American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
May 2014 Issue 5

Role of Glutathione-S-Transferase gene susceptibility in patient with Bronchial asthma

Chandan Kumar1 , Priyanka Gaur1, Sarika Pandey2, Bhattacharya S*1

1.Department of Physiology King George's Medical University, Lucknow

2.Department of Pulmonary Medicine King George's Medical University, Lucknow


Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world which can cause considerable morbidity and a significant mortality.  Hence it is important to find out the different molecular diagnostic marker which can be use for early detection as well as treatment of patient with bronchial asthma.  GST biomarkers is likely become important not only as risk factors in the pathogenesis of asthma but also as determinants of responsiveness to treatment. This review represents the evidence reported  the association between gene polymorphism of glutathione-s-transferases (GSTs) GSTP1, GSTM1, GSTT1 gene and bronchial asthma. The data of Indian scenario demonstrate that the Polymorphism of Glutathione-s-transferase gene GSTT1, GSTM1 and GSTP1 is not significantly associated with Bronchial asthma in northern Indian population due to low sample size.

Keywords: Bronchial Asthma; GST; Polymorphism



Challenges and Alarm for Growing Ageing Population In India: A Review

Kirti Udayai1*, Suvendu Sekhar Panda1, Piyush Kumar2

1.International Institute of Health Management Research (IIHMR), Plot No-3, Sector 18A, Dwarka,New Delhi

2.Senior Consulting Analyst, Frost & Sullivan, Brunton Rd, Sivanchetti Gardens, Bangalore


The phenomenon of ageing is gradually becoming a challenge worldwide, especially for developing countries like India.  It is estimated that the elderly population will contribute 19% of the total population by 2050 against the current contribution of merely 8%. This exponential growth in the elderly population is sure to pose some serious socio–economic challenges for India. The burgeoning elderly population in India faces many issues like poor access to healthcare facilities, concern for healthcare, financial insecurity, isolation, domestic abuse, low self-esteem, neglect and idleness. This paper makes as effort to highlight the issues of elderly and their root cause. The various measures needed to be adopted to bring a change in the current miserable state of the elderly. The Government intervention required to reframe the existing policies and bring into new reforms to provide a secure and health life to the people in their golden years. The paper aims to encourage the readers to bring a step forward today, to secure their tomorrow.

Keywords: Ageing, Health, India, Social aspects, Elderly abuse


Influence of the Leaves of Tectona grandis L. on ex-vivo Porcine Skin Wound Healing Model

Periyanayagam K1*, Jancy Gracelet R1, Karthikeyan V1, Jegadeesh S1

1 Department of Pharmacognosy, College of pharmacy, Madurai Medical College, Madurai 625 020, Tamil Nadu, India.


To pre-screen the ex- vivo wound healing activity of  ethyl acetate extract of the leaves of Tectona grandis Linn. Family Verbenaceae along with phytochemical, EDS, HPTLC analysis to provide pharmacological validation to the traditional claim for this activity of Tectona grandis leaves. Total phenolic content by UV spectral methods and apigenin  by HPTLC, trace elements by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer were determined. The wound healing effect was evaluated using ex- vivo porcine skin wound healing model Total phenolic content, HPTLC determination of apigenin content of TGEAE was found to be 22.2µg/g , 0.7% respectively. EDS study showed calcium (2.19%), potassium (9.24%), magnesium (0.62%), and sulphur(0.48%), phosphorous (0.97%). Histopathological evaluation showed all treated wounds were sound with no signs of apoptosis, necrosis or bacterial contamination and no toxicity of the tested concentrations. Morphology of the wound margins, epidermis and dermis layer were found to be normal. TGEAE (3%) promoted statistically significant wound healing effect. This study indicates that the ethyl acetate extract of the leaves of T.grandis possesses wound healing activity on ex-vivo porcine skin wound healing model. The activity may be due to its phenolic content, apigenin (flavonoids) and betulinic acid. Trace elements supports wound healing as they required for cellular growth and replication. This present investigation provides scientific evidence to ethno medical use of T.grandis leaves in wound healing. Therefore it can be safely used as auxiliary therapy in diabetic foot ulcers as the leaves possesses scientifically validated traditional use in diabetes.

Keywords: Tectona grandis, Verbenaceae, Epidermal migration, ex-vivo wound healing, Trace element, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer


Effects of Nigella sativa seed oil as adjuvant therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients

Attia SA1, Abdel-Salam MM2 , Bazan NS3, Badary OA4, El-Damassy HE5

1.Sarah Adel Attia, B. Pharm. Sci., Faculty of Pharmacy, October 6th University

2.Dr. Mona Mohamed Abde- Salam, MD, Lecturer of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University.

3.Dr. Naglaa  samir  Bazan, Ph.D, Fellow Clinical Pharmacy, Critical Care Medicine Department, Cairo University Hospitals.

4.Prof.Dr. Osama Ahmed Badary, Ph.D., Professor of Clinical Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University.

5.Prof. Dr. Hussein El-Sayed El-Damasy, MD, Professor of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University.


To evaluate the effectiveness of Nigella Sativa seed oil as adjuvant therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Forty three Egyptian patients with type 2 DM on oral hypoglycemic drugs were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into two groups. Group I comprised patients on their standard antidiabetic drug regimen, and group II comprised patients on their standard antidiabetic drug regimen in addition to Nigella sativa seed oil. All patients were followed for 6 months. Parameters to evaluate glycemic control included Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG), Post Prandial Blood Glucose (PPBG) and Glycated Haemoglobin (HbA1c). Glycemic control parameters were measured at the beginning of study, after 3 months of therapy and after 6 months of therapy. To evaluate the antioxidant effect of Nigella sativa, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured before therapy and after 6 months of therapy. In addition, serum C-peptide, lipid profile, liver and kidney functions were assessed at the beginning and end of study. Nigella sativa administration for six months significantly improved FBG, PPBG and HbA1c. In addition, SOD and Gpx were significantly increased after six months of treatment with Nigella sativa. Nigella sativa at a dose of 900 mg daily improved glycemic control in type 2 DM patients maintained on oral hypoglycemic drugs. Evaluation of the effect of Nigella sativa as an antioxidant in reducing complications of type 2 DM in further studies is supported by the positive findings of this study on SOD and Gpx.

Keywords: Nigella sativa- Diabetes Mellitus- Oxidative stress- Glycated Haemoglobin


Antifungal Drug Sensitivity on Clinical Isolates From Dermatophytosis

Jyothi Padmaja.I*1, Sirisha.T1, Lakshmi.N1, Harshitha.C2, Bala Muralikrishna.P1

1. Department of Microbiology, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam, India.

2. National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Orissa, India.


The aim of the study is to test fungi isolated from cases of dermatophytosis against six antifungal drugs i.e., Amphotericin B(AP), Itraconazole (IT), Fluconazole (FLU), Clotrimazole(CC), Nystatin(NT) & Ketoconazole (KT).  The isolated fungi are Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger.  The study revealed that Clotrimazole and Ketoconazole were the most effective antifungals against dermatophytes, Nystatin for Candida albicans and Fluconazole for Aspergillus niger.  The method used was disk diffusion method.

Keywords: Disk diffusion method, dermatophytes, antifungal agents.


Detection of Heavy Metals in the Selected Edible Fish species from Baran Dam f. R Bannu Pakistan

Momen khan4,Hameed Ur Rehman¹,,Sami Ullah4, Rehman Ullah², Saeed Hassan3,Salma Khan1,Amir Atlas3, Faiz Ur Rehman4 *

1: Department of Chemistry Kohat University of Science and Technology (KUST) Kohat-26000 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

2: Department of Botany Kohat University of Science and Technology (KUST) Kohat-26000 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

3: Department of Biotechnology Kohat University of Science and Technology (KUST) Kohat-26000 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

4: Department of Zoology Kohat University of Science and Technology (KUST) Kohat-26000 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan


The objective of the research work was to determine the distributed level of Heavy metals like Copper (Cu), Zink (Zn). Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb) and Chromium (Cr) in the month of January -February 2013 at Baran Dam F.R Bannu. The recorded level of the values of all heavy metals in head, abdomen and tail in Labeocalbasu were Cr>Fe>Cu>Zn>Pb, Cu>Cr>Zn>Pb, Cr>Fe>Cu>Zn>Pb, in Labeoboga were Zn>Cr>Fe >Pb>Cu, Cr>Zn>Cu>Fe>Pb,Fe>Cr>Cu>Zn>Pb, in Notopterusnotopterus were Cr>Fe>Zn>Cu>Pb, Cu>Fe>Cr>Zn>Pb,Fe>Cu>Cr>Zn>Pb, in Mastacembelusarmtus were Fe>Cu>Cr>Zn>Pb,Cr>Cu>Fe>Zn>Pb, Cr>Zn>Cu>Pb  respectively. It indicate that Pb have the lowest concentration in all the organ of above except in head of Labeoboga fish species. Chromium was found unexpectedly in high amounts but its consumption limits were not set down yet in Labeocalbasu. The mean value for heavy metals were Zn (P<0.1017) mgKg-1, Fe (P<0.5065) mgKg-1,Cu (P<0.7221) mgKg-1, Pb (P<0.6553) mgKg-1, and Cr (P>0.0003) mgKg-1 in fish size (both weight and length), respectively in all the four fish species.

Keyword: Baran Dam F.R Bannu , Heavy metals, Labeoboga, Labeocalbasu.


Evaluation of Therapeutic Equivalence of Different Antibiotics Brands

Lubna Khattak¹, Farina kanwal³, Hameed ur Rehman¹, Mehvish¹, Rehman Ullah², Nabeela Gul¹, Abid Ur Rehman4,Sajid Iqbal4, Syed Murtaza Hussain¹*

1: Department of Chemistry Kohat University of Science and Technology (KUST) Kohat-26000 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

2: Department of Botany Kohat University of Science and Technology (KUST) Kohat-26000 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

3: PCSIR Lab Complex Peshawar KPK Pakistan.

4;Department of Microbiology Kohat University of  Science and Technology(KUST) Kohat-26000 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.


Different antibiotics were selected, two local brands and one multinational brand for the same antibiotic so that comparison will be quite easy. Antibiotics used during the research work were Ofixime (Cebosh, Megnet, Fixitile), Paramycin (Nebra, Eyebrex, Tobracin), Emoxicillin (Supramox, Polyxil, Ospamox). These antibiotics were checked for their potential as antibacterial agents against some gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains, by agar well diffusion method. Antibacterial activity was deliberated against five bacterial strains i-e Klebsiella pneumonia, E.Coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcus Aureus and Flavobacterium Aureus.

Keywords: Antibacterial activity, Ofixime, Paramycin, Emoxicillin


Regardless of the Antibiotic Group or Type, Misuse of antibiotics Adversely Impair Liver, Kidneys and Heart Functions Biochemical and Histopathological Assessment

Wud M. E. Siddig1 Mohammed A. A. Salim2, Magdi Badawi3, Abdelgadir B. Mohamed3, Ishraga G. Ibrahim3, Mona K. Farid4 and Emad H. E. Konozy 5*.

1.Department of Zoology, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

2. Biotechnology Park, Africa City of Technology, Khartoum, Sudan

3.Veterinary Research Institute, Madani St, Khartoum, Sudan

4. Department of Pathology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Libyan International Medical University, Benghazi, Libya

5. Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Libyan International Medical University, Benghazi, Libya


This study was conducted in 78 roosters Hisex white layer to investigate the possible effect of use or misuse of antibiotics on liver and kidneys function as well as some other important organs. Three antibiotics of varying groups i.e., tylosin, ciprofloxacin and oxytetracycline were chosen for the study.  Antibiotics were daily orally administered in different doses as described in the experimental body. The possible adverse effect of antibiotics on liver and kidneys functions were followed by testing liver and kidneys serum biomarkers such as Glutamate oxido transaminase (GOT), Glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), acid phosphatase (ACPase), alkaline phosphatase (ALKPase), total protein, albumin, globulin etc. Antibiotics residues clearance in plasma samples were also studied and correlated to administered dose. Histopathological investigations were further supported our biochemical data on the adverse effect of antibiotics on kidney, liver, heart, and other tissues. The present study clearly concluded a direct adverse effect of antibiotics, regardless of the chosen group, on liver and kidney and heart function.

Keywords: Antibiotics; misuse; chicken; Biochemical analysis; liver; kidney; heart 


Estimation of Ramipril and Hydrochlorothiazide by First Order Derivative Method Using UV Spectrophotometer

Anjan De1* , Suddhasattya Dey1, Kaushik Mandal1 and Abhishek Jha1

1.Dr. B.C. Roy College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences, Bidhan Nagar, Durgapur-713 206, W.B. India.


A new, simple, rapid and novel spectrophotometric method has been developed for estimation of Ramipril (RAM) and Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) in bulk and combined pharmaceutical formulations using First order derivative method. It is a useful means of resolving the spectra and eliminating the interference. It involves conversion of normal spectrum to first and second or higher order spectra where the amplitude in the derivative spectra is proportional to the Conc. of analyte provided the Beer’s law is obeyed.The successive development of zero crossing technique was accordingly due to the feature of derivative spectra to show singles with both positive and negative value. This technique exploits the single crossing through the abscissa axis, for given components. Zero crossing technique is particularly effective in the analysis of several complex mixtures, when  peaks overlapping are present in the corresponding zero order spectra. λmax of RAM was found at 341nm and HCT at 229nm in ethanol respectively. Beer’s law obeyed in concentration range of 0.1‐ 0.5 μg/ mL for RAM and 0.25‐ 1.25 μg/ mL for HCT respectively by the method. This method was validated for precision, reproducibility, linearity and accuracy as per ICH guidelines. The proposed method is recommended for routine analysis since this is rapid, simple, accurate, cost effective , also sensitive and specific. It involves neither heating nor use of any hazardous organic solvent for separation of the combination.

Keywords: Ramipril(RAM),Hydrochlorothiazide(HCT),First order Derivative method & UV spectrophotometer.



Effects of Ethanol extract of Ricinus Communis seed on some Hormonal profile in Bromocriptine induced Hypoprolactinemia in Female Albino rats.

Agbai Emmanuel Onuka1, Professor Nwafor Arthur2

1. Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Madonna University, PMB 48 Elele; Rivers State Nigeria

2. Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health  Nigeria

3. Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, PMB 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State,  Nigeria


This present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of ricinus communis ethanol extract on serum prolactin, LH and FSH levels in bromocriptine-induced hypoprolactinemia in female albino rats. A total of thirty female albino rats divided into 5 groups (Groups I, II, III, IV and V) consisting of 6 rats in each group were used for the study. Group I served as Control, while II, III, IV and V served as experimental groups. The experimental groups received 10mg/kg of bromocriptine orally at interval of 6 hours daily for 4 weeks. Groups III, IV and V were given respectively 200mg/kg/day, 500mg/kg/day and 900mg/kg/day of ricinus communis orally for 4 weeks. Group I received distilled water and normal rat chow. Results showed statistically significant decrease in prolactin level (P < 0.05) in rats treated with ricinus communis extract. There was statistically significant increase in serum LH and FSH levels (P < 0.05) in rats treated with ricinus communis extract. The present study suggested that ricinus communis extract in a dose related pattern significantly lowered serum prolactin level but caused a significant increase serum LH and FSH levels respectively in bromocriptine induced hypoprolactinemia in female rats.

Keywords: Ricinus Communis, Hypoprolactinemia