American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
February 2017 Issue 2

Formulation and Design of Sustained Release Matrix Tablets of Lamivudine: Combination of Chitosan and HPMC

Harekrishna Roy 1,*, Bhabani Shankar Nayak2

1.Research Scholar, Biju Patnaik University of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha, India

2.Department of Pharmaceutics, Jeypore College of Pharmacy, Rondapalli, Koraput, Odisha, India


The current paper was a shot to style a sustained unharness dosage kind victimisation varied grades of hydrophilic polymers, Hypromellose or Hydroxy- propyl alkyl radical polysaccharide (HPMC K15M, HPMC K100M) and Chitosan additionally incorporated as rate retarding material. Laboratory scale batches of Six tablet formulations were ready by wet granulation technique (Low shear). Micromeritic properties of the granules were evaluated before compression. Tablets were characterized as crushing strength, friability, weight variation, thickness, Drug content or assay and evaluated for in-vitro unharness pattern for fifteen unit of time victimisation Phosphate buffer of suitable pH at 37±0.5°C. Results and discussion: The results obtained discovered that HPMC K15M, Chitosan and Ethylcellulose at an acceptable concentration formulation (F6) was able to sustain the drug unharness for fifteen hours and followed Higuchi pattern similar Fickian diffusion. moreover production validation scale batches were designed supported laboratory scale best batch and charged for stability testing. it had been found that every one parameters were at intervals the limit of acceptance. There was no chemical interaction found between the drug and excipients throughout FT-IR and DSC study thought of in the present investigation. therefore it may be over that combinely polymers at an acceptable concentration will effectively be formulate to sustain the drug unharness.

Keywords: Lamivudine, Chitosan, Higuchi, Validation, Drug content.


Phytochemical and Anthelmintic Activity of Andrographis Paniculata Leaves Extracts

R. Kalaiselvi*1, K. Vijayakumar1, S. Sarulatha

1. Department of Biochemistry, M.I.E.T Arts and Science College, Trichy, Tamilnadu, India.


The present study was aimed to investigate the phytochemical and anthelmintic effect of aqueous and acetone extracts of Andrographis paniculata leaves on Indian earth-worm Pheretima posthuma. The aqueous and acetone extracts were prepared and various phytoconstituent tests were conducted to find the compounds present in the leaves of A. paniculata. Then in vitro activity is determined. Three concentrations (10, 50, 100 mg/ml) of each extract were studied in activity which involved the determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the worms. The leaves extracts of A. paniculata which contains the various phytoconstituents such as tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids etc. Both the extracts exhibited significant anti-helmintic activity in a dose dependent manner. In present investigations confirms that the leaves extracts of A. paniculata contains various phytoconstituents and this leaves which contains the anthelmintic activity against the Pheretima posthuma.

Keywords: Anthelmintic activity, Andrographis paniculata, Pheretima posthuma, tannins.


Phytochemical and Anthelmintic Studies on the Whole Plant of Leonotis Nepetifolia (L). R.BR.

K.Vasuki1*, G. Murugananthan1, P. Ragavi1

1.Department of Pharmacognosy, Swamy Vivekanandha College of Pharmacy, Tiruchengode, Tamilnadu, India.


In the present study ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the whole plant of Leonotis nepetifolia (L). R.Br. were investigated for their anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma. Three concentrations (25, 50 and 75 mg/ml) of each extract were subjected for evaluation. The study is mainly concerned with the determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the worm. The gradual increase in the dose showed a gradual increase in the anthelmintic activity. The ethanolic extract of the whole plant showed a significant anthelmintic activity at highest concentration of 75 mg/ml in shorter time as near to Albendazole (Standard drug).

Keywords: Leonotis nepetifolia (L). R.Br., Pheretima posthuma, Albendazole, Anthelmintic activity


Monitoring Efficacy of Therapeutic for Rotavirus Diarrhea Hospitalizations in Yemen based on WHO Guideline

Mohammed Amood AL-Kamarany 1,2 *, Lina Al-Areqi 3 , Abulatif Mujally 3 , Fawzya Alkarshy 3

1. Department of Pharmacy Practice,  Faculty of Clinical Pharmacy, and Tropical Medicine Center,  Hodeidah University, Hodeidah City, Yemen

2.Tihama Foundation for Medical Pharmaceutical Studies & Research, Hodeidah City , Yemen

3.The Yemeni-Swedish Hospital ,  Taiz City , Yemen


To assess the efficacy of therapeutic on Rotavirus diarrheal hospitalizations among children < 5 years of age   based on world health organization (WHO) guideline. Based on a longitudinal observational study, 1027 fecal samples were collected from children (less than 5 years), suffering from diarrhea attended at the Yemeni Swedish hospital (YSH) in Taiz , Yemen from January 2009  to December 2012 .  Rotavirus infection was detected by re – validated enzyme linkage immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on stool specimens of children. The treatment course consists of  two methods, namely, intravenous rehydration fluid therapy  (IV) for inpatient and oral rehydration fluid  therapy (OR) for outpatient with treatment of the major  symptoms, namely,  fever and vomiting based on anti – pyretic and anti – emetic if necessary . The efficacy of therapy quality outcomes was assessed clinically and reported. Firstly, the results of re - validated  ELISA method were precise to each analyte with percent relative standard deviation (RSD %) of intra-assay and inter – assay (< 5.0 %). Furthermore, the interval of accuracy for the method exhibited well recovery value of 93 - 100 % and the coefficient correlation (R2) value was  0.99 as a good linear method for Rotavirus infection. Secondly ,  A total of  581  out of  1027  (56.57 %) patients were admitted as inpatients for IV  fluid  therapy  ,  while  446  (43.43 %) were seen in the outpatient ward  receiving  OR  fluid  therapy . The recovery of patients was 98.10 % for IV and 98.43 % for OR, statistically, that was not significantly different (p> 0.05) . In conclusion , A successful   Rotavirus  treatment guidelines in Yemen will rely upon best sustained diagnosis by application Good Laboratory Practice (GLP)  which is clear in specific  – precise , reliable and  accurate method to detect the virus  and the best efficacy of therapy by Good Clinical Practice (GCP) which is clear in treatment  of  Rotavirus diarrhea which protects against dehydration by fluid therapy .

Keywords: Rotavirus, Monitor, Therapy, Diarrhea, Validation, ELISA 


Formulation and Evaluation of Fast Dissolving Oral Film Using Natural Polymer Pullulan

Kadam Vaishali S1,* Mundhe Bhagyashri1, Shendarkar G.R2. Kadam Sangita S3

1.Department of Pharmceutics, Indira College of Pharmacy, Nanded.

2.Nanded college of pharmacy, Nanded, Maharashtra India.

3.Shri  ramrao patil ayurved college  Purna District Parbhani , Maharashtra India


Fast dissolving oral film was prepared by using pullulan as a film forming agent, glycerine as a plasticizer, Aspartame as sweetening agent. Solvent  casting method was used for formulation of film. The 2 x 2 cm film is placed on tongue it get instantly hydrated by saliva ,adhere to tongue and rapidly disintegrate and dissolves to release the drug.  The prepared films were also evaluated for their weight uniformity, thickness, surface pH, drug content, in vitro disintegration time, in vitro drug release, film stability and mechanical properties as folding endurance.  The film thickness (mm) ranges from 0.021±0.0015 to 0.032±0.015 and the folding endurance ranges from 9.33±0.577 to 14.23±1.15 respectively. The drug content (mg %) was studied and it ranges from 97.04±1.08 to 99.07±1.02. Increase in the levels of Glycerin causes an increase in the Folding Endurance while Pullulan had a negative effect. A plasticizer has a negative effect on the Drug Release. % Drug Release of the film increased with decrease in levels of both polymer and plasticizer. All film having acceptable mechanical properties and the time required to disintegrate were within 25 second and total % drug release is in 5 min. Stability study of optimized Fast Dissolving Film of Buspirone hydrochloride was revealed for 3 month which shows no significant difference. This study revealed, successful formulation of Fast Dissolving Oral Film. The Fast Dissolving Oral Film  showed highest drug release and average folding endurance. The high % drug release of the film in phosphate buffer pH 6.8 at 5 min indicated that these films can be real alternative to traditional OTC product like tablets and capsule.

Keywords: Fast dissolving oral film, film forming agent, plasticizer, Solvent casting method.


A Study of Modified Triple Test Score for Assessment of Palpable Breast Lump

Anju nagar1*, Pratik Porwal1 , R.S. Meena2

1 Dept .of General Surgery Government Medical College Kota, Rajasthan, INDIA

2. Dept. of General Surgery Government Medical College Kota, Rajasthan, INDIA


Breast lump is a common complaint of women presenting to surgeons. Although most of them are benign, careful evaluation, exact diagnosis and definite treatment is mandatory to rule out cancer.  Young women are conventionally evaluated by triple test score which consists of clinical breast examination, mammography and fine needle aspiration biopsy. The sensitivity of mammography is low in young breast owing to its increased glandular component. Ultrasonography can be used for evaluation and diagnosis these breast lumps with sensitivity and specificity more than 80%. This study evaluated the efficacy of ultrasound instead of mammography in the conventional ‘triple test score’ for diagnosis of palpable breast lumps in young females and compare the result with open biopsy. 50 females with breast mass, of the age group 15 to 60 years were selected randomly and assessed by clinical breast examination, local ultrasonography of both breasts and fine needle aspiration biopsy to calculate a ‘modified triple test score’.  The ‘modified’ score was calculated by assigning score 1 for benign, score 2 for suspicious and score 3 for malignant results in each component and adding them up. All the masses were thereafter evaluated by open biopsy with consent. Score of 4 or less is interpreted as benign, 5 as inconclusive/equivocal, 6 or more as malignant in Modified Triple Test Score.  In the study, out of 50 patients 41 scored 3 or 4 points; all of which were benign, 3 scored 5 points; of which 1 was malignant and 6 scored 6 or more points; all of which were malignant. In our study we studied the results of score Points along with the final histopathology of the respective patient. Breast masses with a MTTS of 7 or more points were accurately diagnosed as malignant, thus a score of 7 or more points can proceed to definitive therapy, masses scoring 4 or less points were all benign could be safely observed and masses scoring 5 points need further evaluation with clinical examination and open biopsy. The MTTS is as accurate as conventional TTS in evaluation of breast masses in Young females and can avoid unnecessary evaluation. The score was particularly found to be useful for evaluation and analysis of breast lumps in young females.

Keywords: Modified triple test score (MTTS); Palpable breast masses; Benign; Malignant. 


Efficacy of Hydrocortisone Alone and its Combination Therapy with Rainwater for the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis

Shahab Ahmed Shakir Al-Azzawi*

1.Department of Family and Community Medicine, Medical College, University of Diyala, Iraq


Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin disease in children, a chronic, pruritic inflammatory skin disease that usually starts in early infancy. But also affects many adults. It follows a relapsing course, that adversely affects the quality of life of patients and their families. This study was carried out to evaluate and compare the efficacy of hydrocortisone alone and its combination therapy with rainwater for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. This prospective, comparable study was carried out in the dermatological department of Baqubah teaching hospital, outpatient clinic. A total of 120 patients of (1-12 years) old attending outpatient clinic and diagnosed by dermatological specialist as cases of moderate to severe atopic dermatitis from October 2016 to January 2107 were selected and randomized into two groups of 60 patients of each group, Group -A treated with combination therapy of hydrocortisone with rainwater and Group-B  treated with hydrocortisone alone for 8 weeks. Patients were assessed for severity according to the SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) Index. Subsequent examination at weekly interval was used to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment for 8 weeks. A p-value lower than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 117 patients were completed the study period of 8 weeks (group –A,59 and Group-B,58). A statistically significant difference was observed in the family history of atopic dermatitis among both groups. Significant response was observed at the end of 8 weeks of treatment, in Group-A (96.61%), while in Group-B (87.93%), according to the clinical assessment grades of atopic dermatitis , and during  the follow up, a statistically significant decrease in SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) in comparison of the two groups. Group –A was found to respond significantly better in term of mean percentage decrease in SCORAD as compared with Group-B during the whole study period (P value <0.001) at each follow up. From a medical as well as an economical viewpoint, hydrocortisone combination therapy with rainwater as lotion was safe and highly acceptable to patients and cheap. A good alternative in case a child was unresponsive or intolerable to hydrocortisone and for the treatment of intertiginous areas.

Keywords: Atopic dermatitis, Hydrocortisone, Rainwater, SCORAD