American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
May 2015 Issue 5

Orally Disintegrating Strips (ODS) Convenience of Liquid Dosage Form and Dose Accuracy of Solid Dosage Form

Pushpendra kumar Vishwakarma*1, Pravin Deshkar1, Nimesh Lal1, Swati Dhudkewar1

1. Unijules Life science Ltd. 1505/1 Universal square, Shanti Nagar, Nagpur-440002 Maharashtra, India.


Administration of drugs via the oral mucous membrane has been considered as a promising alternative to the oral route. When rapid onset of action is required in terms of better patient compliance over other conventional solid dosage forms “Buccal route” has been preferred. The area covered by tongue are more permeable than other regions of buccal cavity. By last few years group of researchers are focusing on an innovative drug delivery system called “Orally Disintegrating Strips” (ODS). The large surface area of the Strip allows fast dissolving action and provides new solution for forbearing suffering from dysphagic situation. Oral Disintegrating strips are still in initial phase with a great future ahead as it fulfills the current needs of patients. ODS provides an alternate platform for the drugs that undergo the effect of stomach environment and First pass metabolism. This review article suggests the advantages of ODS over the traditional used medication treatment & the scope associated with business prospective.

Keywords: Oral Disintegrating Strips, films, B-Thyn12, Filzeal,DXThyn-DS, Bioavailability


Identification and Management of Steven Johnson Syndrome Induced Due to Cefixime and Ofloxacin in A Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patient: A Case Report

Walli Mohammed1*, Samreen Afroz1, Sushanta Kr. Das1, V. Uma Maheswara Rao1

1. Department of Pharm. D, CMR College of Pharmacy, Kandlakoya (V), Hyderabad - 501401, Telangana State, India.


Cefixime and Ofloxacin is one of the common antibiotic combination used in India. Though antibiotic combination therapy can possess with higher complications but useful in various conditions. Cefixime and Ofloxacin induced Steven Johnson Syndrome is common in patients and can be easily identified but situations turns opposite when same complication developed in a patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus because, the complication in both the conditions mimic each other therefore, careful examination with supported various laboratory data and past medical/medication history helps proper identification of such conditions. Management of Steven Johnson Syndrome requires prompt withdrawal of suspected/offended drug along with supportive therapy which includes; fluid & electrolyte replacement, systemic and topical corticosteroids, topical anesthetics and antiseptic mouth washes.

Keywords: Cefixime, Ofloxacin, Steven Johnson Syndrome, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Identification and Management.


Synthesis and Structural Studies of 2,5- Diaryl/Dialkylimino-1,3,4-Thiadiazolidines and their Acetyl and Nitroso Derivatives

Reshal Deshmukh1*

1. Department of Chemistry, Shri Shivaji Science College, Congress Nagar Nagpur-440012 M.S (India).


Synthesis with Spectral analysis of some 2,5-Symmetrically substituted -1,3,4-thiadiazolidines(II) have been achieved through innovative route by the interaction of 1,6-diaryl/dialkyl-2,5-bithioureas(I) with iodine containing KI and NaOH. The interaction involved the oxidative cyclisation of the compound by elimination of hydrogen sulphide gas. The compound (II) thus prepared, were successfully acetylated by acetic anhydride and glacial acetic acid. The nitroso derivatives were also prepared from compound (II) and the structure of all these compounds were established on the basis of elemental analysis, IR and PMR spectral data.

Keyword: 5-membered ring system with N & S, Diaza derivative of thiophene, Vital important drug, Pesticides.


Dissolution Enhancement of Domperidone Maleate by Preparing Fast Dissolving Tablets Using Liquisolid Compact Technique

Ansari Afaque M1*, Patil Ravikant Y1, Dharmashale Swapnil N1, Mule Priyanka1

1. D.S.T.S. Mandal’s College of Pharmacy, Jule Solapur-1, Bijapur Road, Solapur-413004, Maharashtra, India.


Domperidone maleate is dopamine receptor blocking agent and first choice drug in antiemetic category. Major drawback of this drug is its very low water solubility and low erratic absorption from gastrointestinal tract. The purpose of present investigation was to increase the solubility and dissolution rate of Domperidone maleate by preparation of liquisolid compacts and preparation of fast dissolving tablets by direct compression method. Superdisinegrants used were Crospovidone, Croscarmellose Sodium and Sodium Starch glycolate. Propylene glycol, Polyethylene glycol 200, Polyethylene glycol 400 was used as a liquid vehicle and Avicel-PH 102, Aerosil-200 as a carrier and coating material respectively. Tablets were prepared and evaluated for various parameters like hardness, thickness, friability, weight variation, wetting time, in-vitro disintegration time, in-vitro dispersion time, in-vitro dissolution study. Formulation F13 showed 95.5 % drug release within 30 min. It was inferred that liquisolid compact technique is useful in enhancement of dissolution rate and bioavailability of Domperidone maleate.

Keywords: Domperidone maleate, liquisolid compact, Croscarmellose Sodium, Sodium starch glycolate.


Synthesis and Evaluation of 4-(2-Substituted-1h-Benzo [D]Imidazol-1-Yl)-N-Methylpyridine-2-Carboxamide Derivatives for their Antimicrobial and Anthelmintic Activity

Srikanth Lingala1*

1. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Prasad Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Warangal.


The resistance to anthelmintic drugs has created a major hitch throughout the world over the decades. As per the WHO only a few drugs are used as anthelmintic agents in the recent days for human beings in the treatment of helminth infestations. An attempt has been made to synthesize some novel benzimidazole derivatives with N-methyl picolinamide moiety at 1H position of the benzimidazoles. And, some novel derivatives of 4-(2-substituted-1h-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl)-n-methylpyridine-2-carboxamide have been synthesized as given in the scheme. All the newly synthesized final compounds and intermediates were purified and their IR, 1H NMR, and Mass spectral data have confirmed the chemical structures. All the newly synthesized molecules were examined for their anthelmintic activity against Indian adult earthworms (pheretima posthuma) at different concentrations (0.2% and 0.5%) and antibacterial activity against S.epidermidis, S.typhi, B.subtilis, B.cereus, P.aeruginosa and K.pneumoniae. Many of the newly synthesized molecules which were tested for the biological activity have shown promising activities when compared with that of the standard drugs.

Keywords: Picolinic acid, Benzimidazoles, Antimicrobial agents, Anthelmintic drugs.


Correlation of Height with Blood Pressure in School Going Children of Meerut Region

Deepak Kumar Garg1*, Sudeep Kumar3, Manisha Arora2, Roshan Kumar Mahat2, Rajiv Nehra4, Shashank Tyagi2, Jyoti Batra3

1.Department of Physiology, Gold Field Institute of Medical Sciences & Research, Chhainsa, Faridabad Haryana, India

2. Department of Biochemistry, Muzaffarnagar Medical College, Muzaffarnagar UP India.

3.Department of Biochemistry, Santosh Medical College, Ghaziabad, UP ,India.

4.Department of Biochemistry, LLRM Medical College, Meerut, UP, India.


The reports of longitudinal study of blood pressure in childhood suggest an important role for early detection and enhancing a better understanding of the natural history of elevated blood pressure. Many of the risk factors associated with development of hypertension are preventable. Early identification of children at risk for hypertension is important to prevent serious complications in future adulthood. The present study was aimed to determine the percentile of systolic and diastolic blood pressures and to investigate distribution of blood pressure and its association with anthropometric parameters. A cross-sectional study among 300 school children (in the age group of 3-12 years), selected by stratified random sampling was conducted in Meerut. Personal data were collected through a pre-tested questionnaire. Blood pressure and height were measured through standardized techniques. The distributions of blood pressure by anthropometric characteristics were examined. Mean, standard deviation and correlation coefficient were used for statistical analysis using SPSS 16 software.

Keywords: Hypertension, Blood Pressure, Anthropometric Parameters, Height.


Fundamental Understanding of Pharmacoeconomics as an Innovative Concept within the Modern Clinical Pharmacy in Today’s Healthcare System

Kemal M. Surji*1

1. Hawler Medical University, College of Pharmacy, Erbil, Kurdistan-Iraq.


The objective of this article is to present the essential information regarding a novel concept of pharmacoeconomics with the purpose of enhancing today’s young pharmacy students’ understanding of the economic theory, terminology and its effect on the healthcare system. Furthermore, to assist the healthcare policy makers and providers in making decision for evaluating the affordability of medications and access to logical drug use. As the rapid changes in modern medicine is adding to the intricacy of drug therapy, the expansion of the role of pharmacists becomes extremely vital in healthcare. Therefore, the knowledge of pharmacoeconomics considered as the essential component of their profession. Pharmacoeconomics is a set of techniques to assess the Economic, Clinical and Humanistic Outcomes (ECHO) of pharmaceutical products and services. The two primary components of pharmacoeconomic studies are measures of costs and outcomes. It can be measured using the five methods such as, Cost minimization analysis (CMA), Cost of Illness (COI), Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), Cost-utility analysis (CUA), and Cost-benefit analysis (CBA).Pharmacoeconomics and OutcomeResearch have a significant function in the management of medication expenditure. The cost of medicines are constantly growing; therefore, the price of drugs do matter as many people in developing countries are living below-poverty-line. Consequently, countless poor individual families frequently face an option of purchasing medicines or buying groceries and perhaps other necessities due to limited resources and the high cost of the drugs. Presently pharmacoeconomics role in many developing countries is in early stages with a limited knowledge of the subject; hence, clear methodology, education, and initiative are required for its maturity.

Keywords: Benefit to cost ratio, direct medical cost, drug cost, intangible cost, pharmacoeconomic evaluation, quality-adjusted life year.


Pattern of Use of Atypical Anti Psychotics in Psychiatry in Patients Department of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital

V P Singh1, P.Yadav1*

1. Professor in Department of Pharmacology, Dr D Y Patil Medical college, Nerul Navi Mumbai.


Psychoses are among the most severe psychiatric disorders. In Schizophrenia there is splitting of perception and interpretation from reality-hallucinations, inability to think coherently. The atypical antipsychotics are widely prescribed based on the perception that they are more effective and produce fewer side effects than the typical antipsychotic. The aim is to study the drug utilization of use of atypical antipsychotics in the inpatient of psychiatry department of a tertiary care teaching hospital. All 131 schizophrenic patients hospitalized during the six month period in 2012 were included in the study. Most commonest antipsychotic prescribed was Olanzapine. In our study antipsychotic polypharmacy 95 (72.5%) was seen in majority of patients. Polypharmacy with atypical antipsychotics is on the rise.

Keywords: Schizophrenia, atypical antipsychotics, Olanzapine, Polypharmacy.


Analytical Method Development and Validation for Estimation of Poly (Hexamethylene Biguanide) Hydrochloride in Marketed Formulation

Anandkumari D. Captain1, Romel M. Patel2*, Neel G. Changela2, Vaishali V. Karkhanis1, Usmangani K. Chhalotiya3

1. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, A. R. College of Pharmacy and G. H. Patel Institute of Pharmacy, Vallabh Vidyanagar.

2. Department of Quality Assurance, A. R. College of Pharmacy and G. H. Patel Institute of Pharmacy, Vallabh Vidyanagar.

3. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Indukaka Ipcowala College of Pharmacy, New V. V. Nagar.


The objective of this study was to establish a reasonably simple and reliable method to estimate Poly (hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride [PHMB] in marketed formulation. New methods like UV & HPTLC were developed for estimation of Poly (hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride with all the validation parameters within range. Both the methods were developed and validated as per regulatory guidelines. UV method was developed in Water as a solvent. Linearity was found to be 2-12μg/ml for Poly (hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride. The method was found to be accurate, precise according to acceptance criteria. The proposed UV method can be applicable for the estimation of the drug in marketed formulation. HPTLC method was developed using mobile phase Methanol:O-phosphoric acid (10: 0.5 %v/v). In HPTLC method linearity was found 2000-12000ng/spot for Poly (hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride. HPTLC method was found to be simple, accurate and precise. The developed HPTLC method can be applicable for the estimation of the drug in marketed formulation. Developed methods can be applied in routine analysis for the estimation of Poly (hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride in marketed formulation.

Keywords: UV, HPTLC, poly (hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride, marketed formulation.


Effect of Aurum Metallicum on Adjuvant Induced Arthritis in Albino Rats

Prabhakar Raosaheb Patil1*, Rohit Dixit1, Sanappa Ramabhimaiah1, Rajesh Chigatanahalla Subramanya1, Sudha Madhuri1, Abhay Mane2

1 Navodaya Medical College, Raichur.

2 Smt Kashibai Navale Medical College, Pune.


Aurum metallicum is the homeopathic preparation of gold. The present study was done to evaluate whether Aurum metallicum is having any anti-rheumatic activity. Arthritis was induced by injecting 0.1ml of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant in left paw of each rat. Aurum metallicum at three dilutions (6, 30 and 200 cH), distilled water and Diclofenac sodium (5mg/Kg) were given daily for 16 consecutive days to the treatment groups, control group and reference group respectively. Treatment started from day 8th day after Complete Freund’s Adjuvant injection. Mean Paw volumes (Primary and Secondary), Thymus weight, Spleen weight and Total body weight were noted after 21 days of Complete Freund’s adjuvant administration. Arthritis index was on 21st day post Complete Freund’s adjuvant injection. The Aurum metallicum at the dilution of 6cH showed decrease in mean paw volume on 21st day post Complete Freund’s Adjuvant administration (P<0.01). Aurum metallicum at dilution 6cH and 30 cH showed less weight gain in thymus gland and spleen compared to control (P<0.01, and P<0.05 respectively). Arthritis index was reduced Aurum metallicum at 6 cH. Aurum metallicum has anti-arthritic activity at dilution of 6cH as shown by various parameters discussed above.

Keywords: Knee, Complete Freund’s Adjuant, Arthritis index, Nanoparticles, Gold, DMARDs.


A Clinical Study on the Role of Shallaki and Matra Basti of Ksheerbala Tail in the Management of Sandhivata w.s.r. to Osteoarthritis

Anil Bhardwaj1*, Soni Kapil2, Chetan Mehta3, B. P. Tripathi4

1. Senior Lecturer, P.G. Dept. of Panchkarm, R.G. Govt. P. G. Ayurvedic College, Paprola Dist. Kangra, H.P.

2. Lecturer, P.G. Dept. of Prasuti Tantra & Stri Roga, R.G. Govt. P. G. Ayurvedic College, Paprola Dist. Kangra, H.P.

3. AMO, Govt. Ayurvedic Health Centre, Nijjran, Dist. Jalandhar, Pb.

4. Reader & Guide, Govt. Autonomous Ayurvedic College, Rewa, M.P.


Sandhivata is briefly described in Ayurvedic texts. In Charaka Samhita the disease is first described as Sandhigata anila, but Sandhivata is not described in 80 types of Nanatmaja vata vyadhi. Depending upon its symptoms it can be correlated with Osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis is most common degenerative joint disorder of idiopathic etiology. Secondary OA is pathologically indistinguishable from idiopathic OA. It begins asymptomatically in the second and third decades and is extremely common by age 70. Females are prone with 25% prevalence, whereas males have a prevalence of 16%. In this study 80 patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria were selected and divided in two groups. In first group Patients were administered with 500 mg capsule of Shallaki, 2 g per day (in two divided doses) with lukewarm water (n=40). In second group patients were administered capsule of Shallaki, 2 g per day (in two divided doses) and Ksheerbala Tail Matra basti simultaneously. After the course of therapy highly significant result were observed in both groups but results were more promising in Second Group (n=40).

Key words: Sandhivata , osteoarthritis, Shallaki, Matra basti, degenerative joint disease.