American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
January 2018 Issue 1

Prevalence of Dementia and Cognitive Impairment after Stroke: An Epidemiological Study

Sandeep Kumar Beemreddy1*, Amulya Reddy Gade1, Venumadhav Neerati1

1.Department of Pharmacy Practice, St. Peter’s Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hanamkonda, Warangal-506 001, India


Vascular dementia and cognitive impairment are major problems in stroke which must be diagnosed properly and very less effort is put into management of cognitive decline after stroke. This study is a prospective; questionnaire based observational study conducted for 6 months among stroke patients admitted into in patient setting of a tertiary care teaching hospital done to estimate the prevalence of stroke based on age, sex and educational status and to estimate the prevalence of dementia and cognitive impairment among stroke patients using neuropsychological testing. Data was collected from a total of 181 stroke patients of the age distribution 20 to 85 y with a mean age of 57.68±12.34 y and 75.6% patients were diagnosed with ischemic stroke and 24.3% with hemorrhagic stroke. Majority (76.79%) of patients were from rural population. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, Revised text criteria were used to assess dementia. Mini-mental state examination and short portable mental state questionnaire were used to know the extent of cognitive impairment. Various comorbid conditions like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease and epilepsy were observed in 69.06% patients. The percentage (45.83%) of people with mild cognitive impairment is high with short portable mental state questionnaire and the percentage (77.69%) of people with moderate dementia is high using mini-mental state examination. 92.81% patients out of 181 were prescribed with neuroprotective drugs. The tools used for screening dementia are not perfect in case of uneducated patients and patients with low education. Current hypotheses and methodologies for the management of post-stroke dementia must be re-evaluated, and new strategies need to be explored.

Keywords: Stroke, Dementia, Cognitive impairment, MMSE, SPMSQ


Study on Neutrophil - Lymphocyte ratio among women with Gestational diabetes mellitus

P.L.Rajagopal1, K.R.Sreejith1, K.Premaletha1, S.Aneeshia2

1. Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Academy of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Pariyaram Medical College, Kannur, Kerala.

2.Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Academy of Paramedical Sciences, Pariyaram Medical College, Kannur, Kerala.


The aim of the present study was to evaluate the neutrophil lymphocyte ratio as a predictive marker of gestational diabetes. Total leukocyte counts and differential leukocyte counts were measured manually. The results after analysis revealed that there was an increased neutrophil lymphocyte ratio among the women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: Neutrophil, lymphocyte, Gestational Diabetes Mellitus


Development of Pharmaceutical Industry in Senegal.

Ndao Y*1, Diarra M2

1. Dr Youssou NDAO, Laboratory of Galenic and Legislation, Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacy and Dentistry (F.M.P.O.), University Cheikh Anta Diop of Dakar (U.C.A.D.)

2. Mounibé DIARRA, Pharmaceutical Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacy and Odontology, University Cheikh Anta Diop of Dakar (U.C.A.D.), Postbox 5005, Dakar-Fann, Sénégal.


Pharmaceutical industry in France stems from pharmacy practice and the State trusted pharmacist who had to control his company. Beginning in 1941, state gradually regulated and then controlled all activities of the drug industry, because of major impact of its products on Public Health. In Senegal, these old provisions have been taken over by article L596 of Book V. Pharmaceutical industrial sector is dependent on foreign manufacturers, where 85% of our drug needs are imported. The objective of our publication is to contribute to the development of local pharmaceutical industry. To achieve this, we have reviewed the literature on pharmaceutical industry and certain provisions of OHADA uniform act that encourage creation of pharmaceutical companies. US market remains the largest with 41% of the world market and Africa is the second most dynamic market with an average annual growth rate of more than 10%. In West Africa, Nigeria and Ghana are at the top. For a production emergence in third world, main obstacles lies at the level of patents and licenses. In Senegal, where 85 to 90% of drug used are imported, difficulties are related to registration, competition of imported products, and especially the lack of regional purchasing power stations weigh on the local industries. Today, where an incentive tax regime exists in Senegal, uniform act would be an opportunity to create new pharmaceutical companies.

Keywords: Pharmaceutical industry - article L596 - uniform act - drug - Shareholders' agreements - Carriage agreement.


A Review on the Assessment of the Efficacy of the Diet in Women with Polycystic Ovary Disorder

P Salome Satya Vani 1*, S. Prudvi Raj1, P Pallav1, C. Ramya1, D. Swathi1

1. Pullareddy Institute of Pharmacy, Dommadugu, Sangareddy, Telangana, India1


The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is defined as a combination of Hyperandrogenism (hirsutism and acne) and anovulation (oligomenorrhea, infertility, and dysfunctional uterine bleeding), with or without the presence of polycystic ovaries on ultrasound. It represents the main endocrine disorder in the reproductive age, affecting 6% - 15% of women in menacme. It is the most common cause of infertility due to anovulation, and the main source of female infertility. PCOS is becoming commoner due to increased awareness and the global increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. When in the presence of a menstrual disorder, the diagnosis of PCOS is reached in 30% - 40% of patients with primary or secondary amenorrhea and in 80% of patients with oligomenorrhea. PCOS should be diagnosed and treated early in adolescence due to reproductive, metabolic and oncological complications which may be associated with it. Treatment options include drugs, diet and lifestyle improvement. The optimal approach to dietary management of patients with PCOS gives beneficiary effects. Some studies revealed that PCOS is associated with overweight or obesity; successful weight reduction is the most effective method of restoring normal ovulation and menstruation. Low-carbohydrate diet and sustained regular exercise may help. It has been recommended that a diet in which a significant part of total carbohydrates is obtained from fruit, vegetables and whole grain sources may be helpful.

Keywords: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Infertility, Anovulation, Hyperandrogenism, Insulin Resistance.