American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
April 2016 Issue 4

Microneedles In Drug Delivery and Therapeutics

Godugu Karunakar 1, Manjunath M2, D V Gowda*1, Avinash 1, Tibey Mary Koshy 1, Sweety Tom 1, Karamsetty V M Suryatej 1, and Nikhil P Patil 1

1.Dept. of Pharmaceutics, JSS University, JSS College of Pharmacy, SS Nagara, Mysore -570015, Karnataka, India

2.Department of Pharmaceutics, Farooqia College of Pharmacy, Tilak Nagara, Mysore -570001, Karnataka, India.


The restricted barrier properties of the upmost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum (SC) impose significant limitations for eminent systemic delivery of a broad vary of therapeutic molecules, significantly macromolecules and genetic material. Microneedle delivery has been projected as a method to interrupt the SC barrier perform so as to facilitate effective transport of molecules across the skin. Microneedles are used for the dermal and transdermic delivery of a broad vary of medicine, like tiny relative molecular mass medication, oligonucleotides, DNA, peptides, proteins and inactivated viruses. This strategy involves the employment of metric linear unit sized needles fictitious from completely different materials and victimisation different geometries to make transient binary compound pores across the skin. Following a quick introduction regarding microneedles and its history, this review describes completely different fabrication ways for solid, coated, dissolving and hollow microneedles similarly as their applications and conjointly focuses on recent and potential future developments in microneedle technologies. this can embrace the particularization of progress created in microneedle style, a research of the challenges moon-faced during this field and potential forward methods to embrace the exploitation of microneedle methodologies, whereas considering the inherent safety aspects of such therapeutic tools. Finally, we have a tendency to offer our read on analysis and development that's required to render microneedles as novel dermal drug delivery technologies clinically helpful within the close to future.

Keywords: Microneedles (MN), microelectromechanical systems, fabrication, casting


The Study of Biochemical Parameters And Histopathological Changes In Liver of Albino Rats To Find out The Effect of Extract of Sechium edule Roots Against Paracetamol Induced Hepatic Damages

Bapi Ray Sarkar 1*, Biplab Kumar Dey 1, Mr. Kamal Sharma 1

1.Institute of Pharmacy, Assam down town University, Panikhaiti, Guwahati, Assam, India, Pin- 781026


The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Ethanolic extract of Sechium edule against paracetamol induced liver damage in rats. The Ethanolic extract of Sechium edule (300mg/kg & 600mg/kg) was administered orally to the animals with hepatotoxicity induced by single dose of Paracetamol (2gm/kg). Silymarin (25mg/kg) was given as reference standard. All the test drugs were administered orally by suspending in 0.5% Carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) solution. The Ethanolic extract of leaves of plant Sechium edule in the doses of 300mg/kg, 600mg/kg body wt, reduced the levels of serum SGPT, SGOT, ALP and Total bilirubin and increased the Total protein level significantly. In the histopathological studies of the liver section of rats showed the significant recovery with the Ethanolic extract of Sechium edule when compared with Control group and Paracetamol treated group.

Keywords: Sechium edule, Paracetamol, Hepatoprotetive, Bilirubin.


Histological effects of toxoplasmosis and its treatments on male and female rats

Zahraa Sadoon  Al-Ghezy1, Fadhil Abbas Al-Abady1,  Ali Esmail Al-Snafi2*

1.Department of Biology, College of Science, University of  Thi qar - Iraq,

2.Department of  Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of  Thi qar – Iraq.


The testis section of toxoplasma infected male rats showed vacular degeneration of spermatogonia and spermatocytes. The seminiferous tubules revealed sever degeneration, shrinkage, necrosis, hemorrhages with disappearance of epithelial lining of the majority of seminiferous tubules. They were also appeared separated with an irregular outlines and surrounded by fibrin. Seminiferous tubule lumen contained little amount of sperm with appearance of giant cells, polymorph nuclear leukocyte and exfoliated cellular debris. The epididymal sections of Toxoplasma gondii infected male rats  treated by DMSO showed infiltration of mononuclear and multinucleated giant cell. Epididymal sections also showed hyperplasia of duct lining and contained toxoplasma cyst. Ovary sections of infected female rats treated by DMSO revealed morphological differences compared to the non infected group treated with DMSO, they showed decreased primary and secondary follicle with increased follicle atresia. Uterine section of infected female rats treated by DMSO showed hypertrophy of the endometrium and myometrium, polymorphic inflammatory infiltration, fewer glands, increased endometrial thickness with congestion of vessels. Pyrimethamine and sulphadiazine nor cause histological changed neither potentiate the histological effects of toxoplasmosis in infected and non infected male and female rats.

Keywords: Toxoplama gondii, infection, male, female, rats, histology, pyrimethamine, sulphadiazine  


A Study on Prescribing Pattern of Proton Pump Inhibitors at A Private Tertiary Care Hospital

Prakriti Neupane1*, Puran Giri1, D Nagalatha1

1.Aditya Bangalore institute of pharmacy education and research, Bangalore  560064


To study the prescribing pattern of proton pump inhibitors at a private tertiary care hospital. This was a descriptive retrospective as well as prospective study carried out using 220 inpatient prescriptions in internal medicine department at a private tertiary care hospital. Out of 220 prescriptions of PPIs 56% were male patients and remaining were female among them 12.27% were alcoholics and 6.36% were smokers. It was highly prescribed in the age group of 26-35 (23.64%). Highly prescribed proton pump inhibitor was Pantoprazole (72%), IV route was used mostly 80.91% and about 53% of IV prescriptions were switched to oral route after patient being stable. Vomiting (34%) and nausea (28%) were the most common symptoms of ulcer presented. Fever (22.63%) was the most common condition under therapy and antibiotics (20.50%) were highly prescribed drugs concurrently with PPIs. Average cost per day of IV PPIs was Rs.54.69/day and of oral PPIs was Rs.7.8/day. Out of 43 drug interactions found 14 interactions were with iron. Widespread prescriptions of PPIs should be taken into consideration as it is irrationally prescribed for prophylaxis with various medications where only NSAIDs induced ulcer and its treatment is approved by FDA.

Keywords: prescribing pattern, proton pump inhibitors, tertiary care hospital.


Normative Values Of Nerve Conduction Parameters For Common Peroneal Nerve

Muhammad Amir Mustufa1*, Ammad Ahmed2 , Abdul Halim Serafi1 , Muhammad Irfan Safi Rizvi1, Syed Najamuddin Farooq1 , Shagufta Khan3

1.Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Umm AlQura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

2.Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Umm AlQura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

3.Department of Neurology, Civil Hospital Karachi-Pakistan


The aim of this study is to generate normative database of nerve conduction parameters (NCP) for the common peroneal nerve (CPN) from the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. A total of 70 healthy male and female subjects, 13-66 years of age, without risk factor for neuropathy were tested. Digital NCV/EMG machine was used to analyze the components of compound motor action potential (CMAP) that are amplitude, distal latency (DL), and conduction velocity (CV). Study was performed at 320C room temperature. Limb Temperature was controlled by hot water bag when needed.  The CPN Motor studies gave DL of 3.01 ms, Amplitude of 3.84 mv and CV of 56.26 m/sec from TA.  In our study, no significant difference was seen in NCP between right and left sides, Moreover, no correlation was observed between age and NCP. This study will be helpful for our locality in establishing normative database of NCP of common peroneal nerve while recording from TA. Minimum and maximum of normal were obtained, and 25%, 50% and 75% percentile were calculated. For proposing normative value, these measurements are suitable way for Electrophysiological evaluation of the Motor CPN, which can be used as reference by the other neurophysiology labs while dealing with this nerve.

Keywords: Common Peroneal Nerve, Tibialis anterior, Reference value.


Design, Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of New Heterocyclic Derivatives As Anti-Tubercular Agents

Ayyadurai Jerad Suresh1*, Geetha Lakshmi1, Sundaralingam Saranya1, Parakkot Ramakrishnan Surya1

1. College of Pharmacy, Madras Medical College, Chennai


Oxadiazole, a heterocyclic nucleus has attracted a wide attention of the chemist in search for the new therapeutic molecules. Some of the recent studies show that oxadiazole are reported to possess an anti-tubercular, anti-epileptic, analgesic, hypnotic, and sedative activity.1 Catechol is a chemical, but a catechol may also be used as the name of a substance, where it represents a 1, 2-dihydroxy benzene group2. In the present study 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole and phenyl amino benzene 1,2 -diol derivatives were docked against methoxymycolic acid synthase-2 and synthesized using reflux condensation reaction. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental and spectral methods. Compounds RSP1, RSP3 and RSP4 are novel compounds. Anti-tubercular activities of these compounds were carried out using Alamar blue assay method and these compounds exhibited good activity. Compound with phenyl amino benzene 1, 2 diol showed good activity and oxadiazole showed moderate activity compared with standard drugs. RSP1, RSP3, and RSP4 shows good activity at the range of 0.8µg -50ng.RSP6 and RSP7 shows activity at 12.5µg. A further refinement to the structure of the synthesized compounds is expected to yield new outlook to the development of promising molecules against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Keywords: Oxadiazole, anti-tubercular, catechol, phenyl amino benzene1, 2-diol, analgesic.


Medication Adherence to Antidiabetic Therapy In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Elahe Elhami1*,  Susheela Rani S1,  Githa kishore1

1.Visveswarapura Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Bangalore


Diabetes mellitus is a chronic, life long, metabolic disease associated with an array of dysfunctions characterized by hyperglycemia. To evaluate self reported medication adherence and to identify factors linked with poor adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A prospective, cross sectional, observational study was conducted for 6 months in 300 diabetic patients admitted in the KIMS hospital, Bangalore. Adherence to treatment was assessed during a personal interview with each patient using Morisky medication adherence scale. Patient counselling was done to provide education on disease and appropriate drug use Out of 300 type 2 diabetic patients, 67.78% men were more adherent to medication  as compared to women (22.62%), Patients in the age group of 45-64 years were 40.72% adherent to medication and patients above the age of 75 years were only 7.5 % adherent to medication. In our study patients new to therapy were only 7.69% likely to be adherent to their diabetes medication. Diabetic patients with a co morbid condition of hypertension disease were 31.67% adherent to medication and patients with thyroid disease were 2.26% adherent to medication. Patient information leaflets regarding diabetes mellitus type 2 were distributed to all patients. Patient counselling should be used widely for better patient care and outcomes. Efforts are needed to increase the medication adherence of elder patients and to patients who are new to therapy so they can realize the full benefits of prescribed therapies.

Keyword:  Adherence, Patient counselling .Anti-diabetic medication


Safety and Efficacy of a Sofosbuvir Based Combination in Treatment of Egyptian Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 4

Abdel-Hameed I.M. Ebid1, Mohammed Ahmed Mobarez1, Ramadan Ahmed Ramadan2

1. Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University. Cairo, Egypt.

2.Internal Medicine, Hepatology Department, Ahmed Maher teaching Hospital, Cairo, Egypt.


Little is known about the safety and predictors of response of interferon (IFN), ribavirin (RBV), and sofosbuvir (SOF) combination in real-world settings. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment decisions must depend on Real-world effectiveness data rather than clinical trails data., thus, the aim of this study is to comprehensively evaluate the safety and efficacy of this treatment in routine medical practice. A total of 105 treatment naïve patients with CHC genotype 4 with mean age 49 ± 7.26 years old of whom 62 were males and 43 were females, were treated with INF, RBV, and SOF for 12 weeks. Patients were monitored for safety and efficacy during the treatment and 12-week follow up periods. Seventy (66.67%) patients achieved a sustained virological response (SVR). The rate of SVR varied significantly by age, baseline fibrosis stage, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum creatinine (Scr), and hemoglobin (Hb). Most adverse effects were mild to moderate in severity and were well tolerated. The overall continuance rate without dose reduction was 80.95%. one patient discontinued treatment, due to neutropenia,. Hematologic toxicity included anemia with a frequency 19.05%. The efficacy of IFN/RBV/SOF combination for treatment of Egyptian CHC patients with genotype 4 in real-world setting was less than that reported in clinical trials.

Keywords: HCV, Interferon, Ribavirin, Sofosbuvir, SVR.


Impact of Counselling on Quality of Life In Cancer Patients: Clinical Pharmacist A Vital Addition In An Oncology Setting

Anisty Maria Joy1*; Juno J Joel1;  Jayarama Shetty K2

1.Department of pharmacy practice,NGSMIPS ,Derlakkatte.

2.Department of Radiotherapy and oncology, K S hedge hospital, Derlakkatte


The aim and Objectives of the study was to identify the impact of clinical pharmacists counselling on quality of life among cancer patients, To evaluate the life style of cancer patients before and after their cancer diagnosis and assess the relation of lifestyle with occurrence of cancer. Cancer patients were enrolled and categorized into intervention and control group by block randomization. Intervention group received information leaflets, face to face counselling during study period where as the control group received the conventional care only. The Quality of Life (QoL) of patients was assessed by European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 questionnaire at baseline and at the final follow up. life style pattern is assessed by closed ended questions. 130 subjects (65 patients in the intervention and 65 in the control) were enrolled their quality of life was assessed. In the intervention group, quality of life at baseline was 51.17+13.81. After counselling the intervention group QoL was 67.30+7.98. The paired‘t’ test report revealed that there was a difference in quality of life (p<.05) after counselling. Improvement was found in all the scales, especially in quality of life, emotional functioning and in symptom scale. The association between life style and type of cancer was found at 5% level of significance Conclusion: Pharmacist education and counselling has leaded clinically and statistically significant difference in the Quality of life of cancer patients as compared to that of control group.

Keywords: Quality of life, Clinical pharmacist, Cancer patients.



Comparative Study of Prednisolone Acetate 1% Eye Drop With Difluprednate 0.05% Eye Drop In Postoperative Management Following Small Incision Cataract Surgery

Ashok Kumar Meena1*, Mukul Jain2

1.Professor & HOD, Department of Ophthalmology, Govt. Medical College, Kota, Rajasthan, India

2. P.G. Resident Doctor, Department of Ophthalmology, Govt. Medical College, Kota, Rajasthan, India


This study was done to compare the anti-inflammatory efficacy of prednisolone acetate 1% and difluprednate 0.05% eye drops in the management of ocular inflammation after uneventful small incision cataract surgery. It was a prospective randomized control study done in Department of Ophthalmology, Government Medical College & associated group of hospitals, Kota. 100 patients (age >50 years) with senile cataract were taken. After surgery, 50 patients were treated with prednisolone acetate 1% and 50 patients with difluprednate 0.05% eye drops. Patients were examined and compared on postoperative day 1, 3, 7 & 28 for pain, circumcorneal congestion, corneal oedema, aqueous flare, visual acuity and intraocular pressure. Reduction in pain, ciliary congestion, corneal oedema and aqueous flare on day 7 was more in difluprednate group. No clinically significant elevation in intraocular pressure was noted in any patient during study. Difluprednate 0.05% controls postoperative inflammation rapidly as compared to prednisolone acetate 1%.

Keywords: Prednisolone, Difluprednate, Aqueous flare, intraocular pressure


Development and Evaluation of Push Pull Osmotic System of Isoxsuprine Hydrochloride

Vikrant Suryavanshi*, Deeliprao Derle

1.MVP’s Collage of Pharmacy, Gangapur Road, Nasik 422002


The aim of present study was to design and evaluate push pull osmotic pump-based drug delivery system for controlled release of Isoxsuprine hydrochloride for peripheral and cerebral vasodilation. Core tablets were prepared by direct Compression method. Effects of different variables like amount of osmogen, orifice size, coating thickness and dissolution media were studied on release profile. It observed that the combination of PEO 100000 and PEO 300000 give the desired drug release. On increasing the amount of osmogen, the release of drug was found to be increased. On comparison of f2 value no significant effect of pH of dissolution medium, agitation rate was observed but it was observed that the coating thickness decrease it shows the faster drug release and increase in orifice size also increases the drug release.  It was concluded that the osmotic pump tablets could provide more prolonged and controlled release that may result in an improved therapeutic efficacy and patient compliance.

Keywords: Push Pull Osmotic Pumps, Zero order, Isoxsuprine Hydrochloride, Controlled release, Semipermeable Membrane, Cellulose Acetate, Polyethylene Oxide


Fingerprinting And Stability Studies of Triphala-Guggula Vati: An Official Ayurvedic Formulation

Pathak AV1*., Kawtikwar PS2,  Sakarkar DM2

1.Priyadarshini J L Chaturvedi College of Pharmacy, 846, New Nandanwan, Nagpur-08

2.Shri Sudhakarrao Naik Institute of Pharmacy, Pusad-445204, Dist Yavatmal.


Triphala-guggula vati a polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation is recommended in the management of pain in renal stone, it has dual action of aiding digestion and lowering body weight. It is effective in lowering cholesterol and reducing fat. It is also use in treatment of anal fistula, fissures and severe constipation. There has been an increase in demand for the Phyto-pharmaceutical products of Ayurveda so a pharmaceutical preparation in the form of Triphala-guggula vati was tried to standardize in terms of Fingerprinting and Stability studies, which is economical in terms of time and machinery usage. Literature survey indicates that no Fingerprinting and stability studies were carried out; hence present study was undertaken for the same. UV and HPTLC studies were carried out for finger printing of all important phytoconstituents of Triphala-guggula vati and its raw ingredients. HPTLC study were carried out on Aqueous and Alcoholic extracts using Camag HPTLC system equipped with Linomat V applicator, Camag TLC scanner 3 and CATS 4 software for interpretation of data. The laboratory batch and two Marketed preparations of Triphala-guggulu vati were subjected for development of rapid, reproducible, valid Fingerprinting method and stability testing method at standard recommended accelerated condition.

Keywords: Official Ayurvedic formulation, Triphala-Guggula Vati, Fingerprinting, Stability studies.