American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
April 2014 Issue 4

An Overview of Levamisole Hydrochloride with Immuno-Stimulant Activity

Das Biswajit* 1, Dash Suvakanta1, Choudhury Ramesh Chandra2, Chakraborty Jashabir1

1.Girijananda Chowdhury Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Guwahati, Assam.

2.Department of Zoology, Berhampur University, Berahampur, Odisha


Levamisole, marketed as the hydrochloride salt under the trade name Ergamisol (R12564), is an anti helminthic and imminomodulator belonging to a class of synthetic imidazo-thiazole derivatives. It was discovered in 1966 at  Belgium's  Janssen pharmaceutica, where it was prepared initially in the form of its racemate called tetramisole. The two stereoisomersof tetramisole were subsequently synthesized, and the levorotatory isomer was given the name levamisole. Levamisole has been used in humans to treat parasitic worm infections, and has been studied in combination with other forms of chemotherapy for colon cancer, melanoma and head and neck cancer  In some of the leukemic cell line studies, both levamisole and tetramisole showed similar effect. Effective studies need to be undertaken to study the full potential of levamisole in Immunostimulation activities and immuno synergestic effect of Levamisole with combination to natural polysaccharides.

Keywords-Levamisole, Immunostimulation, polysaccharide, Tetramisole


A Review on Novel Trends in Vaccine Delivery Systems

Paduchuri V. Subramanyam*1, Radha Rani Earle1

1.Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Maharajah’s College of Pharmacy, Vizianagaram, Andhra Pradesh.


Vaccines are the most preferred way to protect human health as they offer protection against a variety of infectious diseases. They play a vital role as they protect not only the individuals but also the entire community. But painful hypodermic needles have limited their usage as they sometimes cause injuries and are relatively unsafe. This has paved way for the scientists to search for alternative means of vaccine delivery. In this article, we summarize some of these novel technologies like use of microneedles, needle-free injections, nasal delivery of vaccines, edible vaccines and melt in mouth strips. These drug delivery techniques have grown significantly in response to above mentioned challenges. All these approaches provide improved safety, better compliance and are non-invasive means of vaccine delivery. Absence of hypodermic needles also significantly reduces the chances of disease transmission. These techniques are used for delivery of vaccines, DNA, proteins, insulin and other macromolecules. The future of vaccine delivery is assured to be significantly influenced by many such promising technologies.

Keywords: Microneedles, needle free injections, edible vaccines, melt in mouth strips


Gastroretentive Drug Delivery System for Floating Tablet- A Review

Nidhi Dhama1*, Raghvendra Sharma1, Pragya Sharma1

1.Department of Pharmaceutics, Aligarh College of Pharmacy, Aligarh, U.P. India (202001)


Over the years, oral dosage forms have become increasingly sophisticated with major role being played by control release drug delivery system. CRDDS release drug at a predetermined rate, as determined by drug’s pharmacokinetics and desired therapeutic concentration. This help in achieving predictable drug plasma concentration required for therapeutic effect. Gastroretentive drug delivery is an approach to prolong gastric residence time, thereby targeting site-specific drug release in the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) for local or systemic effects. Gastroretentive dosage forms can remain in the gastric region for long periods and hence significantly prolong the gastric retention time (GRT) of drugs. Over the last few decades, several gastroretentive drug delivery approaches being designed and developed, including: high density (sinking) systems that is retained in the bottom of the stomach, low density (floating) systems that causes buoyancy in gastric fluid, mucooadhesive systems that causes bioadhesion to stomach mucosa , unfold able, extendible, or swellable systems which limits emptying of the dosage forms through the pyloric sphincter of stomach, superporous hydrogel systems , magnetic systems etc.

Keywords: Gastroretentive, Floating systems, Control release, Site-specific drug release.






Epigenetics and Lung Cancer

Priyanka Gaur1, Chandan Kumar1, Sandeep Bhattacharya*1, Sarika Pandey2, Surya Kant2

1. Department of Physiology King George’s Medical University, U.P., Lucknow

2. Department of Pulmonary Medicine King George’s Medical University, U.P., Lucknow


Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death accounting for 30% of all cancer-related deaths. The majority of lung cancer cases (80–90%) are due to smoking. Tobacco smoke and other environmental pollutants have been recognized as risk factors for more than 80–90% of cancer incidence in men. It has been reported that DNA methylation play important role in lung carcinogenesis . Several biomarkers from various sources such as genetics, proteomics, and epigenetic approaches are in use for clinical research purposes. DNA methylation analysis is one of the valuable source for cancer biomarkers. Since current diagnostic tools are either too costly or not sensitive enough to allow for early detection. Hence there is an urgent need of major technological advances in molecular oncology for the early detection of disease because early detection of lung cancer can change the outcome of disease.  This review summarizes current therapeutic knowledge in lung cancer, and recent advances in therapeutic strategies.

Keywords: lung cancer; epigenetic; epidemiology; methylation



Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva or Stone Man Syndrome is A Rare and Serious Disease (Mysterious Disease) - A Review

Raghvendra Sharma1*, Nidhi Dhama1, Pragya Sharma1, Priyanka Sharma2, Manju Chauhan2, Ashish Shrivastava2

1.Department of Pharmaceutics, Aligarh College of Pharmacy, Aligarh, (202001) U.P. India

2.Student, B Pharma, Aligarh College of Pharmacy, Aligarh, (202001) U.P. India


Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is a rare and serious genetic disease that could have harmful and deadly results. A mutation of the body's repair mechanism causes fibrous tissue (including muscle, tendon and ligamnet) to be ossified  spontaneously or when damaged. A rare idiopathic or autosomal dominant MIM 135100 condition of irregular penetration and pre-pubertal onset, in which connective/interstitial tissues undergo extensive fibrosis and heterotopic ossification of ligaments, tendons, muscle, fascia, aponeuroses and skin, first seen in late childhood as firm masses. The abnormal development of bone may lead to stiffness in affected areas and may also limit movement in affected joints, e.g., knees, wrists, shoulders, spine, and/or neck. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a disorder in which muscle tissue and connective tissue such as tendons and ligaments are gradually replaced by bone (ossified), forming bone outside the skeleton (extra-skeletal or heterotopic bone) that constrains movement. This process generally becomes noticeable in early childhood, starting with the neck and shoulders and proceeding down the body and into the limbs.

Keywords: Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, Fibrous tissue, Autosomal dominant,Mutation 


Role of Oxidative Stress in Hepatic and Renal Damage in Wistar rats treated with Fake Paracetamol Syrup.

Ayobola A Iyanda

Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo, Nigeria


Hepatic and renal tissues are vital to the survival of a mammalian species. Being organs responsible for the metabolic processing and excretion of xenobiotics, they are mostly affected by the devastating effects of a foreign agent. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible harmful effects of bonadabe paracetamol syrup on the hepatic and renal functions of female Wistar rats. Rats (200 g) used for the study were divided into 3 groups of 7 rats each. Groups 1, 2, 3 were administered with fake bonadabe paracetamol syrup, genuine drug and distilled water respectively.  Serum activities of ALT, AST, γ-GT, ALP and levels of total protein, albumin, bilirubin, globulin, urea, creatinine and uric acid; markers of hepatic and renal functions were determined in serum samples. In addition, activities/levels of markers of oxidative stress were determined; namely glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and MDA, as well as reduced and oxidized glutathione. Histologic examinations of hepatic and renal tissues were carried out using hematoxylin-eosin staining technique. Results of the study showed gross hepato-renal damage; biochemistry results were significantly different at p ≤ 0.05, when data were subjected to analysis of variance. Moreover, markers of oxidative stress were significantly different. Histology results also confirmed tissue damage.  The concurrent increase in markers of hepatic and renal damage and decrease in the levels of antioxidant suggest that hepato-renal damage featured by the fake drug administered rats may be oxidative-stress mediated.

Keywords: fake paracetamol syrup; kidney; liver, antioxidant status. 


Altered Serum Micronutrient Levels in Wistar Rats Fed Cooked Phosphide-Residue Powder Contaminated Cowpea

Ayobola A Iyanda

Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo, Nigeria


Micronutrients, known for their important physiologic roles in maintenance of health, have been identified to be significantly affected in rats exposed to phosphide residue contaminated cowpea.  Processing of such cowpea was carried out prior to their exposure to rats, so as to identify if cooking will modify the micronutrient depletion-characteristic property of such residue. Eighteen female Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups of 6 rats each.  While the first group served as the control, the second and third groups were supplied cooked phosphide-residue contaminated and uncontaminated cowpea respectively. Blood obtained through retro-orbital bleeding was used for the estimation of Mg, Zn, Cu, Se, Mn, Fe, Co, Mo, and Cr as well as vitamins (folic acid, vitamins A, C, D, E, niacin, riboflavin). Results revealed non-significant differences (p>0.05) in the levels of all vitamins and minerals for the uncontaminated and contaminated groups except Zn, Cu and vitamin D that were significantly reduced (p<0.05) compared with control. These results therefore may be an indication that by processing phosphide-residue contaminated cowpea, its ability to alter serum micronutrient levels may be slightly reduced.

Keywords: micronutrients, phosphide residue, cowpea.


Assessment of Anti- Inflammatory Activity of Punica granatum L. Ethanol Extracts and Synthetic Ellagic Acid in Swiss Albino Mice.

B Satheesh Kumar Bhandary1*, KP Sharmila2, N Suchetha Kumari 3, Vadisha S Bhat1

*1. Department of ENT, 2.Nitte University Centre for Science Education and Research,

3. Department of Biochemistry, K.S. Hegde Medical Academy, Nitte University, Mangalore, Karnataka.


The inflammation is a complex process, which is frequently associated with pain and involves several events. Anti-inflammatory compounds can act on many steps of pathophysiological process by blocking the biosynthesis of proinflammatory mediators; by direct interaction with a key enzyme or by decreasing enzyme expression. The pomegranate, (Punica granatum L.)  has been used extensively in the folk medicine for a number of therapeutic purposes. In the present investigation antiinflammatory activity of pomegranate whole fruit (EPWF) and seeds (EPS) ethanol extracts and synthetic ellagic acid(EA) was evaluated in swiss albino mice using ethylphenylpropiolate and carrageenan induced edema models. EA and EPWF exhibited inhibitory effect (P<0.05) on the ear edema formation induced by ethylphenylpropiolate but the EPS treated group did not exhibit significant changes. EA and EPWF exhibited inhibitory effect (P<0.05) on the paw edema formation induced by carrageenan but the EPS treated group did not exhibit significant changes. Also EA and EPWF treated groups significantly reduced the COX activity similar to Indomethacin (P<0.05) when compared to inflammogen, carrageenan, where the enzyme activity was increased. Whereas the EPS treated group did not exhibit significant result (P>0.05) when compared to carrageenan treated groups. The findings of our study demonstrated that EA and EPWF has potential anti-inflammatory effects for the resolution of inflammation.

Keywords: Punica granatum, Ellagic acid, anti-inflammatory, carrageenan, ethylphenyl propiolate


Evaluation of Serum Micronutrient Concentrations in Kerosene-exposed Female Wistar rats- a sub-chronic study.

Ayobola A Iyanda*

Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo, Nigeria.


Kerosene is used extensively in the developing world as fuel and indiscriminate exposure is common. The aim of this study is to determine how early in the course of exposure to small quantities of kerosene antioxidant micronutrient alterations occur. Thirty female rats were divided into five groups. Rats in groups 1 & 2 were treated with 0.3 ml/kg body weight of kerosene via oral or dermal route respectively; groups 3 and 4 received the same treatment. Group five served as the control. While groups 1 & 2 study was terminated after 1 week, exposure was for 3 weeks for groups 3 and 4. Irrespective of the route of administration, after 1 and 3 weeks kerosene exposure only zinc, copper, selenium and manganese were significantly decreased compared with control.  In addition, of all the vitamins only niacin, riboflavin, thiamine and vitamin D were significantly decreased at the end of 1 week; although all vitamins were significantly decreased by the end of the third week. The toxic effects of kerosene were demonstrated through the results of this study, with antioxidant vitamins and minerals being depleted by the first week and the depletion persisting till the third week.  


Keywords: kerosene; micronutrients; sub-chronic study.


Ethanol extract of Ricinus Communis increased Reproductive Hormones in Female Albino rats

Agbai Emmanuel Onuka1, Prof. Nwafor Arthur2

1. Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Madonna University, PMB 48 Elele, Rivers State, Nigeria.

2. Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, PMB 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.


The effect of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg of ethanol extract of ricinus communis extract on reproductive hormone: estrogen, progesterone, LH and FSH was investigated using virgin female albino wistar rats. The results showed that at lower doses ricinus communis extract caused a decrease in estrogen, progesterone and LH levels at P < 0.05, but at high dose of 500mg/kg it caused an increase in estrogen, progesterone levels at P < 0.05. The extract did not have significant effect on FSH at P > 0.05.  Data suggested that the extract increased the hormones in a dose-dependent fashion.    

Keywords. Ricinus communis. progesterone. estrogen. luteinizing hormone. follicle stimulating hormone.





The Prevalence of Arterial Hypertension and associated factors in the Senegalese population in Dakar

P.G.Sow¹-²*, O. Ka2,M.Coume3, A.B.Tall 2, A.A. Ndiaye2,

1.Social institute of Health and hygiene of Dakar

2.University of Bambey

3.University of  Dakar


Arterial Hypertension (AH) is considered as a public health problem due to its high prevalence and difficult control and it’s also described as one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of AH, as well as characteristics related to the presence of its inherited aspect among individuals aging between 24 and 70 years from the urban region of Dakar. Transversal study from January 2010 to January 2011, population-based study, of 620 participants with random sampling. For classification of AH, criteria included blood pressure (BP) ≥ 140/90 mmHg or current use of antihypertensive drugs. Individuals were interviewed with standardized questionnaires previously tested. Arterial Hypertension has a prevalence of 51.6 % in this sample of Senegalese population in Dakar, which is composed of 620 individuals. Among hypertensive individuals (n= 320), mean age was 50.6 years, 73.33% was female hypertensive, 31.25% male hypertensive and  62.5% with a family history of Arterial Hypertension, among them : 46% with a maternal family history (FH), 31% with a fraternal FH, 20% with a paternal FH and 4% with a dead fraternal FH, 41% had a family history of cardiovascular disease where those with a stroke family history : 36.58% had a maternal FH, 12.19% with a paternal FH and 7.31% with a fraternal FH, 13.41% with a dead fraternal FH. This study showed that AH represents an important public health problem with its high prevalence within this population.

Keywords: Arterial Hypertension, epidemiology, prevalence, family history.


Protective Effects of Ginger and Silymarin on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

Mohamed Hassan Abdelsattar1*, Yasser M. Hassan2

1.Department of Physiology1 and Department of Biochemistry2, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt


There is a close link between hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and diabetic complication. This study was carried out to clarify the effect of ginger and silymarin, as beneficial in the treatment of diabetes. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study divided into four groups of ten rats each: group 1 represent normal control group, group 2 diabetic groups induced by alloxan, group 3 was diabetic and received daily  ginger, group 4 was diabetic and received daily silymarin. Alloxan-induced diabetic rats, showed a significant increase of plasma glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL–cholesterol, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide and uric acid while HDL–cholesterol and insulin levels are significantly decreased. Glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly decreased in homogenates of liver and kidney, while malondialdehyde levels were increased in tissue homogenates of liver and kidney. Plasma levels of glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL–cholesterol and uric acid were decreased significantly after treatment with silymarin or ginger, while HDL–cholesterol and insulin were increased. Nitric oxide levels were decreased significantly in rats treated with silymarin only. In liver homogenates of rats treated with silymarin or ginger, malondialdehyde were decreased significantly, and catalase increased significantly, while superoxide dismutase activities and glutathione peroxidase were increased significantly in liver and kidney after silymarin or ginger treatment. The effects of both agents may be useful in delaying the complicated effects of diabetes due to imbalance between free radicals Moreover; silymarin may be more powerful free radical scavenger than ginger.

Keywords: Alloxan, Ginger, Silymarin, Antioxidants, Lipid profile, Diabetes


Development and Validation of HPTLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Atorvastatin Calcium and Aspirin In Bulk and Dosage Form

Bhavna Amarishkumar Patel 1*, Anandkumari Dipakkumar Captain2

1.P.G. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Anand, Gujarat, India.

2.A.R and G.H. Patel Institute of Pharmacy, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Anand, Gujarat, India


A simple, accurate, and precise HPTLC method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Atorvastatin Calcium (ATO) and Aspirin (ASP) from bulk drug and Dosage form. The method employed TLC aluminum plates precoated with silica gel 60 GF 254 as the stationary phase. The solvent system comprised Toluene: Ethyl Acetate: Methanol: Acetic acid [7:2:1.5:0.1v/v/v/v]. This system was found to give good result for both the drugs (Rf value: of ASP 0.43cm and ATO 0.53cm). Spectrodensitometric scanning-integration was performed at a wavelength of 235nm.The calibration curve was found to be linear within the concentration range of 20ng/spot to 100ng/spot for ATO and 30 to 150ng/spot for ASP. The regression data for calibration curve shows good linear relationship with r2 = 0.9989 and 0.9990 for ATO and ASP respectively. The method was validated in accordance with the requirements of ICH guidelines. The method was successfully applied for determination of drug in bulk and Dosage form. Thus, the proposed method can be used successfully for routine analysis of ATO and ASP from bulk and dosage form.

Keyword:  Validation, HPTLC, Atorvastatin Calcium and Aspirin


Optimization of the medium constituents for maximizing antibiotic production by marine actinomycete exhibiting promising antibacterial activity.

Somi Tirupatirao 1*, B R Challa2, R. Narasimha Naik3, K. Gouri Sankar4, S.Kannan1

1.Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Vagdevi College of Pharmacy, Gurazala, Guntur Dt., Andhra Pradesh, India-522415.

2. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Vagdevi College of Pharmacy

3. Department of Pharmacology, Vagdevi College of Pharmacy

4. Department of Pharmacognosy, Vagdevi College of Pharmacy


In order to improve the productivity of activities substance of actinomycetes SLB-8, the effects of the medium components, fermentation time, and initial PH on the biological activity of SLB-8 were investigated by detecting the mycelium growth inhibition rate of SLB-8. The results show that the inhibition rate is the highest under the optimum medium composition (g/L) containing sucrose 15.0, Malt extract 10.0, K2HPO4 0.5, MgSO4 0.5, NaCl 0.5 and FeSO4 0.01 Caco3 0.5. KNO3 1.0, Distilled water 1.0L The maximum antibiotic activity is obtained at the inoculation volume 10%, medium volume in 250 ml flask 50 ml, rotary speed of 180 r/min, fermentation time 4 days, temperature 28°C and initial pH 8.0. The inhibition rate has been increased by 6.71% under the optimized condition.

Keywords: actinomycetes, fermentation, optimization.


Formulation and Evaluation of Sustained Release Matrix Tablet of Isonizaid by Direct Compression Technique

B.S.Shibu1*, S. Suresh1, C.Saravanan2, M.Purushothaman2

1 PGP College of Pharmaceutical Science and Research Institute, Namakkal-637207, Tamilnadu, India

2 Aadhi Bhagawan College of Pharmacy, Rantham, Cheyyar-604407, Tamilnadu, India


The objective of the present work was to develop modified release tablets of Isoniazid by using HPMC as a release-controlling agent. The different-viscosity grades of HPMC were used to prepare the matrix tablets. The tablets were prepared by direct compression. The prepared tablets were subjected to physical characterization and in vitro drug release studies. The in vitro drug release was carried out by using USP apparatus I in 900 ml of acidic dissolution medium (pH 1.2) for 2 h, followed by 900 ml alkaline dissolution medium (pH 6.8) at 50 rpm. The polymer type did not affect the flow of powder blend and crushing strength of Isoniazid tablets. The drug release rate was strongly influenced by the type of polymer and the concentration of polymer. Different proportion of HPMC was associated with decrease in the overall cumulative drug release rate. The initial burst release of Isoniazid was decreased by higher viscosity grade polymer. Thus, we conclude that from among all the developed formulations, F1 formulation sustained the drug release for longer period of time over 12 h when compared to other formulations. So, F1 was selected as best formulation and fulfills all the requirements for sustained release.

Keywords: Direct compression, Isoniazid, Hydroxyl propylmethyl cellulose, In-vitro release studies.


Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Bergenia Ligulata

Monika1*, Parvinder Kour1

1.Department of Biotechnology, Mata Gujri College, Fatehgarh Sahib-140406, Punjab, India


The rhizome of Bergenia ligulata, belonging to the family Saxifragaceae was screened for its antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Salmonella typhii using agar well diffusion method. Methanol extract exhibited larger inhibition zone 21mm against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae as compared to Salmonella typhii and Escherichia coli. Ethanol extract showed larger inhibition zone against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhii. Acetone extract showed larger inhibition of 24mm zone against Escherichia coli as compared to Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhii and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Water extract showed largest inhibition zone of 25mm against Staphyloccus aureus as compared to Salmonella typhii, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The presence of phytochemicals like Saponins, Flavonoids, Phenols, Tannins, Quinones, Carbohydrates, steroids and alkaloids supports its use as medicinal plant for the treatment of various ailments.

Keywords: Berginia ligulata, antimicrobial activity, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Salmonella typhii


Synthesis of Some Novel Pyrazolo [3, 4-e] [1, 2, 4] Triazines As Potential Antimicrobial Agents

Bhavna N. Amin1*, Arun R. Parikh1, Hansa Parikh1, Vijayalakshmi Gudaparthi1

1.Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, L.J. Institute of Pharmacy, Ahmedabad-382210, Gujarat, India


Triazine backbone is present in a large number of bioactive substances and is known for their pharmacological activities like antimicrobial, antitumour and antiviral activity. Pyrazoles are another class of heterocyclic compounds associated with significant biological activities like anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant and antimicrobial activity. In this view, it was proposed to synthesize some novel pyrazolo[3,4-e][1,2,4]triazines from 3,7-dimethyl pyrazolo[4,3-e] oxadiazine. In the current investigation, ethyl acetoacetate was condensed with hydrazine hydrate in ethanol to give 3-methylpyrazol-5-one. The pyrazole derivative was brominated by using bromine in acetic acid as brominating agent to give 4, 4- dibromo-3-methylpyrazol-5-one. This compound was then cyclized with acetic anhydride and hydrazine hydrate to get 3, 7-dimethyl pyrazolo[4,3-e]oxadiazine. This compound on further reaction with different substituted amines generates 4-(aryl/heteroaryl)-3,7-dimethyl-pyrazolo [3,4-e][1,2,4]triazines. The synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activity against S. aureus strain of Gram positive, E. coli the strain of Gram negative and A. niger strain of fungus by standard methods. The results suggest that the compounds 4a and 4c exhibited significant antifungal activity. Gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime and amphotericine B were used as standard drugs. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed using analytical and spectral techniques (IR, 1H NMR and Mass spectral data). 

Keywords: 3-methylpyrazol-5-one, 3,7-dimethylpyrazolo[4,3-e] oxadiazine, pyrazolo [3,4-e] [1,2,4]triazine, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity.


Phytochemical Investigation and Pharmacological Screening of Mimusops elengi Linn. bark for its in-vitro anti arthritic and wound healing activity

Mohana. M. Nair1*, Neethu Mohan1, Emy Mariam Jacob1, Nithin Alex Raju1, Saru George1, Jiju. V1

1.Nazareth College of Pharmacy, Othera P. O, Thiruvalla, Kerala 689546, India


Mimusops elengi is the most traditionally used medicinal plant that belongs to family Sapotaceae, commonly known as Spanish cherry is native to the Western Ghat region of the peninsular India. By looking the high traditional use of the plant , the present investigation was undertaken which deals with pharmacognostic (moisture content, ash value, extractive value) and phytochemical screening of Mimusops elengi bark .The main aim of this study was to evaluate the invitro anti- arthritic (Protein denaturation and Heat induced haemolysis) and wound healing (Chick chorioallantoic membrane model) activity for methanolic extract of bark. The maximum membrane stabilization of methanolic extract of M. elengi L bark was found to be 80.31% at a dose of 250mcg/ ml and that of inhibition of protein denaturation was found to be 82.37% at a dose of 250mcg/ml with regards to standard (Diclofenac sodium) in the anti-arthritic activity. The alcoholic extract was also capable of promoting angiogenesis in chick eggs which is an indication of its wound healing activity. From the results it can be concluded that M. elengi extract shows good in vitro anti-arthritic and wound healing activities.

Keywords: Mimusops elengi, Pharmacognostic study, Phytochemical screening, Phytochemistry, Anti-arthritic, Wound healing.


Drug Resistance Pattern of Vibrio Cholerae Isolated from Acute Diarroheal Disease Outbreak

Shilpa A1*, Sathya Anandam1, Anuradha K1, Venkatesha D1

1.Department of Microbiology, Mysore Medical College and Research Institute, Mysore


Vibrio cholerae has been recognised as one of the common causes of bacterial diarrhoea throughout developing world. Cholera is a self-limiting illness. However it is changing epidemiologically. In recent cholera outbreaks from various places, severity of the disease appears to be intensifying and have run a more protracted course. Multiple antibiotic resistant strains of V. cholerae have emerged. The emergence of these has added a new dimension to the variability in pathogenicity and potential virulence in precipitating diarrhoeal illness. To isolate and identify Vibrio cholerae from stool specimens and to know their antibiotic susceptibility pattern. Faecal specimens collected from 240 patients with acute diarrhoeal disease were subjected to culture & sensitivity as per standard protocol. Vibrio cholerae was isolated from 72/240 (30%) stool samples. All isolates belonged to biotype El Tor. Serotype Ogawa was seen in 66(91.67%) and Hikojima 6(8.33%). Resistance pattern of Ogawa was nalidixic acid (100%), co-trimoxazole(97%), Ampicillin(79%), tetracycline(29%), ciprofloxacin(25%), gentamycin(18%). Resistant pattern of Hikojima was nalidixic acid (100%), co-trimoxazole(100%), Ampicillin & ciprofloxacin(67%), gentamycin(33%), tetracycline(16%). All isolates were sensitive to Amikacin. Tetracycline is still an effective drug. Hikojima serotype was more resistant than Ogawa so susceptibility pattern for vibrio is essential to avoid emergence of resistant strains by empirical treatment.

Keywords: Vibrio cholerae, drug resistance, ogawa, hikojima


Validated Spectrophotometric Methods for Quantitative Determination of Gatifloxacin and Ketorolac Tromethamine in Bulk and Marketed Formulation

Ashish N. Phuge1*, Deepak P. Belsare1, Ramnath Y. Lahare2, Tushar B. Ingale3

1.Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, NDMVP Samaj’s College of Pharmacy, Nashik, Maharashtra, India

2.Department of Quality Assurance Techniques, NDMVP Samaj’s College of Pharmacy, Nashik, Maharashtra, India

3.Department of Pharmaceutics, Government College of Pharmacy, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India


Three simple, accurate and precise UV- Spectrophotometric methods has been developed and validated for quantitative determination of Gatifloxacin (GTX) and Ketorolac Tromethamine (KTA) in bulk and marketed formulation. First method is based on simultaneous equations and the wavelengths selected for analysis were 292 nm (λmax of Gatifloxacin) and 319 nm (λmax of Ketorolac tromethamine). Second method is based on the ratio of absorbances at two selected wavelengths, one at isoabsorptive point and the other being λ max of one of two components. Third method is based on area under curve and the wavelengths ranges selected for analysis were 290-294 nm for Gatifloxacin and 317-321 nm for Ketorolac tromethamine. Linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 2-12 μg / ml for both drugs. The results of analysis have been validated statistically and by recovery studies. The utility of the developed methods has been demonstrated by analysis of commercial formulation containing these drugs.

Keywords: Gatifloxacin, Ketorolac tromethamine, simultaneous equation method, absorbance ratio method, area under curve method.


Investigating the Epidemiology and Prevalence of Helminths in Livestock Health in Niger Delta Region: Implications for Human Health

Onyeachonam FCO1, Aburoma  HLS2, Okuduwor  AA3.

1.Lecturer/Consultant Veterinary Physiologist; Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria.

2.Lecturer/Consultant Public Health/Clinical Epidemiologist, Clinical Research Analyst, Faculty of Clinical Sciences University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

3.Agricultural Economist, PhD Candidate Agric-Economy. Pending, Federal University of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.


Gastrointestinal helminths represent important human and animal pathogen impacting on farming systems, they are a major cause of ill-thrift and production loss in the specter of livestock species and humanity. Morbidity and mortality rate of helminth infection in these areas are unquantifiable due to inadequate/inaccurate data, especially in the fast growing Niger Delta regions of Nigeria. There is a dearth of studies using a specific diagnostic test and covering wider geographical areas and different management systems. This article aims to investigate the epidemiology, prevalence, and burden of helminthes in livestock and its implication on human, using anthelmintics and other means of parasite control. Fecal samples of 4050 cattle were obtained for coprological examination from nine Niger Delta Regions from cattle rearing ranches and pens where cattle are kept before slaughter were investigated, from May 2013 to March 2014. Respective genera of Fasciola (17.01%), Paramphistomum (15.06%), Strongyle (13.01%), Monezia (2.48%), Toxocara (1.03%) and Trichuris (0. 91%) were identified.  Males had relatively higher helminth infection than females with mixed infection prevalence. Finding suggests that cattle in the Niger Delta Region may be subclinical carriers of helminthes. Public enlightenment of the farmers about the disease, and appropriate national control measures are recommended.

Keywords:  Helminthes; Parasitic Infection; Incidence; Cattle; Niger-Delta. 


Hydroalcoholic Extract of Plumbago Zeylanica Linn root bark exhibit Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory activities in Experimental Rat models

Thanigavelan V1*, Kaliyamurthi Venkatachalam1, Lakshmanakumar Venkatachalam1, Sasikala Natarajan2, Pitchiah Kumar Murugan3, Justus Antony Savarimuthu4

1. Sairam Advanced Centre for Research, Sri Sairam Siddha Medical College and Research Centre, West Tambaram, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

2. Siddha Physician, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.

3. Government Siddha Medical College, Arumbakkam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

4. Government Siddha Medical College, Palayamkottai, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India.


The root bark of Plumbago zeylanica Linn has potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity which has been used in many formulations of Indian system of medicine in treating Cancer. Since less information is available on the effects of hydro alcoholic extract of Plumbago zeylanica on inflammation and nociception, the present study was designed. To study the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of the hydro alcoholic extract of root bark of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. Soxhlet extraction of root bark powder done using 85% Methanol and Water 15% to obtain test drug. Analgesic effect was studied using hot plate and tail immersion analgesia in rat. Anti-inflammatory activity was investigated through in vitro Human Red Blood Cell Membrane protective activity and, Carrageenan induced rat paw edema and Complete Freund’s Adjuvant induced chronic inflammatory model in rat. Analgesic activity of the extract was studied by hot plate and tail immersion method revealed significant activity at 350 mg/kg b.wt dosage on comparing with weak analgesic standard drug Paracetamol. Studies of extract on both acute and chronic model of inflammation induced by Carrageenan and Complete Freund’s Adjuvant in rat showed moderate anti -inflammatory action at primary phase of inflammation at the dosage of 250 mg/kg b.wt comparable with standard Indomethacin.

Keywords: Plumbago zeylanica Linn, Hydroalcoholic extract, Analgesic, Anti-inflammation, Carrageenan, Complete Freund’s Adjuvant