American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
December 2018 Issue 12

Effect of Allium sativum on the Pharmacodynamics of Pioglitazone in Normal and Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

Rajasekhara Reddy T*, Swathi P1 and Eswar Kumar K1

*CLINWAVE Research Private Limited, Kukatpally, Hyderabad

1A.U.College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam.


The present study was carried out to study the herb drug interactions between the traditional medicine Allium sativum with conventional antidiabetic drug Pioglitazone in normal and diabetic conditions. Blood samples were collected from rats by retro orbital puncture at regular intervals of time 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 hr. The Pioglitazone and Allium sativum showed dose dependent reduction of blood glucose levels. The optimum blood glucose reduction was obtained at 10mg/kg of pioglitazone and 200mg/kg of Allium sativum in normal rats. The blood glucose levels were found to be decreased and insulin levels were increased significantly in both single and multiple dose combinations of Pioglitazone and Allium sativum both in normal rats (4hr) as well as in Alloxan induced diabetic rats (3hr) compared with the pioglitazone alone. Since the combination of Allium sativum and pioglitazone producing the significant synergistic action in producing hypoglycemia and anti hyperglycemia, care must be taken while prescribing the combination in clinical situation.

Keywords: Pioglitazone, Allium sativum, Blood Glucose.


Pharmacological Evaluation of Ethanolic Extract of Leaves of Memecylon Kollimalayanum

G.Sekar1, T.Venkatachalam2, P.Kalaisevi3, and R.Ramprasad4

1.S S M College of Pharmacy Chinniampalayam Pudur, Tamil Nadu 638312

2,3.Annai JKK Sampoorani Ammal College of Pharmacy Ethirmedu, Valayakaranoor Post, Komarapalayam, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu 638183

4.Arulmigu Kalasa Lingam College of Pharmacy, Anand Nagar Krishnankoil-626126


The present studies emphasize the investigation on ethanolic extract of Memecylon kollimalayanum. (Family- Melastomataceae) leaves for its anti-diabetic activity in animal model. Alloxan induced diabetes model was used for the study. The pharmacological and acute toxicity studies of ethanolic extract was performed by following, OECD-423 guidelines (Acute toxic class method). No mortality or acute toxicity was observed upto 2000mg/kg of body weight. The standardized doses of 250, 500, 1000 and 2500 mg /kg 1 body weight of the extract were administered orally to normal and diabetic rats in order to define its hypo-glycemic potential. Results The Biological dose of extract Memecylon kollimalayanum dose was selected 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg in this dose possessed significant antidiabetic activity. This study shows that flavanoids present in this extract may be possibly responsible for the antidiabetic activities respectively. Histopathological studies on isolated pancreas revealed that ethanolic extract of Memecylon kollimalayanum   reversed the changes which produced due to diabetes caused by Alloxan. The normal pattern of histology of pancreas was observed.

Keywords: Ethanolic Extract, OECD-423 guidelines


Efficacy of K-Tape in Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain

Muteb Al Sulaimy*, Nezar Al Torairi2, Sharick Shamsi3, Shabana Khan4

*Physiotherapist at Prince Sultan Cardiac Center, Riyadh KSA

2Clinical Supervisor in Ortho OPD, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh KSA

3Senior Physiotherapist at Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh KSA.

4Physiotherapist in Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh KSA


Efficacy of K-Tape in Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain. Randomized Control Trial. A total of 30 patients were included as per pre define inclusion and exclusion criteria and randomly assigned into two groups, consisting of 15 patients in each group. Group A was given K-Tape along with standardized exercise program. Group B was given standardized exercise program along with moist hot pack for 4 weeks, 3 sessions per week one session per day. The patient’s outcome measures were assessed by visual analog scale, ODI and Goniometry for Lumbar Range of Motion. Measurements were recorded before and after the end of the treatment period.  Results revealed that means and S.D of both group were significant (p=0.000 ) statically but clinically the Group of patients treated with K-Tape along with standardized exercise program managed pain (pre=7.50±1.21,post=0.71±0.37),ODI(pre=41±18.16,post= 8±4.49) and range of motion (flexion pre=31±5.04,post=50±10.12,extension pre=17±2.13,post=29±4.20 Rt side flexion pre=10±2.55,post=22±4.75 and Lt. side flexion pre=10±2.35, post=22±4.63, Rt side  rotation pre= 8±1.27,post=19±2.65) Lt. side rotation pre=8±2.15, post=18±2.46 better than group of patients treated with standardized exercise program along with Moist hot pack in terms of pain (pre=7.81±1.16,post=2.35±1.27), ODI (pre=44±21.32,post=22±10.6) and range of motion (flexion pre=25±5.65,post=37±10.16, extension pre=15±2.55,post=21±5.32, Rt side flexion pre=10±2.35 post=15±2.28, Lt Side flexion pre=11±2.35, post=19±2.36, Rt side rotation pre=9±1.90 post=16.±2.71, Lt Side rotation pre=8±1.63, post=15±3.15. The result of study suggests that both K-Tape and exercises improves the symptoms of chronic low back pain. Better improvement was shown by K-Tape group when compared with exercise group. Based on these results K-Tape and Exercise should be the treatment of choice for chronic mechanical low back pain rather than Exercise with HP.

Keywords: K-Tape, Chronic Low Back Pain, Moist hot Pack, Exercise.


Synthesis and Evaluation of 2-Chloro-3-[3-(6-Methyl-1H-Benzimidazol-2-Yl)-4, 5-Dihydro-1H-Pyrazol-5-Yl] Quinolines as Potent Antimicrobial Agents

B. Shivakumar*, Indira. M. Madawali, Shivakumar Hugar and Navanath. V. Kalyane

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, B.L.D.E.A’s SSM College of Pharmacy and Research Centre, Vijayapur, Karnataka-586103, India.


A new series of 2-chloro-3-[3-(6-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-5-yl]quinoline (Va-k) have been synthesized by the reaction of 3-(2-chloroquinolin-3-yl)-1-(6-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)prop-2-en-1-one (IVa-k) with hydrazine hydrate in ethanol and glacial acetic acid. The synthesized compounds were characterized by their IR, 1H NMR and Mass spectral studies. Further, compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activity by cup plate method, using Ciprofloxacin and Fluconazole as a standard drugs. Results of the activities reveal that, compound exhibited moderate to good antibacterial and antifungal activities.

Keywords: 6-Methylbenzimidazoles, Chalcones, Pyrazolines, Antimicrobial activity.


Diarrheal Diseases and Awareness at Displaced People Camp

Maria Mubarak1., Fatima Fadul Ali2., Mohamed Osman Elamin3., Alfatih Aburass4

1,2.Alzaiem Alazhri University. Sudan,

3.Faculty of Public Health, Umm Al-Qura University, KSA,

4.MOH,KSA,King Faisal Hospital.


Comparing estimates of the current global burden of the diarrheal diseases with previously published estimates, highlights that the incidences of diarrhea have not changed much, although overall diarrhea mortality has declined. For children aged less than five years in developing countries, a median of 3.2 episodes of diarrhea occurred per child-year, which is similar to that reported previously. Estimates of mortality indicate that 4.9 children per 13.6 per 1000 per year died in the developing regions because of diarrhea illness in the first 5 years of life.

A cross sectional institution based study was conducted in Alhajaj IDPs camp in Elgeneina locality, Sudan for the Assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practices of displaced people towards diarrheal diseases.  Assessment of Knowledge, attitudes and practice leading diarrheal diseases at the Alhajaj internal displace people camp. The study found that, the knowledge of the community about the common methods of transmission of diarrhoea in the camp are contamination of food, flies, contamination of hands, and contamination of water, in addition 67% of people in camp use tanks as a source of water, 22% of the people use wells, 44% of people are practicing open defecation. The study recommended that activities for raising health awareness of the community and provision of safe water supply and sanitation in the camp are a major priorities.

Keywords: Diarrheal diseases, Displaced