American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
March 2016 Issue 3

Floating Drug Delivery System A Novel Approach: An Overview

Shivaji Vasudeo Shinde1*, Ritesh Suresh Bathe1

1. Department of Pharmaceutics, Sahyadri College of Pharmacy, Methwade, Sangola-413307, Solapur, Maharashtra, India.


Controlled release (CR) dosage forms have been extensively used to improve therapy with several important drugs. Oral controlled release and site specific drug delivery system has been of great interest in pharmaceutical field to achieve improved therapeutic advantage. Gastro retentive drug delivery system is one of such novel approaches to prolong gastric residence time, thereby targeting site specific drug release in the stomach for local or systemic effects. Gastric emptying of dosage forms is an  extremely variable process and ability to prolong and control the  gastric  emptying  time  is  a  valuable  asset  for  dosage  forms,  which  reside  in  the  stomach  for  a  longer  period  of  time  than  conventional  dosage  forms. Floating drug delivery systems are low-density systems that float over the gastric content and remain buoyant in the stomach for a prolonged period of time. They enhance drug bioavailability, reduce  drug  wastage  and  provide  controlled  drug  delivery  and  better  patient compliance. The recent developments  of FDDS including the physiological and formulation variables affecting gastric retention, approaches to design single -unit and multiple unit floating systems, and their classification and formulation aspects are covered in detail.

Keywords: Controlled release (CR), Gastro retentive, Floating drug delivery. 


Types of Delivery Routes and Polymeric Drug Delivery Systems For Effective Management of Arthritis

Abhilasha T.P.1, Afrasim Moin2, Gowda D.V.1*, Santhosh T.R.1, Lakshmeesha R.1, Riyaz Ali M. Osmani1

1. Department of Pharmaceutics, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS University, Mysuru-570015, Karnataka, India

2. Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Hail, Hail-81442, Saudi Arabia


Arthritis is a form of joint disorder that involves inflammation in one or more joints. Most common form of arthritis is osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis in which joint pain is the major symptom. Management of arthritis can be done by reliefing pain using various classes of drugs. Steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) are commonly used for treatment. NSAIDs nowadays are combined with other drugs for the better therapeutic effects compared to NSAIDs alone. Management of arthritis can be made using various drug delivery systems like polymeric drug delivery system, controlled drug delivery system, sustained delivery using various routes like oral, nasal and topical route etc. This review suggests management of arthritis using polymeric drug delivery system. Polymeric drug delivery systems are based on the chain link of polymers, and liposomes, hydrogels, nano devices are some of the approaches. Polymeric systems used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases and infections along with some other vaccines. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents such as aspirin, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and diclofenac are used in the management and/or treatment of arthritis. This review also suggests the various drug candidates used to treat the arthritis.

Keywords: Arthritis, Joints, Drug delivery, Polymeric system, NSAIDs.


Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Plant Acalypha Indica Extracts

Mathew George1*, Lincy Joseph1, Kamal Singh Gurjar1, Saira Susan Varghese1


Acalypha Indica is a species of plant having catkin type of inflorescence1. It occurs throughout tropical Africa and South Africa, in India and Sri Lanka, as well as in Yemen and Pakistan. This plant is held in high esteem in traditional Tamil Siddha medicine as it is believed to rejuvenate the body. Pharmacological investigation has shown that the plant has potent anti- bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-arthritic, anti-osteoporotic, anti-oxidant, neuroprotective, wound healing, post-coital antifertility activities. The present review article attempt to summarize the anti-inflammatory activity of the plant.2

Keywords: Euphorbiaceae, Acalyphine, Pharmacological, And Anti-Inflammatory


Study of analgesic and Anti-inflammatory activity of of Murraya koenigii on albino wistar rats

V. Sandhya1, D. Vijay Anand Raju1, M. Vineel Chandra1, M. Muralidhar reddy1,  Bolay Bhattacharya1*

1.Geethanjali College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, India


Murraya koenigii (Linn) is a plant of the Rutaceae family, well known in India as curry leaves. In the present study, evaluation of physicochemical characteristics; preliminary phytochemical parameters and pharmacological activities of methanol extract of dried leaves of Murraya koenigii Linn has been carried out. The preliminary phytochemical studies of the methanol extract of the leaves showed the presence of various phytochemical constituents such as alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, steroids and saponins. . The aim of the present study was carried out with the objective of phytochemical screening and to evaluate the antiinflammatory, analgesic activity methanol extract of Murraya koenigii Linn Extract was studied for antiinflammatory activity by using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in albino rats and the mean increase in paw volume and % inhibition in paw volume were measured plethysmometrically at different time intervals after carrageenan (1% w/v) injection. Extract was also evaluated for analgesic activity using Eddy's hot plate method and acetic acid-induced writhing method in albino rats. The methanol extract showed significant (P < 0.001) reduction in the carrageenan -induced paw edema and analgesic activity evidenced by increase in the reaction time by eddy's hot plate method and significantly reduced (P<0.001) acetic acid induced writhing. The methanol extract showed antiinflammatory and analgesic effect in dose dependent manner when compared with the control and standard drug, diclofenac sodium (10mg/kg, p.o). These inhibitions were statistically significant (P < 0.01). Thus our investigation suggests a potential benefit of Murraya koenigii Linn in treating conditions associated with inflammatory pain.

Keywords: Murraya koenigii, Analgesic activity, Eddy's hot plate, Plethysmometrically, Acetic acid induced writhing


The Anticancer and Radiosensitizing Activities of EOG (Echitamidine-N-Oxide-19--Β-D-Glucopyranoside) Isolated From The Stem Bark Extract of Alstonia Scholaris

D.Subba Reddy*

Department of Pharmacology, Nirmala College of Pharmacy, Atmakuru(v), Mangalagiri(M),Guntur-522503.


The anticancer and radiosensitizing activities of EOG (Echitamidine-N-Oxide-19-o-β-D-Glucopyranoside) isolated from the stem bark extract of Alstonia scholaris were studied in Swiss mice transplanted with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) exposed to various doses of g-radiation.  Intraperitoneal administration of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 or 12 mg/kg body weight EOG in animals transplanted with EAC tumor resulted in a dose dependent rise in tumor regression and increase in the average survival as well as mean survival time. The highest number of tumor free survivors were observed in the group receiving 10 mg/kg EOG at the end of 120 days. The administration of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 mg/kg body weight EOG in tumor bearing mice exposed to 6 Gy g-radiation caused EOG dose dependent regression of the tumors when compared to 6 Gy alone and the maximum effect was found in animals receiving 6 mg/kg. Intraperitoneal administration of 6 mg/kg EOG into EAC mice before exposure to 0, 1, 2, 4, 6 or 8 Gy hemi body g-radiation showed an irradiation dose dependent elevation in the tumor free survivors and a maximum number of survivor up to 120 days was observed for 6 Gy irradiation. This led to increase in the average survival and mean survival time by 31 days when compared to 6 Gy irradiation alone.

Keywords: Echitamidine-N-Oxide-Glucopyranoside(EOG), EAC, Survival studies, Radiosensitization study , Irradiation.


Evaluation of In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Various Extracts of Aerial Parts of Chomelia asiatica (Linn)

Abdul Hameed Thayyil2, A. Kottai Muthu1* and Mohammed Ibrahim2

1.Department of Pharmacy, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar-608 002, India.

2.Nizam Institute of Pharmacy & Research centre, Near Ramoji Film City, Deshmukhi, Hyderabad, A.P., India.


The study was designed to examine the in-vitro antioxidant activities of various extracts of aerial parts of Chomelia asiatica. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by total antioxidant  activity, FRAP  with reference standard ascorbate respectively and estimate the amount of total flavonoids. The ethyl acetate extract of Chomelia asiatica was found to more effective in the total antioxidant activity. The IC50 of the ethyl acetate extract of Chomelia asiatica and ascorbate were found to be 260µg/ml and 480µg/ml respectively. An IC50 value was found that ethyl acetate extract of Chomelia asiatica is more effective in scavenging superoxide radical than that of methanol and petroleum ether extract. But when compare to the all the three extracts with ascorbate (standard), the ethyl acetate extract of the Chomelia asiatica showed the similar result. In addition, the ethyl acetate extract of Chomelia asiatica was found to contain a noticeable amount of total flavonoids, which play a major role in controlling antioxidants.  It is concluded that a aerial parts of ethyl acetate extract of Chomelia asiatica, which contains large amounts of flavonoids compounds, exhibits high antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. These in vitro assays indicate that this plant extracts is a significant source of natural antioxidant, which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses.

Keywords: Aerial parts of Chomelia asiatica, total antioxidant, FRAP, total flavonoids.


Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy: The Issues and Factors Deciding Adverse Drug Reactions

Boggula Narendar,1Vijay krishna nidadavolu2, Satheesh Jogala3, Jiji Angali George2

1. School of Pharmacy, Nalla  Narasimha Reddy Educational Societys Group Of Institutions- Chowdari guda, Ghatkesar, Hyderabad.

2.Department of Pharmacy Practice, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Chikka bellandur, Carmelaram post, Varthur hobli, Bangalore-560035

3. Mother Teresa College of Pharmacy, NFC Nagar, Ghatkesar, RR Dist, Hyderabad-501301.


Antiretroviral agent (ARVs) has predictable toxicities and adverse effects because they are most chronically administered drugs. It is essential that clinicians noticeably understand ADRs, eagerly identify them in patients and manage them successfully. Information on adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated to antiretroviral (ARV) use in public health practice is signifying the requirement for ART safety surveillance in clinical care. In this article, we review the adverse effects of HAART therapy, with definite concentration to the issues and factors deciding adverse drug reactions. Our aspire is to assist physicians achieve a working knowledge of these adverse effects, with the definitive purpose of improving the tolerability and effectiveness of HIV treatment, promoting the early identification and setback of potentially serious adverse effects, and dropping the potential for adverse drug interactions.

Keywords: Adverse drug reactions, antiretroviral agents, anti-retroviral toxicities, highly active antiretroviral therapy, multi-drug therapy


Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Salmonella spp. Isolated from Clinical Samples of Bangladesh

Tanzina Akter*1, Mohammad Jakir Hossain1, Md Sumon Khan1, Sohana Al Sanjee1, Kaniz Fatema1, Suvamoy Datta1.

1. Department of Microbiology, Primeasia University, HBR Tower 9, Banani, Dhaka-1213, Bangladesh.


Typhoid fever (Enteric fever) is a serious life-threatening illness caused by mostly Salmonella Typhi and also by Salmonella Paratyphi to a lesser extent. This study was carried out to isolate, identify Salmonella spp. from the blood samples of patients who were suspected of suffering from typhoid fever and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the selected Salmonella spp. Salmonella spp. was detected in 122 of 1167 samples. Among which 87 (77.68%) were Salmonella Typhi and 25 (22.32%) were Salmonella Paratyphi. The most susceptible age group for Salmonella spp. is 21-30 years. Males (67.86%) are mostly infected by Salmonella spp. than females (32.14%). Salmonella Typhi (77.68%) was found as the predominant etiological agent of typhoid fever followed by Salmonella Paratyphi (22.32%) in our study. Salmonella spp. were resistant against Nalidixic acid, Co-trimoxazole and Pipercillin but sensitive against Ceftriaxone, Imipenem, Meropenem, Amikacin, Cefixime, Ceftazidime, Gentamicin, Cefotaxime. From this study, it can be concluded that these third generation antibiotics still can be used as effective drugs for the treatment of typhoid fever.  

Keywords: Typhoid fever, Salmonella spp., Antibiotics, Multi-drug resistance.


Estimates of malnutrition in children 6-59monhts of age based on the WHO standard reveal higher prevalence compared to the NCHS reference in a cross-sectional sample of children from North Cameroon

Ngwa Akonwi Fuh1*, M’bobda Momdjo Christelle1, Tchuente Tonou Boris Ronald1, Nguedjo Wandji Maxwell1,  Ngondi Judith Laure1 , Julius E. Oben1

1. Department of Biochemistry, Yaoundé I University, PO Box 812


The assessment of nutritional status based on the 2006 WHO (World Health Organisation) Standards versus the 1977 NCHS (National Center for Health Statistics) Reference has revealed some differences. A chief criticism of the use of the 1977 NCHS Reference has been that, because the reference is based on children from a developed country it should not be applied for all children around the world. The 2006 WHO Standards, they are assumed to be more robust in assessing the nutritional status of the children, especially infants, than was the case for the 1977 NCHS Reference. In the present paper, we compare the estimates of wasting, stunting and underweight obtained from the 2006 WHO standard and the 1977 NCHS reference for the Cameroonian. A total of 1481 children under five years were interviewed in a cross sectional survey including 1343 from 6-59 months. The nutrition status of the children was assessed using the 1977 NCHS Reference and the 2006 WHO Standards. The Hong-de Onis algorithm was also applied separately for children in all age groups, stratified by region and by sex. The 2006 WHO standard compared to the 1977 NCHS standard classify more children as underweight and stunted (8.0% vs 6.8% and 41.0% vs 38.1% respectively). Both references classified 56.8% of children as not stunted, 91.2% as not wasted and 69.4% as not underweight.  More children are classified as undernourished using the algorithm compared to directly applying the 2006 WHO Standards except for the 6-11months age group. The assessment of malnutrition using 2006 WHO Standards classify significantly more children as underweight and stunted and is closer to that of a healthy population than the 1977 NCHS Reference.

Keywords: 2006 WHO standard, 1977 NCHS Reference, Weight-for-height, Weight-for-age, Height-for-age.