American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
May 2020 Issue 5

Clove (Syzygium Aromaticum): A Miraculous Spice

Nitin S Gosavi1*, Swapnil S Koli 1, Davesh S Jire1, Azam Z. Shaikh1.

1.Department of Pharmacognosy, Ahinsa Institute of pharmacy Dhule road Dondaicha 425408


Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is one of the most valuable spices that has been used as food preservatives and also used for the treatment of various medical conditions like dentistry and research confirms it is effective at inhibiting the growth of foodborne pathogens, certain bacteria, and fungi. They are native to the Maluku Islands in Indonesia and are commonly used as a spice, sold both whole and ground. Japanese researchers have discovered that like Eugenia Caryophyllus (also known as clove oil) contains antioxidant properties which help prevent the cell spoil in time causes malignant disease. Buds are harvested when they are under an inch (less than 2 cm.) long, before they turn pink and open. Clove consist of Eugenol (up to 90%), acetyl eugenol, beta-caryophyllene and vanillin; crategolic acid; tannins etc. A dose of 40 to 60 ppm eugenol was found to induce quick anesthesia with a relatively short time for recovery in young trout.

Keyword: Clove, Eugenol, Volatile, Spice, Anesthesia.


Assessment of Risk Factors of Congenital Hypothyroidism and Impact of Patient Counselling On Improving Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of the Disease In Post Natal Mothers-A Pilot Study

Neethu J1*,  Fathima Anwar1, Amala Alex1, Reshma R1, Rincy Rajan1, Prasobh G.R2

1.Department of pharmacy practice,Sreekrishna College of Pharmacy and Research centre, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India


Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is one of the most common endocrine disorders and one of the causes of congenital mental disability, which can be prevented in the case of early diagnosis and treatment. The only effective way to diagnose CH is screening by laboratory methods, such as thyroid- stimulating hormone (TSH) or free thyroxine (T4) measurement. The study was carried out in 15 babies who was diagnosed with hypothyroidism and their mothers from neonatology department of tertiary care hospital at thiruvananthapurm. Informed consent was obtained. Details were collected using specially designed proforma. Risk factors were assessed through information which were collected from case records and through direct interview with caregivers. Questionnaire for assessing knowledge, attitude and practice were given to post natal mothers. Knowledge ,attitude and practice before and after counselling is obtained. A total of 15 babies with congenital hypothyroidism and their mothers fulfilling the study criteria were included. Risk factors were assessed using ANOVA. Using paired t-test, statistical analysis clearly depicts that there is a significant improvement in knowledge, attitude and practice of congenital hypothyroidism in post natal mothers as well as combined with significant p-value <0.001. From this study it is concluded that most of the post natal mothers of babies with congenital hypothyroidism had shown a considerable improvement in  knowledge ,attitude and practice of the disease after counselling. Pharmacist intervention in the form of counselling is hence an integral factor in improving the knowledge, attitude and practice of congenital hypothyroidism in post natal mothers. And the most common  risk factors were mother’s age, preterm delivery, maternal hypothyroidism, multiple pregnancies, medication during pregnancy, gender


Estimation of Imatinib by Modern Analytical Techniques: A Review

Karan Kumar1, Gita Chawla1*

1. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi-110062


The introduction of imatinib, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor, as first-line standard therapy in patients with unresectable, metastatic, or recurrent gastro-intestinal stromal tumor (GIST), strongly improved their treatment outcomes. A fast and cheap method was developed and validated using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for quantification of imatinib in human serum and tamsulosin as the internal standard. Remarkable advantages of the method includes use of serum instead of plasma, less time spent on processing and analysis, simpler procedures, and requiring reduced amounts of biological material, solvents, and reagents. LC-MS, HPLC and UV Spectrophotometry validated methods have proved to be linear, accurate, precise, and robust, it is suitable for pharmacokinetic assays, such as bioavailability and bioequivalence, and is being successfully applied in routine therapeutic drug monitoring in the hospital service

Keywords: Imatinib, LC-MS, HPLC, UV Spectrophotometry.


Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS): Chemistry, Mechanism and their Adverse events.

Rajiv Tonk 1, Sumit Tewatia2, Shafqat Majeed 2, Manish Dagar 2

1. Deptt. of Pharm. Chemistry, SPS Delhi Pharmaceutical Sciences & Research University, Saket, New Delhi 110017

2. SPS Delhi Pharmaceutical Sciences & Research University, Saket, New Delhi 110017


More than 15 different non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are available commercially, and these agents are used worldwide for their analgesic antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects in patients with multiple medical conditions. NSAIDs, including aspirin, do not generally change the course of the disease process in those conditions, where they are used for symptomatic relief. The main mechanism of action of NSAIDs is the inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX). Cyclooxygenase is required to convert arachidonic acid into thromboxane’s, prostaglandins, and prostacyclin’s. Assessment of toxicity and therapeutic response to a given NSAID must take into account the time needed to reach the steady state plasma concentration (roughly equal to three to five half-lives of the drug). NSAIDs have well-known adverse effects affecting the gastric mucosa, renal system, cardiovascular system, hepatic system, and hematologic system.

Keywords: Cyclooxygenase, NSAIDS, adverse effects.


Design, Characterization and Evaluation of Quick Dissolving Matrix BARETab® ODT Tablet In Ondansetron Formulation

Monika Tomar1, *Amit Raj Sinha2

1.Sigachi® Industries Limited, Dahej SEZ, Bharuch, Gujarat, India.

2.Sigachi Industries Limited, 4th Floor, Kalayan’s Tulsiram Chambers, Madinaguda, Hyderabad, Telangana (India)


The oral dissolving tablets is defined as one, which has drug in it and when placed on tongue dissolves completely within a limited span of time, without additional requirement of water. Drug is released, dispersed in the saliva and swallowed and subsequently absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). To achieve quick disintegration in oral solid dosage forms, it’s important to have high porosity in the tablets. This allows faster penetration of water and thus accelerates the disintegration. Oral dissolving tablets are the preferred means for patients with oral disorders and patients with dysphagia. It could also be friendly, with geriatric, paediatric and mentally challenged people. Oral dissolving tablet formulation are made by many techniques but in this study, we have made BARETab® ODT quick dissolving matrix using spray drier, characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and melting point test, morphology studied by scanning electron microscope, evaluation done with physicochemical test such as bulk density, flowability, average particle size distribution, compressibility index, water content and residue on ignition. Ondansetron oral dissolving tablet was thereafter made using with BARETab® ODT quick dissolving matrix. Ondansetron oral dissolving tablet was evaluated by in-vitro testing such as physical evaluation, weight uniformity, hardness, friability, disintegration and drug released profile. BARETab® ODT quick dissolving matrix have very good morphology, every particle contains binder, filler, glidant, sweetener and super disintegrant. It has outstanding physiochemical properties which helped to deliver good quality Ondansetron tablet. It has less friability, satisfactory hardness and quick disintegration time.

Keywords: Orally Disintegrating Tablets, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, melting point, Scanning electron microscope, In-Vitro Disintegration Time


Formulation and Evaluation Of Colon Targeted Drug Delivery System Of Edotolac Tablets

K.S. Srilatha 1*  Beulah Milton 2 Dili RAJ Biswas 1

1. Department of Pharmaceutics, RR college of Pharmacy Bangalore 560090.

2. Department of Pharmacy practice, RR college of Pharmacy Bangalore 560090.


Etodolac is used for the management of rheumatoid osteoarthritis. The site of absorption of Etodolac is in the whole GI tract and has a long half-life of 7± 4 hrs. The aim of the study was to develop colon targeted compression coated tablets of Etodolac using HPMC as swellable, time-controlled polymer, Eudragit S 100 as a coating polymer guar gum and chitosan as carriers in the treatment of Osteoarthritis. All the formulations (F1 to F5) were evaluated for the physicochemical parameters and were subjected to in vitro drug release studies. The amount of Etodolac released from tablets at different time intervals was estimated by UV spectrophotometer. The formulation F3 released 95.24% of Etodolac. The results of the study showed that formulation F3 is most likely to provide targeting of Etodolac for local action in the colon owing to its minimal release of the drug in the first 5 h. The most satisfactory formulation was stable during stability studies conducted for 60 days as per ICH guidelines. It showed no significant changes in the physicochemical parameters, in vitro release pattern. The studies confirmed that, the designed formulation could be used potentially for colon delivery by controlling drug release in stomach and the small intestine.

Keywords: Etodolac, rheumatoid osteoarthritis, HPMC and colon targeted.