American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
February 2019 Issue 2

Irrational Use of Drugs – A Review

Assem Babbar, Ankit Sharma, Rahul Rawat, Naman Arora, Chirag Verma

SGRRITS, Patel Nagar, Dehradun-248001, Uttarakhand


Everybody wants to get success in their life but on the cost of their health. Due to that the chances of irrationality of drugs increase in which self-medication is one of the major cause. The basic principle for the rational use of drug is better supply of drugs, better prescribing and lower costs for health care. When the basic principle of rational use of drugs is not fulfill it leads to irrationality which further leads to adverse effects and toxicity. There are number of factors which contributes to irrationality either they are inter-related to each other or they directly have affects and it may cause some effects on health and economic consequences. There is a cycle for rational use of medicine which help the clinician to prescribe the appropriate drug for appropriate disease condition, if each step is followed appropriately the irrationality improves. The concept of “rational use of medicine” can at times be confusing and not easily appreciated by patients, healthcare providers, policy makers, or the public, all of whom needs to collaborate effectively to address this challenge and the policy makers should be need to update with current trends. 

Keywords: Irrational, Rational, Self-medication


Phytochemical Screening and Anthelmintic Activity Study of Different Stem Bark Extract of Barringtonia Acutangula.

Abinash Kumar Sahu*, Chaitanya Prasad Meher, Subodh Chandra Sahu, Raghu Nandan Hota, Srimanta Kumar Das

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, The Pharmaceutical College, Tingipali, Barpali, Bargarh, 768029, Odisha, India


Medicinal plants have much creative property due to the presence of many complex chemical substances with different chemical composition which are found as secondary plant metabolites in many parts of these plants. The aim of the study is to investigate Phytochemical screening of Petroleum ether and methanol of the stem bark extract of Barringtonia Acutangula powdered and the presence of different secondary metabolites responsible for the therapeutic values of the drug Qualitative phytochemical studies were performed on petroleum ether; Ethyl acetate and methanolic extract of Barringtonia Acutangula stem bark. The study was performed to identify its Alkaloid, Carbohydrate, Glycoside, Protein, Amino acid and flavonoids by using suitable chemicals and reagents of the different extract. The anthelmintic study shows all the two in vitro test species (Pheretima posthuma and Ascardia galli) responded towards our plant extracts by showing the sign of paralysis and death finally. and observed that the Ethyl acetate extract was most potent which is well comparable with both standard drugs as Albendazole and Piperazine citrate, followed by Methanolic extract at higher doses. Petroleum Ether extracts of all the plants were endowed with minute anthelmintic property, The Priliminary Phytochemical studies of stem was performed on its different extracts to identify its Alkaloid, Carbohydrate and Glycoside, Saponin, Protein & Amino acid, and many mores. The anthelmintic activity of the extract of ethyl acetate showing most potent as it contains mainly flavones and flavonoids, triterpenoids and phenolic compounds which may be responsible for this activity.

Keyword: Barringtonia Acutangula, Phytochemical evalution, Anthelmintic activity. piperazine citrate, Pheretima. posthuma, , Ascardia galli.


A Study on Therapeutic Evaluation of Various Antibiotics in Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Adult Patients

G.Y. Srawan Kumar*1, D.R. Brahma Reddy2, D. Sudeena3, D. Nagarjuna4, S. Neelima4, T. Kalyani4,

1. Department of Pharmaceutics, Associate professor, NIPS, Sattenapalli, Guntur.

2. Department of Phytochemistry, Professor, NIPS, Sattenapalli, Guntur.

3. Department of Pulmonology, Superintendent, Government fever hospital, Guntur.

4. Pharm D 5TH year, NIPS, Sattenapalli, Guntur.


Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are among the most common infectious disease of humans worldwide and continue to be a major cause of morbidity. The overuse and misuse of antibiotics have been related to the growing emergence of bacterial resistance, increased incidence of adverse effects and prolonged hospitalization. This article focuses on bacterial infections, which includes the larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lung parenchyma. The main objective of this study is Therapeutic evaluation of various antibiotics in LRTI, and to study the demographic profile of patients, co-morbid conditions and clinical presentation of patients diagnosed with LRT infections. We conducted a single centre, prospective observational study by selecting patients who are diagnosed to have LRTI, patient case sheets were reviewed for antibiotics, co-morbid conditions, chest x-ray reports and different lab parameters in adults who are above 18 years prescribed at Government Fever Hospital, Guntur. A total of 335 patient case sheets were reviewed in the present study during the study period. In this study we observe that the most frequently prescribed antibiotics are higher percentage of patients using Cephalosporins (51.14%) followed by Macrolides (17.09%), Metronidazole (12.58%), Penicillin’s (7.66%), Aminoglycosides (3.41%), Doxycycline (3.41%), Fluoroquinolones (3.27%), Carbapenems (1.30%) and other classes of drugs. This study concludes that LRTI usually causes minor illness, but may result in significant morbidity and mortality. Better lay and professional awareness of the often prolonged course of LRTI may improve understanding and appropriate use of antibiotics. Health care professionals are increase the awareness for improving quality of life in critically ill LRT infectious patients and preventing further complications.

Keywords: Respiratory tract, Therapeutic evaluation, Co-morbid conditions, Chest x-ray, Health care professionals, Hospitalization.