sat Kaival College of Pharmacy, Sarsa-388365, Gujarat, India.


A simple, accurate, precise and rapid UV spectrophotometric simultaneous equation method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of Melatonin and Pyridoxine in tablet dosage form. The stock solution was prepared in methanol. 243 and 271nm, an absorbance maxima were selected for Melatonin and Pyridoxine respectively. Beer’s law obeyed the concentration range of 3-9 μg/ ml and 10-30 μg/ml, for Melatonin and Pyridoxine. The results of analysis were validated statistically and by recovery studies. Accuracy and precision are within the limit. The % RSD for the recovery study was less than 2. The developed method was validated as per International conference Harmonization (ICH) guideline for its accuracy, precision, Limit of detection and Limit of quantitation. The proposed method can be effectively applied for the simultaneous estimation of both drugs in tablet dosage form.

Keywords: Melatonin, Pyridoxine, Simultaneous Equation Method Development, Validation


Formulation and Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Buccal Tablets of Pravastatin

Naresh Yadav1, Madhavi K 1, Ravikrishna V1, Vamshi krishna M1*,  Sudheer Kumar D1

1.Department of Pharmaceutics, CARE College of Pharmacy, Warangal, Andhra Pradesh, India.


The present study involves the formulation and evaluation of buccal tablets of Pravastatin, an antihyperlipidemic drug which has high first pass metabolism, So buccal drug delivery has been considered an alternative to the oral dosing for compound subjected to degradation in the gastrointestinal tract or to first pass metabolism. An attempt has been made to developed mucoadhesive buccal tablets comprising of drug containing mucoadhesive layers and drug free backing layer ethyl cellulose of to release the drug for extended period of time with reduction in dosing frequency, dose related side effects and improve bioavailability of drug. Tablets of Pravastatin were prepared by direct compression using mucoadhesive polymers Carbopol 943-P HPMC K4M and Sodium CMC. Buccal tablets were evaluated by different parameters such as thickness, hardness, weight uniformity, content uniformity, swelling index, surface pH,  bioadhesive strength, in vitro drug release, ex vivo drug permeation and FTIR studies. The modified in vitro assembly was used to measure the bioadhesive strength of tablets with fresh goat buccal mucosa as model tissue. In order to determine the mode of release, the data was subjected to Krosmeyer and Peppas diffusion model. All the formulations followed Fickian release mechanism. Tablet containing Carbopol 934P & Na CMC in the ratio of 1:1 had maximum in vitro drug release for 6 hrs.

Keywords: Buccal tablets, Mucoadhesive, Pravastatin


Status of Gorgoniidae (Octocorallia) from the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve, Tamil Nadu, South India

S Geetha1, JS Yogesh Kumar2, and R Sornaraj1

1.Research Department of Zoology, Kamaraj College, Thoothukudi - 628002,Tamil Nadu, India

2.Zoological Survey of India, Andaman and Nicobar Regional Centre, Haddo, Port Blair – 744102, Andaman and Nicobar Island, India.


The Gulf of Mannar, located in the south-east coast of India with an area of 10,500 km2 (8o 47’ - 9o 15’ N and 78o 12’ - 79o 14’ E), is a major fishing zone in the Indian waters. The fisher folk of this area make their livelihood by exploiting finfish’s and shellfishes as well as marine algae and other resources of this area. As resulted in the depletion of these population. Extensive survey for gorgonian was conducted during 2008 in the sub- tidal regions of Vembar and Thoothukudi groups of Islands in the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve using SCUBA. The survey report brings out 14 different species belonging to 5 families from this region, The genera Dichotella,  Ellisella, Acabaria, Melithaea, Menella, Paracis and Annella are the new addition and observed and reported from the Gulf of Mannar Islands.

Keywords: Gorgonians, New addition, Gulf of Mannar, South India.


Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Some New Chalcones of 3-Acetyl-Thiophene

Ch. Prasad1, A. Vasudeva Rao2, Mopidevi Venkateswara Rao3

1 Pharmaceutical Chemistry Division, St. Ann’s College of Pharmacy, Cantonment, Vizianagaram-535003, AP, INDIA

2 Pharmaceutical Chemistry Division, Sri Venkateswara College of Pharmacy, Etcherla, Srikakulam-532 410, AP, INDIA

3 Department of Chemistry, Gitam Institute of Science, Gitam University, Visakhapatnam-530 045, AP, INDIA


Chalcones are commonly found in fruit, vegetables, nuts, seeds, stems and flowers. For centuries, preparations containing these compounds as the principal bioactive constituents have been used to treat human diseases. Increasingly, this class of natural products is becoming the subject of antimicrobial research, and many groups have isolated and identified the structures of chalcones. However, several high-quality investigations have examined the relationship between chalcone structure and antibacterial activity and these are in close agreement. In addition, numerous research groups have sought to elucidate the antibacterial mechanisms of action of selected chalcones. Hence a series of some new chalcones have been synthesized by condensation of 3-acetyl-thiophene with various aromatic aldehydes in 40% alkali. The synthesized compounds were identified by spectral data and screened for antimicrobial activity.  Some of these compounds showed moderate to considerable anti-microbial activity.

Key words: Chalcone, Synthesis, antimicrobial activity.



Bioactivity Behavior of Nano-hydroxyapatite Filled Chitosan / Polyacrylamide Composite

A. M. Abdelghany 1*, M. Meikhail2, S.I. Badr 2, D. A. Agag2.

1.Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Center, ET- 12311, Giza, Egypt

2. Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, ET- 35516, Mansoura, Egypt


Chitosan/Polyacrylamide containing nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) composite were prepared via in situ preparation technique. XRD (x-ray diffraction), (FTIR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, (TEM) transmission electron microscopy, (SEM) scanning electron microscopy and (DSC) differential scanning colorimetery were used to characterize the prepared nano-composites before and after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF).XRD confirm that addition of hydroxyapatite (HA) in the filling level has no effect on the amorphous nature of the base polymeric material with minor change in their crystallinity. FTIR spectra shows maintenance of the basic vibrational band corresponding to chitosan (CHI) and polyacrylamide (PAAm), while the change in the intensity of the peaks at 1092 and 1043 cm-1 indicates interaction between inorganic and organic matrix. Scanning electron micrographs of prepared samples before and after immersion in (SBF) shows a formation of crystalline regions of HA which confirmed by EDX measurements.

Keywords: Chitosan/Polyacrylamide blend; nano-Hydroxyapatite; SBF; FTIR; XRD.


Evaluation of Serum Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Airway Inflammation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

JS. Bhandohal1, R. Tandon1,  HD. Khanna*1

1.Department of Medicine and Department of Biophysics*, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (India)


A study was undertaken to assess both oxidative stress and inflammation in the lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) during mild, chronic, severe and acute exacerbations compared with those with stable COPD, healthy smokers, and non-smokers. Levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) were measured as markers of airway inflammation and TAS levels were measured as a marker of antioxidant status. MDA levels were measured as a marker of oxidative stress status in the serum of COPD patients. Mean serum MDA levels and levels of IL-8 were significantly high in COPD patients and mean serum antioxidant levels were significantly low in patients as compared to non COPD control. It was further observed that the level of MDA and IL8 elevates while that of total antioxidant level falls with the increase in Gold stage and number of smoking pack years amongst the study subjects. Oxidative stress possibly have role in the pathogenesis of COPD and its complications as indicated by the enhanced levels of lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde and IL-8 in patients. The lower levels of the antioxidant enzyme status point towards that altered antioxidant defense system in patients. Antioxidant therapeutic use and IL-8 antagonists may have clinical usefulness in the treatment of COPD and in preventing its complication and recurrent exacerbations which may improve disease outcome.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, Antioxidants, IL8, Gold stage and number of smoking pack years, COPD


Comparative study of Serum Cholesterol and Triglycerides Levels with Cardiovascular Diseases

Saba Ejaz1, M. Javaid Asad1, AsadMehmood Raja1, M. Noor ul Amin1, Hira Shahzad1, Mudassar Zaffar1, Waseem Shehzad1, 2 and Raja Tahir Mahmood

1.Department of Biochemistry, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan

2. Molecular Biology Laboratory, Islamabad Model Postgradaute College, H-8, Islamabad Pakistan


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) generally affects the heart and blood vessels. Elevated serum lipids level is widely accepted as one of the major causes of cardiovascular disease. In current study serum cholesterol level and serum triglyceride level were evaluate in cardiovascular patients. Fifty male and female patients were included in the study and relation between age, gender and disease was also checked. The results showed that males are more prone to cardiovascular diseases (62%) as compared to females (38%). Patients having age between 46-56 years (44%) and between 57-70 years (32%) are more affected than other age groups. Most of the cardiovascular patients have cholesterol level higher than normal level (200mg/dl). Triglyceroids level was also observed higher than normal level (<1890 mg/dl) in most of the patients. These results would be helpful for the management of cardio diseases and to take preventive measurements for their control.

Keywords: Cardiovascular, cholesterol, triglyceride, cardio diseases