American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
May 2017 Issue 5

Obesity: An Overview

Satwashila Shahajirao Kadam*1, Chaitanya Dadasaheb Dangare2, Swapnali Uttam Raskar2, Anagha Ganesh Bhore2

1.Late Narayandas Bhawandas Chhabada Institute of Pharmacy (Degree), Survey no.259, At/post-Raigaon, Tal-Jaoli, Dist-Satara-415020.

2.Mahalaxmi Institute of Pharmacy (D.Pharm) Raigaon, Satara. Survey no.259, At/post-Raigaon, Tal-Jaoli, Dist-Satara-415020.


Obesity has reaches epidemic proportional globally, it is the serious and growing public health problem which is not only restrained to developed countries but also in developing countries, Obesity is not receiving the attention they deserve from primary care practitioners. Obesity is a major contributor to the global burden of chronic disease and disability often co-existing in developing countries with under-nutrition. It is associated with serious medical, psychological, economical and social implications virtually affecting all age group. The global reason behind it is an energy imbalance between calories consumed and expended. In today’s diet increased intake of energy dense foods that is rich in fat and sugars but low in vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients and a trend towards decreased physical activity due to the increasingly sedentary nature of many forms of work, changing modes of transportation, and increasing urbanization.

Keywords: Obesity, chronic disease, treatment. 


Fixed Dose Combination and Disease Management: A Review

Miji Jose1*, K. Krishnakumar1, L. Panayappan2

1.Department of Pharmacy Practice, St James College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chalakudy, Kerala

2.St James Hospital Trust Pharmaceutical Research Centre (DSIR Recognized), Chalakudy, Kerala


Fixed dose combinations (FDCs) are the combinations of two or more active drugs in a single dose form. It is the current hot topic of deliberations in the pharmaceutical industry, drug regulatory agency, and the pharmaceutical trade. Surprisingly, it is not among the doctors prescribe the medicines or the patients who consume. Basically, from one point of view it increases patient compliance, but from other point of view there are chances of consuming medicines, more than what is required. A relook and rationalization may be required in the use of combination product and this is the basis on which this article has been developed.

Keywords: Fixed dose combinations, Essential drugs.



Herbal Immunomodulators: A Review

C.G. Kulkarni1*, T.A.Daptardar1

1. Government College of Pharmacy, Karad, Maharashtra, Pin: 415124 India.


Immunity is the protective response of our body to the antigen. The traditional Indian system of medicine (Ayurveda) describes different methods involved in the prevention and treatment of disease which are consequence of diet, life style and drugs as cornerstones of therapy. Herbal products are known to modify different aspects of human physiology and exert an alleviating influence on several patho-physiological states including modulation of immune system. In recent years, studies on evaluation of the therapeutic and toxic activity of herbal medicinal products became available and popular. Several herbs have proven immuno-modulating effects in severe conditions like HIV. Present review summarizes different data with respect to herbal immuno-modulators in various disease conditions.

Keywords: Immunomodulators, HIV, herbs, Neem, Terminallia chebula.


Synthesis and Evaluation of 3-Formyl -2-Thio - 1, 2, 3, 4 - Tetrahydropyrimidine Analogues for their Antimicrobial Activity

Santhoshi Rekha Gunda1, Srikanth Lingala2*, Venkatesham A2

1. SVS Degree and PG College, Bheemaram, Hanamkonda Warangal, Telangana- 506015.

2.SVS Group of Institutions, School of Pharmacy, Bheemaram, Hanamkonda Warangal, Telangana-  506015.


Pyrimidine is a synthetic heterocyclic aromatic organic compound similar to pyridine and benzene, with two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 3 of the six membered ring. It shows isomerisation with two other forms of diazine. Aldehydes undergo cyclocondensation reaction with thiourea and ethyl acetoacetate in presence of Aluminium chloride and Conc. HCl in methanol. On cooling the solid separated was filtered and was washed with cold methanol, dried and recrystallized from methanol. Various substituted pyrimidines were synthesized using different aldehydes. Purity and the homogeneity of all the title compounds were confirmed by their sharp melting points and TLC. The newly synthesized compounds were subjected to physico-chemical and elemental analysis. The structure of all the newly synthesized compounds was confirmed by IR, 1H NMR and Mass Spectral data. The data of antibacterial activity against S. aureus, E. coli, B. subtilis and S. epidermidis was tested and Antifungal activity against A. niger, P. chrysogenum and A. flavus and zone of inhibition was recorded. Aldehydes with electron releasing groups (IId, IIg) have shown much better antibacterial activity and compounds IIc and IIf have shown better anti fungal activity than the other derivatives.

Keywords: Pyrimidine, Thiourea, Ethyl acetoacetate and Tetrahydropyrimidines.


Keratinocyte Growth Factor (KGF) and Il-10 are Possible Molecular Targets of Rebamipide Healing Activity In Experimental Oral Mucositis Induced by Chemotherapy

Sherin Zakaria1*, Ihab Talat abdel-Raheem 1,2

1. Department of pharmacology and toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Damanhour University, Damanhour, Egypt.

2. Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, college of Pharmacy, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah 21955, Saudi Arabia.


Rebamipide is an antiulcer drug that found to be effective in treatment of chemotherapy induced oral mucositis. This study investigates possible role of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) in rebamipide healing activity. Mucositis was induced by single IP injection of 5- fluorouracil  (5-FU) (150 mg/kg).  A subsets of 5-FU treated rats were treated with rebamipide suspension (30 mg/kg/ two times a day). Mucositis was assessed according to WHO grading system. Malondialdhyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), expression of IL-10, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and KGF was also assessed. Oral mucositis incidence was decreased in Rebamipide treated rats compared to 5-FU. Rebamipide induced a significant (p≤ 0.001) decrease in oxidative markers induced by 5-FU.  Rebamipide significantly inhibited expression of MPO (p≤ 0.001) as well as upregulated IL-10 (p≤ 0.01) and KGF (p≤ 0.001) compared to 5-FU.  In conclusion, Rebamipide ameliorated 5-FU induced oral mucositis. The healing effect of rebamipide may be due to IL-10 and KGF upregulation.

Keywords: Rebamipide, Oral Mucositis, IL-10, KGF 


Preparation and Characterization of Soya Protein Loaded Capsules

Mandave Akshay Kisan1*, Patil Anup Ashok1, Kumbhar Poonam Sanjay1, Momin Abdulhameed Shabbir1.

1.Gourishankar Institutes of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Limb, Satara, Survey No.990,NH-4,A/P.-Limb,Tal.&Dist.-Satara


Every cell, tissue and organ in  your body contains the micronutrient protein, which provides your body with energy. The digestive process breaks down protein in food into amino acid that repair and replenish the body. Protein helps to build muscles, produce new cells, regulate hormones and enzymes, heal wounds and promote immune function. Low dietary protein is most common in developing countries due to inadequate access to protein-rich foods. However, it can also affect people in developing countries who make poor dietary selections. Insufficient dietary protein can result in many negative side effects. So to avoid such negative effect we taken project to isolate protein and formulate into capsule.  

Keywords: Soya beans, Soy protein isolation.


Applicability Magnitude of Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diagnosis, Prevention & Treatment of Osteoporosis in Internal Medicine Practice

Sheikh Abdul Khaliq1,2*, Syed Baqir Shyum Naqvi1,2,Anab Fatima3, Bilqees Fatima2

1.Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan

2.Faculty of Pharmacy, Hamdard University, Karachi, Pakistan

3.Faculty of Pharmacy, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan


Main objective and aim of prospective, cross sectional research is to evaluate the magnitude of applicability of International Osteoporosis Foundation Guidelines for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of Osteoporosis in Asia for Pakistani population. Study was conducted during December 2015 to January 2017 in Karachi, Pakistan. Primary data has been collected from 30 internists working in private and government sector hospitals and clinics. Six main domains scope and purpose, stakeholder involvement, rigour of development, clarity of presentation, applicability, editorial independence and overall quality of IOF guide for Asia are evaluated. Data was analyzed through SPSS 20 by using descriptive statistics. Among 30 internists, number of practitioners from hospital (57%), clinic (43%), private sector (73%), government sector (27%). Magnitudes of six domains are scope and purpose 71%, stakeholder involvement 62%, rigour of development 86%, clarity of presentation 88%, applicability 85%, and editorial independence 74%, all these domains are significantly (p<0.003) lower compares to ideal score. Examination of the overall assessment by the appraisers revealed that guideline was not rejected by a majority of medical practitioners. 43.33% appraisers are interested to use or recommend guideline without any changes. Almost 53.33% rated the guidelines as being in need of modifications, while 3.33% are not interested to practice these guidelines.

Keywords: Guidelines, magnitude, applicability, osteoporosis, medicine


In Vivo and In Vitro Evaluation of Genotoxicity of four Common Umbelliferous Plants

Raneen Johar Mohamed1*, Magdy Ahmad Alkordy2,3, Mohammed N. Baeshen4

1.Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Arts, King Abdul-Aziz University, Rabigh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

2.National Research Centre, 33 El Bohouth St., El Dokki, P.O.12622 Giza, Egypt

3.Genetic & Cytology Department, Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology Division, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

4.Genomics & Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Science, University of Jeddah, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia


This study aimed to evaluate the safety of some plants that belongs to the Family Apiaceae on human health which are used daily as food spices. Four plants had been chosen namely, Foeniculum vulgare, Cuminum cyminum, Coriandrum sativum and Carum carvi. An in vivo study had been conducted with modern molecular techniques to determine the genotoxicity and mutagenicity for the study plants on rat’s genome through random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis. The rats were orally administered the aqueous extracts of the plants for a daily single dose of 5ml for 28 days. Results have shown that all the four plant extracts do not cause any genotoxic or mutagenic effects on the rat’s genome. Furthermore, an in vitro study was also performed on the human lymphocytes model by using Comet assay and evaluate the antigenotoxic or antimutagenic effects of the four plant extracts against a mutagen (Rhazya stricta leave extract). The safety and prophylactic effects of this mutagenic plants on human health and the antigenotoxic or antimutagenic effects of all the four plant extracts against R. stricta was evaluated by exposing the human blood lymphocytes to each plant extract alone and in combination with the extract of the mutagenic agent. The results showed that all the four plant extracts are genetically safe on the human lymphocytes when used alone, and showed preventive properties against mutagenic agents when mixing it with mutagenic materials. It was concluded from the study that the daily use of these plants as medicinal or culinary purposes has no harm to humans. Additionally, it can confer protective effects upon the genetic material against many harmful physical and chemical conditions. It has been recommended that all the four plant extracts are neither genotoxic nor a threat to people who use them for various medicinal or culinary purposes. Furthermore, it has also been recommended more expanded researches on these plants to take advantage of the positive aspects of the curative and preventive properties possess by these plants.


A Review On Application of HIV Inhibition Using Carbon Nanotubes

K.K.Sumayya1*, N.L.Gowri Shankar1, Raheesul Mubashireen1, P.G.Ambily1

1.Prime College of Pharmacy, Erattayal .P.O,Palakkad, Kerala-678551


Successful treatment and Control of HIV/AIDS is one of the biggest challenge of 21st century. The situation demands development of effective prevention strategies to control the pandemic of AIDS. Due to availability of an effective HIV vaccine, antiretroviral drug and nucleic acid therapeutics like siRNA have been explored for HIV prophylaxis. Nanomedicine, the structure is similar to biological structures and useful for in-vitro and in-vivo researches.  Carbon nanotubes were discovered in 1991 by Sumio lijima of NEC. Nanuotube electronic devices provide highly specific electronic sensors for detecting clinically important bimolecules like antibodies associated with human autoimmune disease and targeted delivery of drugs.

Keywords: AIDS, Nanotube, Carbon nanotube, Graphene tubes.


Antioxidant Activity of Leaves’ Extracts of Citrus Sinensis: Determination of Radical Scavenging Capacity, Antiradical Power, Total Polyphenols and Flavonoids Content

Azantsa Kingue Gabin Boris1,2*, Djuikoo Nouteza Imelda1, Takuissu Guy1, Kuikoua Tchetmi Wilfred1, Temdemnou Ethelle1, Judith Laure Ngondi1 , Julius Oben1

1. Laboratory Of Nutrition and Nutritional Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of science, University of Yaoundé 1, PO Box: 812 Yaoundé, Cameroon

2. Biotechnology Unit, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Buea, PO. Box: 63 Buea, Cameroon


Citrus sinensis has intensively been used for its nutritional and therapeutic values, usually attributed to their antioxidant properties. Several studies have earlier focused on its fruits, seeds, oils, juice and flowers. This study focuses on leaves and aimed at determining radical scavenging capacity (RSC), antiradical power(ARP), total polyphenols (TPC) and flavonoids (TFC) content of the aqueous (AE), hydroethanolic (HEE) and ethanolic (EE) extracts and their activities on free radicals DPPH•, ABTS+ and NO. Phenolic compounds of all the extracts were measured by Folin-Ciocalteu assays. RSC of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•), 2,2’-azinobis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS+) and nitric oxide (NO•) radicals were measured. Also, the reducing power of extracts on phosphomolybdenum was evaluated by total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assay, antiradical power and EC50 were determined. All the extracts possessed high TPC ranging from 306.67 ± 43.72 to 353.33 ± 30.55 µg of Eq Catechin /mg respectively for EA and EE.  EE, EA, EC showed their ability to scavenge all the radicals and an important reducing power. Aqueous extracts presented the lower EC50 (mg/ml) 4.60, 4.27, and 4.01x10-4 with DPPH•, ABTS+, NO• respectively and the highest ARP. Many correlations observed between TAC and ABTS+-RSC (r = 0.958, p<0.001), TAC and DPPH•-RSC (r= 0.934, p<0.001); TPC and DPPH•-RSC (r=0.738, p<0.05) justified its ability. leaves’ Aqueous Extracts possess high radical scavenging activity and total polyphenols, good TAC and ARP. Leaves’ extracts can be used as natural antioxidant source and deserve to be further explored for biological activities.

Keywords: Citrus sinensis, Leaves, Radical scavenging capacity, polyphenols, antioxidants


Influence of Seasonal and Geographical Variation on Plant Metabolites of Centipeda Minima

Ashish Sarkar*1, Dr.V.D.Tripathi2

1.Institute of Pharmacy, HCPG College, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India

2.Sagar Institute of Technology, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India


Traditional medicinal plants are used in treatment of number of diseases, Centipeda minima a traditional herb used in various inflammatory induced processes but still its various medicinal uses have not been identified. Centipeda minima (Asteraceae) are found in moist places. Plant being a vital component in various dosage forms therefore its quality and purity is a prime importance. Previous studies revealed that a number of active compounds have been extracted from centipede minima. But till now  there is no evidence has been obtained to indicate whether the active compounds consistently present throughout different seasons and geographical conditions , present study deals with change in any major or minor variation in the plant constituents due to change in season or region. The current study indicates that secondary metabolites contents in Centipeda minima are highest in monsoon season while lowest in summer where as minor significant changes are observed in change in geographical distribution. These results indicate that the secondary metabolites quantity is highly affected by seasonal changes where as geographical distribution plays minor role. Therefore this information will give additional benefit during collection and cultivation of centipede minima.

Keywords: Centipeda minima, geographical and Seasonal Variation, secondary metabolites.