American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
July 2015 Issue 7

A Review on Drug Design

Nilesh Y. Jadhav1*, S.M. Hipparagi2, M.Bhagavan Raju3, Manoj B. Kothule4, Sagar D. Kadam4, Anagha S. Avalakki5

1. Research Scholar, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University   Hyderabad, HSBPVT’s GOI College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Kashti, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India 414701.

2. KLE University’s College of Pharmacy, Rajajinagar, Bangalore, Karnataka, India 560010.

3. Gland Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shivampeth, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India-502313.

4. HSBPVT’s GOI College of Pharmacy, Kashti, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India 414701.

5. PES Modern College of Pharmacy (For Ladies), Moshi, Pune, Maharashtra, India 412105.


‘Human life is more precious than any other thing’ so to take care of it there is ultimate requirement of better drug treatment, hence there is the birth of drug design & new invention in drug development takes place in the pharmaceuticals. In present scenario the drug demand in the pharmaceutical market is increasing day by day, hence various methods of drug design are being developed to create a new drug with less cost, less efforts, less time and maximum efficiency. There is a observation that, various methods and approaches are use to design a drug, like Molecular modeling, Quantitative structure activity relationship, Combinatorial chemistry, Structure based drug designing, Computational chemistry, In silico drug designing, Synthone approach.  But in the above mentioned methods all are not used routinely. The most convenient methods to be used according to my study and observations are Molecular modeling and computational chemistry. In this method we can save the time by structure activity relationship or mechanism of action of a compound without performing experimental work, but by changing the molecular structure or by use of different computer software. Hence these methods are time saving, economic to gives better results.

Keywords: Drug design, Molecular modeling, Computational, chemistry, Synthone approach.


The Significance and Importance of Trace Elements in the Functioning of Thyroid Gland

RevathyKuppusamy1, DhananjayanRangan2, Swaminathan Selvanayagam3*

1. Junior Technical Officer, Department of Biochemistry, Apollo Speciality Hospitals, Ayanambakkam, Chennai 600 095.

2. Consultant, Department of Biochemistry, Apollo Specialty Hospitals, Ayanambakkam, Chennai 600 095.

3. Senior Consultant and Head, Department of Biochemistry, Apollo Speciality Hospitals, Ayanambakkam, Chennai 600 095


Trace elements are essential for health, growth and functioning of a number of components of the immune system. They are very important for a number of enzymes and proteins which are involved in many physiological and biochemical processes related to growth, production and reproduction. There are many trace elements which are associated with thyroid function, among which Iodine is very important  as it is the source for thyroid hormones synthesis . Selenium-containing enzymes protect the thyroid gland from oxidative stress and the selenium-based proteins help to regulate hormone synthesis, converting T4 into the more accessible and active T3. These proteins and enzymes help to regulate metabolism and maintain the right amount of thyroid hormones in the organs where it is being used. Similarly trace elements like zinc, iron and copper are vital for thyroid function. In this review, we have summarized all information available on the role of trace elements for the functioning of Thyroid gland. Some trace elements showed increased concentration in malignant and benign thyroid nodules and therefore, those trace elements can also be used as markers of thyroid cancers.

Keywords: Iodine, Selenium, Zinc, Iron, Copper, Thyroid hormones.


Influence of Flower Supplemented Meals on Growth and Pigmentation of the Fish, Oreochromis mossambicus

J Felicitta*1, R Sornaraj1

1. Research Department of Zoology and biotechnology, Kamaraj College, Tuticorin-628003, Tamil Nadu, India.


The effect of Marigold flower meal and Hibiscus flower meal on growth and Coloration of Oreochromis mossambicus was investigated. Different Concentrations of Marigold flower powder and Hibiscus rosa sinensis flower powder (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%) were added to basal diet and given to O. mossambicus and its impact on growth and colouration was estimated. Ten treatment groups in triplicate and a separate control for each group were maintained. After 28 days, fish consumed the diets supplemented with flower powders showed a significant (p<0.05) growth performance and coloration than those fed with the control diet. The highest weight gain (4.85±0.02) best FCR, SGR, Survival and total carotenoids were recorded in (25%) in both the flowers studied. The observed better weight gain, FCR and SGR were 4.85g, 1.19 and 2.22% respectively in Marigold flower diet and 4.83g, 1.22 and2.327% respectively in Hibiscus diet. The highest total carotenoids in fin, skin and muscle were 0.424mg/100mg, 0.394mg/100mg and 0.350mg/100mg respectively in 25% Marigold incorporated diet and 0.372mg/100mg, 0.351mg/100mg and 0.331mg/100mg respectively in 25% Hibiscus incorporated diet. Among the two flowers studied, 25% Marigold flower powder incorporated diet induced the growth and colouration in O. mossambicus to a greater extent.

Keywords: Marigold, Hibiscus, Growth, Total Carotenoid, Oreochromis mossambicus.


Effect of Erythropoietin with and without Iron Supplementation (Iv/Oral) in Anaemia with Chronic Kidney Damage Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis

Swarna Latha Surakala1*, Uma Sankar Viriti1, Arun Satyadev Sidhanadham2, Madhavi Vanagala1

1. Avanthi institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Bhaogapuram, Vizianagaram, Andhra Pradesh, India

2. AU College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India.


Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Chronic Renal Failure (CRF) is a progressive, long standing and irreversible impairment of renal functions for more than 3 months. Chronic kidney disease may also be identified when it leads to one of its recognized complications cardiovascular diseases, anemia, and pericarditis the most common causes of CKD are diabetes-mellitus, hypertension, and glomerulonephritis. Diagnosis of Chronic kidney disease involves urine, blood, and imaging tests (X-rays). In the present study, comparison between the hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients in terms of the proportion of patients receiving erythropoietin in regular, irregular and no usage of erythropoietin doses, and hemoglobin levels after initiation of erythropoietin was seen. It was found that mean level of occurrence of CKD is more in male compared to female. The severity of CKD was mainly observed due to the reasons like hypertension, diabetes mellitus and improper usage of medication. Among all these diseased states hypertension may be the main factor which progresses the CKD due to decreased secretions of renin, which reduced the function of kidney and synthesis of erythropoietin which results in anemia.

Keywords: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), Erythropoietin, Hemoglobin, Anemia.


Preparation and Evaluation of Clotrimazole Loaded Nanosponges Containing Vaginal Gels

P. Suresh Kumar1*, N.Hematheerthani1J.VijayaRatna2, V.Saikishore3

1. Nova College of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Hyderabad.

2. College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Andhra University, Vizag.

3. Bapatla college of Pharmacy, Bapatla.


The rationale of the present work is to design a vaginal gel formulation with mucoadhesive properties to ensure longer residence at the infection site, providing a favourable release profile for the antifungal drug clotrimazole with the help of β-cyclodextrin nanosponges. Hence efforts were made to prepare clotrimazole loaded nanosponges containing vaginal gels using polymers like hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (NaCMC), methyl cellulose (MC) and carbopol. The gel formulations were prepared with a view to improve permeability of drug. The prepared gel were evaluated for pH, Viscosity, Spreadability, Extrudability, Mucoadhesive time and In vitro diffusion study. The gel formulations can be graded in the following order with respect to the rates of diffusion of drug from them: (HPMC) < (MC) <(NaCMC < (Carbopol). The correlation coefficient values (r) revealed that the diffusion profiles follows zero order kinetics and the mechanism of drug release was governed by peppas model. The diffusion exponent of release profiles (slope) has a value of (n>0.5), which indicates non fickian diffusion. It was found that the clotrimazole loaded nano sponges containing gels prepared with HPMC showed good extrudability, homogeneity, spreadability and required diffusion rate in comparison with other formulations and was selected as suitable candidate to be delivered through vaginal route at controlled rate.

Keywords: Clotrimazole, β-cyclodextrin, nanosponges, diffusion rate.


A New RP-HPLC Method for the Assay of Chlorthalidone and Olmesartan in Combined Dosage Forms

Chandrabatla Varaprasad, K. Ramakrishna*

Dept. of Chemistry, Institute of Science, Gitam University, Visakhapatnam.


A sensitive and reproducible RP-HPLC method was described for the quantitative determination of chlorthalidone and olmesartan in combined dosage form. This method was based on high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation of chlorthalidone and olmesartan with the use of a reversed phase HPLC column [Hypersil BDS, C18, 100 x 4.6 mm, 5m] at mobile phase consisting of phosphate buffer (pH-3.3) and acetonitrile in the ratio of 55:45 v/v ambient temperature. The flow rate of the mobile phase was adjusted to 1.0mL/min and the injection volume was 10μL. Detection was performed by photodiode array detector at a wavelength of 210nm and the chromatographic runtime was 6 minutes for the analysis. The reliability and analytical performance of the proposed method, including linearity, range, precision, accuracy, detection and quantitation limits, were statistically validated. The proposed method can be useful in the quality control of combination drug products

Keywords: Chlorthalidone, Olmesartan, ICH guidelines.



Nano delivery Systems of Resveratrol to Enhance its Oral Bioavailability

Kanav Midha1*, Manju Nagpal1, Hudson C Polonini2, Sandeep Arora1

1. Chitkara University, Chandigarh-Patiala National Highway, Rajpura.

2. Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil.


Resveratrol is a polyphenol found in grapes and red wines. Interest in this polyphenol has increased due to its pharmacological cardio- and neuroprotective, chemopreventive, and antiaging effects, among others. Nevertheless, its pharmacokinetic properties are less favorable, since the compound has poor bioavailability, low water solubility, and is chemically unstable. To overcome these problems, we developed two novel resveratrol nanodelivery systems based on lipid nanoparticles to enhance resveratrol’s oral bioavailability for further use in medicines, supplements, and nutraceuticals. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and nano structured lipid carriers (NLCs) loaded with resveratrol were successfully produced by homogenization and ultrasonication technique. These were completely characterized for particle size, zeta potential, DSC and TEM, to evaluate the quality of the developed resveratrol-loaded nanoparticles. The in vitro release studies showed that both the nanosystems are highly stable system allowing sustained and controlled release after uptake.

Keywords: Nanosystems, solid lipid nanoparticles, ultrasonication, homogenization.



Study of Abresham (Bombyx mori Cocoon) for Glutathione Mediated Anti-oxidant Effect in Rats Subjected to Immobilization Induced Oxidative Stress

Sauduz Zafar Ali1*, Kunwar Mohammad Yusuf Amin2, Naeem Ahmad Khan2, Shameem Jahan Rizvi3

1. Lecturer Department of Ilmul Advia, Ayurvedic and Unani Tibbia College, Govt. of NCT Delhi, Karol Bagh, New Delhi.05.

2. Professor. Department of Ilmul Advia, Faculty of Unani Medicine, AMU, Aligarh, UP

3. Professor. Department of Forensic Medicine, JN Medical College, AMU, Aligarh, UP.


Abresham or silk cocoon (Bombyx mori), a well known Unani drug has been previously shown by us to possess striking antilipidperoxidative and ROS generation blocking potential in rats subjected to oxidative stress by immobilization. This effect is likely to be produced by an increase in the concentration of GSH following silk cocoon administration, as it contains a higher concentration of those three amino acids viz. Gglycine, Glutamic acid and Cysteine, which constitute the glutathione and by modulating the activities of its metabolizing enzyme which are responsible for the reduction of oxidized glutathione and break down of GSH. Therefore, in present study silk cocoon was studied for its effects on the level of GSH, GR, GGT and GST in rat subjected to oxidative stress by immobilization. It produced a significant increase in GSH concentration and GR activity and a significant decrease in GGT activity in a dose dependant manner. It can be concluded that silk cocoon exerts antioxidant activity by increasing glutathione and by modulating its metabolizing enzyme.

Keywords: Unani Medicine, Abresham (Silk Cocoon), ROS, Antioxidant.


Evaluation of Intravenous Admixtures in Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital

Samson Deepak. A1, A. Nagaraju*1, C. Aruna1, K. Swathi1, K. Purushothama Reddy2, Vijayan Venugopal3

1. Pharm D, Department of Pharmacy Practice, P. Rami Reddy Memorial college of Pharmacy, Kadapa, India.

2. Assistant Professor, P. Rami Reddy Memorial college of Pharmacy, Kadapa, India.

3. Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, AMST University, Malaysia-08100.


Intravenous medication continues to expand and there is an increase in number of mediations administered to the each patient. There are no specific studies to identify the incompatibilities the commonly occur in hospitalized patients while administering these intravenous admixtures. The main objective of the study was to assess the potential incompatibilities associated with Intravenous admixtures in tertiary care teaching hospital. The data for the present study was collected by Patient interview and Chart Review Method for a period of 6 months. This study included all the hospitalized patients form General Medicine Departments. The Collected data was analyzed for incompatibilities using standard drug reference books. This prospective study found out 104 combinations (both Drug-Solute and Drug-Drug combinations) among them 20 (19.23%) were compatible, 24 (23.07%) incompatible, 5 (4.80%) were variable and 55 (52.88%) were undocumented combinations. This study concluded that such type of research work would certainly increase the safety in the use of intravenous admixtures. It is important to make health care professionals aware of compatibility problems, daily prescription review by clinical pharmacist and providing unbiased information from reliable references could possibly prevent compatibility errors found on the wards.

Keywords: Intravenous admixtures, Physical Incompatibility, Y-site, Compatibility chart, Clinical Pharmacist.


Root Causes of Medication Error and Steps to Defeat Errors

Leon Cruz A1*, L Francis Cruz1

1. Asia Metropolitan University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Selangor, Malaysia.


The overview of a medication error and certain types of error that could cause patients medication plan to turn into a wrong way. Medication error also could lead to many other unwanted outcomes that could be harmful to patient. The types of medication errors that normally occur with its explanation are given. A potential error from the prescriber is explained and the error from the perspective of patient is also mentioned. There are certain steps that can be taken in order to overcome these medication errors and how a patient can react in order to overcome these medication errors. An example of a medication error case study is also presented with the discussion on the error.

Keywords: Causes, medication error, steps, errors.


Lovastatin Production by Aspergillus terreus (KM017963) in Submerged and Solid State Fermentation: A Comparative Study

Savitha Janakiraman1*, Praveen Vadakke Kamath1, Bhargavi Santebennur Dwarakanath1

1. Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Bangalore University,J B Campus, Bangalore- 560056, India.


Lovastatin (C24H36O5) is a fungal secondary metabolite that inhibits conversion of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) to mevalonate in cholesterol biosynthesis. Lovastatin producing fungus Aspergillus terreus was grown in Solid State Fermentation (SSF) with various agro based wastes and in Submerged Fermentation (SmF) to evaluate the suitable growth medium for maximum production of lovastatin. Eighty three agro based substrates and six different types of SmF media were used for the production. Wheat bran and sprouted wheat were suitable substrates for lovastatin production yielding1.00 mg/G DWS and 1.311 mg/DWS of lovastatin, respectively. None of the SmF medium was found to be suitable for lovastatin production, although all media supported growth of the fungus.

Keywords: Lovastatin. A. terreus, SSF, SmF.


Current Antibiotic Trends in Staphylococcus aureus with Reference to Methicillin Resistance

Vilas A. Kamble, Amit H Moon*

1.Research Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Adarsha Science, J. B. Arts and Birla Commerce Mahavidyalaya, Dhamangaon Railway, Dist- Amravati - 444 709 M.S. (India)


The abuse of antimicrobials in the treatment procedures is the sole cause of emerging resistant strains of the common pathogen. Present study was intended to monitor the Methicillin Resistance and the antibiotic resistance pattern among the Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical specimens.  The antibiotic disc diffusion assay was used to study the resistance pattern. The confirmation of MRSA was done using cephoxitin 30 µg disc. The overall isolation rate of Staphylococcus aureus from different clinical samples was found to be 65.46% and showed dominance in clinical samples collected from males. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were detected at the rate of 43.36%. The recovery of MRSA was found to be higher in female gender. The highest resistance of Staphylococcus aureus was seen against the penicillin & ampicillin antibiotics; however the vancomycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and ofloxacin showed higher sensitivity. The study concludes that, the S. aureus acquired resistance to frequently used drugs and becomes major threat in its therapeutic management. Study recommends proper use of antibiotics to avoid the emergence of the drug resistant strains and the searching of new antimicrobials for controlling the resistant strains in urgency. 

Keywords: Nosocomial pathogen, drug resistance, MRSA, antibiogram studies.


Evaluation of Prescribing Pattern in Outpatient’s at Secondary Level Government Hospitals in Tamilnadu

Immanuel Jebistane M1*, VijayaSankar1, B Jaykar1

1. Department of Pharmacy Practice, Vinayaka Mission’s College of Pharmacy, Kondappancikenpatti, Salem – 636 008.


This study was conducted to Asses the prescribing pattern in representative sample of 24 secondary level government hospitals in Tamilnadu. A copy of the prescription was obtained with the help of a pre-inserted carbon, in a special format. Data for only ‘first encounter prescriptions’ was collected for all patients attending the Outpatient Department (OPD). A total of prescription has been collected. About 68 percent of the prescriptions contained only one diagnosis. The average number of drugs per prescription was 4. About 80 percent of the drugs were prescribed by generic names and about 53 percent of the prescribed drugs were in combination. About 12 percent of the prescriptions contained at least one injection, while 56 percent contained at least one antibiotic. In 16 percent of the prescriptions a vitamin or tonic was prescribed. About 46 percent of the single ingredient formulations were as per the WHO 2003, Essential Medicines List (EML). Based on the findings of the Prescription Audit an EML was prepared for each category of the secondary level hospitals, for use in the OPD. Prescription audits are useful in generating data on morbidity, which forms the basis for preparing the list of essential medicines. Mechanisms necessary for improving Prescription practices are suggested.

Keywords: Essential Medicines, International Classification of Diseases, Morbidity Pattern, prescription audit, secondary level hospitals.


Driving is a Risk Factor of Gridhrasivata(Sciatica) : An Etiopathological Study

Das Jeuti Rani1, Das Hemanta Bikash2, Mandal Sisir Kumar1, Sharma Surendra Kumar1

1. Department of Roga Evam Vikriti Vijanana, National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur, Rajasthan

2. Department of Prasuti and Striroga, Govt. Ayurveda College, Guwahati, Assam


Gridhrasivata is a Vatavyadhi which disable the locomotor system where pain is the most common symptom. Now a days globally it is common health problem. With rising technology though people get comfortable life but developed some disease among which Gridhrasivata also. In modern science it can be compared with sciatica syndrome where sciatica nerve is involved. As a Vatavyadhi the Nidana(cause)is same as Vata Vyadhi, there are many causes but Vichesta(wrong posture) is common Nidana(cause) these days to develop Griddhasivata. And among Vichesta continuous driving is also a cause of Gridhrasivata where some other factors also aggravate the Vata along with driving and act as predisposing, perpetuating and provocating factor. Though well established pathogenesis is there in modern science but treatment is not cost effective. So it is try to find the pathogenesis according to Ayurveda on the basis of Vatavyadhi in perspective to driving which may help to developed cost effective medicine. Because the line of treatment according to Ayurveda is Samprapti Vighatana. Here a survey study was done to analyze the prevalence of driving among patient having Gridhrasivata  with classical sign and symptoms, in I.P.D. and O.P.D. of National institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur  with a duly formed proforma among  46 patients.

Keywords: Gridhrasivata, Vichesta, Vatavyadhi, Driving , Sciatica, Vata