American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
October 2014 Issue 10

A Schematic Review on Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Targeting to Brain

G.Y. Srawan kumar1, K. Madhuri*1.

1. Department of Pharmaceutics, Hindu College of Pharmacy, Amaravathi Road, Guntur-522002, (A.P.) India.


Targeting drug to brain is becoming a challenging task for inventors of advanced drug delivery systems. Because the blood brain barrier acts as a barricade for many chemical moieties to cross it for treating CNS disorders. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are the effective lipid based colloidal carriers which were introduced as an alternative to the conventional carriers such as micro emulsions, liposomes, microparticles and nanoparticles based on synthetic polymers or natural macromolecules. SLNs were introduced to overcome problems of polymeric nanoparticles by putting forward physiological safe lipids in place of polymers to prepare lipid nanoparticles, a novel formulation technique came into light. An approach undertaken here is to focus on various production methods for preparation of SLNs.

Keywords: Introduction; Blood Brain Barrier; Colloidal Carriers; SLNs; Methods of preparation


Bilayer Tablet: Important Dosage Forms

S.S.Saboo1, S.R.Dawange*1, S.S. Khadbadi1

1. Department of Pharmaceutics, Government College of Pharmacy Aurangabad.


Bilayer tablet is new era for the successful development of controlled release formulation and also provide a successful key for other drug delivery system. Bilayer tablet is made up of two layers in which one is immediate layer for initial dose and second layer is sustained layer for maintenance dose. Thus, bilayer tablet is useful for sequential release of two drugs in combination and is applicable for improved patient compliance and mainly for reduced toxicity. It is useful for both single and multiple dose therapy. The present article gives an idea about an introduction of bilayer tablet, various tablet presses, manufacturing process, GMP and quality requirements, and challenges in bilayer tablet and recent approach in bilayer tablet development.

Keywords: Controlled release, Bilayer tablet, Immediate layer, Sustained layer.


Pharmacologic Strategies in Management of Endodontic Pain

Amit Malhotra 1*, Jyoti Ahlawat1, Akhil Rajput1

1. M.D.S. Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics Senior Resident, Maulana Azad Institute of Dental Sciences New Delhi, India


The mark of an astute clinician is his ability to resolve patients discomfort and strive for complete patient satisfaction. This however becomes tough while providing dental care since patients already may have an instilled fear of dental treatment when they visit a dental practioner. Such fear and apprehension arises due to anticipation of pain during dental procedures. While treating endodontic infections, an important aspect is to provide adequate pain relief. Operative procedures may provide eventual healing of infection but post operative pain might still persist. Therefore adjunctive use of pharmacologic strategies is often required. This review article aims to outline various pharmacologic treatment approaches in resolving pain associated with endodontic cases.

Keywords: Endodontic Pain, dental treatment.


Evaluation of therapeutic efficacy and safety of Delphinium denudatum wall (Jadwar) in patients with Diabetic Neuropathy: A Randomised single-blind standard controlled study

Zaffar Hussain1*, Tanzeel Ahmad1, Ghulamuddin Sofi2

1 Dept. of Medicine, National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore 91, India

2 Dept. of Pharmacology, National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore 91, India


The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Delphinium denudatum (Jadwar) in patients with diabetic neuropathy. A randomised single-blind standard controlled trial was carried out on 30 diagnosed patients of diabetic neuropathy at National Institute of Unani Medicine Bangalore-India. After obtaining ethical clearance, 30 eligible patients were randomly assigned into test and control groups, comprising 15 patients in each group. Patients of test group were given Delphinium denudatum wall (Jadwar) 500mg in tablet form twice daily and the patients of control group were given Strychnos nuxvomica (Azaraqi) 500 mg in tablet form twice daily for a period of 45 days. The objective parameters-Vibration perception threshold (VPT), Toronto clinical neuropathy score (TCNS) and Visual analogue scale (VAS) were statistically analysed by applying Student’s ‘t’ test, two tailed dependent for intragroup comparison, two tailed independent for intergroup comparison and Levene’s test for the homogeneity of variance. Both test and control drugs exhibited statistically significant difference in objective parameters.VPT showed statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in intragroup comparison in both groups while as TCNS and VAS showed strongly significant difference (p<0.001) in intragroup comparison in both groups. The study revealed that test drug appeared to be efficacious in the management of diabetic neuropathy and exhibited significant effects in improvement of neuronal function. No adverse effects or toxicity has been reported during or after the trial.

Keywords: Diabetic neuropathy; Vibration perception threshold; Toronto clinical neuropathy score; Visual analogue scale; Delphinium denudatum; Strychnos nuxvomica


Polyphenolic content, antioxidant activity and organoleptic evaluation of bitter gourd Momordica charantia L. Tea

Muhammad Khalid Saeed1, Ijaz Ahmad1*, Muhammad Naeem Khan2, Quratulain Syed1

1 Food and Biotechnology Research Centre, PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Lahore, Pakistan

2 Applied Chemistry Research Centre, PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Lahore, Pakistan


Bitter gourd or Karela (Momordica charantia) belongs to the family cucurbitaceae. It is high in vitamins and an excellent source of iron and calcium. It is also known to cure diabetes, arthritis, rheumatism, asthma, warts, abscesses and ulcers. In the present study bitter gourd tea was developed and its sensory evaluation was conducted. The bitter gourd tea was screened for possible antioxidant activities by free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) and reducing power assay. The total phenolic content was also determined. The results of the investigations on appearance, color, flavor, taste and overall acceptability values ranged from 6.1 to 8.5. The amount of total phenolic contents found in bitter gourd tea extract was (264 ± 1.63) mg/g gallic acid equivalent (GAE). The bitter gourd tea exhibited antioxidant activity in the range from 18.35 ± 0.80 - 65.96% ± 2.50 at the concentrations (20-100µg/ml) in DPPH radical scavenging method. A concentration dependent reducing potential were exhibited by the bitter gourd tea which was compared with BHA and it was found that its antioxidant activity was higher than standard antioxidant BHA. The bitter gourd tea extract and standard BHA showed antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 72.04 ± 3.25 μg/ml and 98.75 ± 3.92 μg/ml, respectively. These results indicated that bitter gourd tea may be used as a potential source of natural antioxidant.

Keywords: Polyphenolic content, DPPH, RPA, bitter gourd tea, sensory evaluation.


Improvement of Albendazole Solubility and Dissolution Rate by Ternary Solid Dispersion Technique

Samar Elsamaligy*1, ShaymaaKhater1, WedadSakran1

1. Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, AinHelwan, Cairo, Egypt


A ternary solid dispersion (SD) system was developed for the enhancement of the solubility and dissolution rate of albendazole (ABZ), a BCS class II drug. The effect of different ratios of one of two poloxamer grades (P 188 and P 407) in combination with PVP K30 was investigated. The ABZ SDs were prepared by conventional solvent evaporation method and evaluated for solubility, dissolution rate, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).Results showed an improvement in solubility and dissolution rate of ABZ for all prepared SDS. SD containing (ABZ: PVP K30: P 407) (50%: 48%: 2%) w/w achieved the highest dissolution rate. It released 83.8 % at 5 min in comparison with only 18% at75min of pure ABZ. Powder XRD demonstrated a decrease in ABZ crystallinity. This led to a decrease in melting point of ABZ as seen in the DSC study. The formulated SDs were stable for 6 months with no change in crystallinity at room temperature. There was no chemical interaction between ABZ and polymers in SD as demonstrated by FTIR analysis.The results showed improvement of solubility and dissolution rate of ABZ from the developed ternary SD system.

Keywords: Albendazole; Dissolution rate, Ternary solid dispersion, PVP K30; Poloxamer.


Experimental Evaluation of Anticonvulsant Activity of Hydrocotyle Asiatica linn (Centella asiatica) in Albino Mice

Praveen Kumar Uppala1*, Murali Krishna B2

1. Assistant Professor, KVK College of Pharmacy, Affiliated to JNTUH, Hyderabad.

2. Assistant Professor, Bhaskara College of Pharmacy, Affiliated to Andhra University, Visakhapatnam.


To evaluate the antiepileptic activity of Hydrocotyle asiatica linn (aqueous extract) in preventing maximal electroshock (MES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced convulsions. To compare its efficacy with standard drugs- phenytoin for MES method and sodium valproate for PTZ method. 48 male albino mice weighing 18-30g are selected and divided into 2 groups of 24 mice each – one group for MES and other group for PTZ method. In MES method, seizures were induced via ear clip electrodes with a current of 50 mA for 0.2 seconds. Each mouse is pretreated with drugs (p.o.) one hour before MES test. The different groups include – Group C1 administered distilled water (0.25ml), Group S1 administered phenytoin (50 mg/kg), Group T1 administered aqueous extract of Hydrocotyle asiatica linn (100 mg/kg) and Group T2 administered aqueous extract of Hydrocotyle asiatica linn (300mg/kg). In PTZ method, seizures were induced by giving PTZ 80 mg/kg s.c. Each mouse is pretreated with drugs one hour before giving PTZ. The different groups include – Group C2 administered distilled water (0.25ml p.o.), Group S2 administered sodium valproate (300mg/kg i.p.), Group T3 administered aqueous extract of Hydrocotyle asiatica linn (100 mg/kg) and Group T4 administered aqueous extract of Hydrocotyle asiatica linn (300mg/kg). The aqueous extract of Hydrocotyle asiatica at a dose of 300mg/kg has shown statistically significant anticonvulsant activity against both MES and PTZ convulsions and its anticonvulsant activity is similar to that of standard sodium valproate (300mg/kg).

Keywords: Hydrocotyle, asiatica,, Maximal, electroshock, seizures, Pentylene tetrazole, Sodium valproate


Isolation and Identification of Cytotoxic Potential Bacterium from Marine Sponge Spirastrella Inconstans

Bharathiraja. S1*, Suriya. J1, Rajasekaran. R1, Govindan. T2

1. CAS in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University, Parangipettai-608 02. Tamilnadu, India.

2. Assistant Professor, Department of Botany, Government Arts College, Chidambaram 608 102.


In order to explore the cytotoxic potential of sponge associated marine bacteria, bacterial colonies were obtained from marine sponge Spirastrella inconstans. Totally 14 aerobic, heterotropic and morphologically different bacterial strains were purified and cultured in marine broth. Crude metabolite was extracted using ethylacetate as extracting solvent. The metabolites were tested for its antiproliferative activity against A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell line. The colorimetric based MTT assay revealed strain MB13 as potent cytotoxic bacterium. The strain was identified as Pseudoalteromonas piscicida using 16s rRNA sequencing and biochemical test.

Keywords: Spirastrella inconstans, antiproliferative, lung adenocarcinoma, Pseudoalteromonas piscicida.


Therapeutic Efficacy of Majoon Atrilaal and local application of Sheetraj, Nila Tootiya in the management of Bars (Vitiligo)

Mohd Mohsin1*, Mohd Tarique2, Mansoor Ahmad Siddiqui3

1 P.G Scholar, Department of Moalajat (Medicine), National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore, India

2 P.G Scholar, Department of Tahaffuzi wa Samaji Tib (Community Medicine), National Institute  of Unani Medicine, Bangalore, India

3 Professor & HOD, Department of Moalajat (Medicine), National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore, India.


Bars (Vitiligo) is the oldest and commonest skin disorders affecting approximately 0.1% to 2% of the world’s population, and its prevalence is varying from 0.46% to 8.8 % in India. The disease shows no regard to the cultural, ethnic or socioeconomic background of the affected population. The cosmetic impact of this disease is huge and psychological impact is devastating, particularly in coloured races. In Unani system of medicine Majoon Atrilaal and local application of Sheetraj and Nila Tootiya have been used for the management of Bars since centuries, but the efficacy has yet to be proven on scientific parameters. Observational single blinded study was carried out on 20 clinically diagnosed patients of Bars. They were treated with 10 gm of Majoon Atrilaal, orally twice daily and Sheetraj with Nila Tootiya applied locally once in the morning, for a period of three months. The subjective parameter (hypo pigmented patches) and objective parameter (VASI) were statistically analyzed by applying Student ‘t’ test (two tailed dependent) and paired proportion test. VASI (Vitiligo Area Scoring Index) showed significant difference P<0.005 and the hypo pigmented patches showed strongly significant difference P<0.001 when compared before and after treatment. The study revealed that the test drugs appeared to be effective in the management of Bars. No adverse effects or toxicity has been reported during or after the trial. Thus it can be concluded that the test drugs are safe and effective in the management of Bars.

Keywords: Bars; vitiligo; Majoon Atrilaal; Sheetraj; Nila Tootiya; Unani System of Medicine.


A Validated Stability Indicating RP-UPLC Method for the Quantitative Determination of Potential Impurities of Allopurinol

Sajan PG*1, Rohith T1, Santosh Patil2, Mantelingu K3, Rangappa K S3, Kumara M N4

1. Deepta Laboratories, No.77-78/1, Vishweshwaranagar, 2nd stage, Industrial Suburb, Mysore – 570008

2. Biocon Limited, Plot No. 2,3,4,5 & 6, Bommasandra Jigani Link Road, Bangalore, 560099

3. Department of Chemistry, Manasagangothri, University of Mysore, Mysore-570006

4. Chemistry department, Yuvaraja’s college, University of Mysore, Mysore-570005


A simple, sensitive, selective and stability indicating UPLC method has been developed for the quantitative determination of potential impurities of allopurinol active pharmaceutical ingredient. Allopurinol, its five impurities and degradation products were separated efficiently by using the mobile phase consisted of sodium perchlorate (10 mM, pH 3.0)and acetonitrile on a HSS T3P stationary phase in gradient elution profile. Forced degradation study confirmed that the newly developed method was specific and selective to the degradation products. The newly developed UPLC method was validated according to ICH guidelines considering five impurities to demonstrate specificity, precision, linearity, accuracy and stability indicating nature of the method. Regression analysis showed correlation coefficient value greater than 0.99 for allopurinol and its five impurities. Detection limit of impurities was in the range of 0.002–0.006% indicating the high sensitivity of the newly developed method. Accuracy of the method was established based on the recovery obtained between 91.7% and 106.6% for all impurities.

Keywords: Allopurinol; Impurities; RP-UPLC; Validation; Forced Degradation.


Standardization of Siddha Polyherbal Formulation Vaeppampoovathy Mathirai

D.Sandhiya*1, M. Pitchiah Kumar1, V.Velpandian1, P.Thenmozhi1, V.Banumathi1

1. Post graduate departmentof Gunapadam (Pharmacology), Government Siddha Medical College, Chennai, Tamilnadu. Pin: 600 106.


Standardization and quality control are essential analytical tools to guarantee the correct identifications of drugs. Adulteration and misidentification of herbal drug can cause dreadful health problems to the public and legal headaches for the pharmaceutical industry. The VPM was prepared according to the Siddha classical literature to treat the anti-dyslipidemic activity. The present study was carried out with specific aim to establish standards for Vaeppampoovathy Mathirai based on organoleptic characters, physico-chemical properties (The total -ash value 9.5%, Acid insoluble ash 1.7%, Water soluble ash 2.8% and the loss on drying at 1050 c was found to be 0.043%), phytochemical analysis showed the presence of rich source of alkaloids, carbohydrates, saponins, tannins, phenols, phytosterol, diterpenes, flavanoids, proteins& aminoacids. SEM analysis showed that VPM was arranged in agglomerates of size of micro particles. EDAX analysis showed the presence of minerals like carbon, oxygen, magnesium, aluminum, silica, sulphur, chloride, potassium, calcium. FTIR showed the peak values which are the fuctional groups present. The sophisticated analysis of instruments were also an essential criteria in studying the surface morphology, topography and the chemical bonds present in them which indirectly correlates with the activity and also an important factor in the standardization of the drugs.

Keywords: Standardization, SEM, EDAX, FTIR, physico-chemical, phytochemical


Equality in pharmacies distribution: Case of Iran

Somayeh Moalemi1, Mohsen Barouni*2, Zahra Meshkani2, Ali KazemiKaryani3, Abbas Ali Kiyani4

1. Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

2. Research Center for Health Services Management, Institute of Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

3. Department of Health Management and Economics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

4. Master of Industrial Engineering, Amirkabir U

Somayeh Moalemi1, Mohsen Barouni2*, Zahra Meshkani2, Ali Kazemi Karyani3, Abbas Ali Kiyani4

iversity, Health Policy Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran


Equity in access to health service is one of the most important targets of policy makers in most countries. Access to health resources in the community lead to greater accessibility to them, so it has been as one of economic consideration in allocation resources. This paper is a retrospective and cross-sectional study which examined the distribution of pharmacies as a one of the most important health resource in Shiraz during 2006-2011.  The census and estimated data on the distribution of population were obtained from the Statistical Center of Iran and the data on the number of total pharmacies were obtained from Food and Drug Administration. We plotted the Lorenz curve and calculate the Gini index using Excel 2007. Also, stata 11 was used for regression analysis. According to result The Gini index for the distribution of pharmacies during considered years was closed to 0.25. Gini index for public pharmacies was 0.449in 2006 while it was 0.503 in 2011. For private pharmacies the Gini index was 0.225 in 2006 and 0.224 in 2011. The Gini index for distribution of pharmacies in total was 0.257 and 0.250 in 2006 and 2011 respectively. Therefore distribution of pharmacies in Shiraz have not been equitable in general, then some interventions like reallocation of the pharmacies can help to achieving to better access to this resource.

Keywords: equality, Lorenz curve, Gini index, pharmacy, Shiraz.


An Acute Oral Toxicity Study of Seeds of Spermacoce Hispida Linn, in Albino Wistar Mice as Per OECD Guidelines 425

Dhevi R*1, Elango V2, Gayathri K3, Mohamed Shabi M4

1. Research Scholar, Department of Siddha medicine, Tamil University, TN, India.

2. Assistant Professor, Department of Siddha medicine, Tamil University, TN, India.

3. Assistant Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Vels University, TN, India.

4. Lecturer, Department of Pharmacology, Asia Metropoliton University, Malaysia


Acute toxicity refers to those adverse effects occurring following oral or dermal administration of a single dose of a substance, or multiple doses given within 24 hours, or an inhalation exposure of 4 hours. Acute toxicity studies in animals are usually necessary for any pharmaceutical intended for human use and are useful in choosing doses for repeat-dose studies, providing preliminary identification of target organs of toxicity, and, occasionally, revealing delayed toxicity. The present study has been undertaken to study the adverse or hazardous effects of hydro alcoholic extract of seeds of Spermacoce hispida Linn, in Albino wistar mice as per OECD guidelines 425. Single dose of spermacoce hispida seed extract at the dose of 500, 1000 and 2000mg/kg b.wt were administered to albino wistar mice. No mortality or any clinical sign change was observed during the entire study period. The LD50 and maximum tolerable dose value of the extract was greater than 2000mg/kg body weight.

Keywords: Spermacoce hispida, Acute Toxicity, OECD Guidelines 425, Lethality (LD50).


Prevalence of Antimicrobial Sensitivity and Phenotypic Detection of Salmonella Enterica serovar typhi in and around Chennai, Tamilnadu, - India

M. Senthil Kumar*1, K.R. Mani1

1. Department of Microbiology, Bharathiar University, Kovai, Tamilnadu,India- 641 046


The aim of the study was to evaluate the occurrence and diversity of multi drug resistant salmonella enteric serovar typhi existing in and around Chennai, India. Drug resistivity of isolates was carried out from the sample which was collected from the patients those are suspected to suffer from typhoid fever. A total of 2423 samples have been collected from various hospitals and organizations in and around Chennai. As soon as the sample collection all the isolates were cultured using various nutrient media to evaluate the cultural characteristics of the isolates followed by preliminary tests and biochemical tests using standard identification procedure to confirm the isolates for salmonella enterica serovar typhi. The total of 105 out of 2423 clinical isolates was confirmed for salmonella enterica serovar typhi and these isolates were further undergone to various procedures like Bio typing, Phage typing and serological tests (Agglutination) using standard identification procedure for phenotypic characterization. For antibiotic resistivity pattern an in-vitro test procedure using Kirby-Bauer method was conducted for the identified isolates using various antibiotics with different strengths. The specimens were collected from various age groups lying between <1 to 70. Outcome of the study shown that degree of salmonella enterica serovar typhi infection was more in 1-10 years (40%) followed by 11–20 (20%) and 21–30 (15%). In conclusion, the continuous surveillance of the development of resistivity is essential to alter treatment strategies aimed at maintaining that the useful life of the few remaining antimicrobials available to treat typhoid fever.

Keywords: Salmonella enteric serovar typhi, Multidrug resistance (MDR), Serotyping, Phage typing, Bio typing, Disc Diffusion Technique.


Evaluation of Various Extracts of Prunus amygdalus for Anticholinesterase Activity

Akhila.S*1, Gopika Gopinath1, Niyas. K. H1, Sreedevi. S1, Sreelekha. S1

1. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, RIMSR, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam


Alzheimer’s disease is a neurons degenerative disorder which is characterized by progressive loss of memory and nonvascular dementia. Main clinical feature of this disease is the impairment of memory, short term memory and cognitive disability. No treatments are available to cure AD but to manage and prevent and stop progression, 2 classes of mediators approved are choline esterase inhibitors and N-methyl-D aspartase receptor antagonist. Despite competition from other drug discovery methods, natural products are still providing their fair share of new clinical candidates and drugs. Traditional Medicine knowledge database allows drug researchers to start from well-tested and safe botanical material. Especially, herbal medicine is an increasingly common form of alternative therapy for memory disorders and here, an ethanopharmacological approach may provide leads for identifying potential new drugs. In the present study, one of the traditionally practiced herbs for memory disorder was selected and scientifically evaluated for anticholinesterase activity. The collected seeds were crushed and subjected for extraction using solvents of increasing polarity viz. petroleum ether, ethanol and water and on yield calculation, petroleum ether extract was found to have the best yield. In-vitro anticholinesterase activity was evaluated for all the extracts of P.amygdalus at different concentrations and the petroleum ether extract showed 66.37% inhibition at concentration 50%v/v. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts were screened at four different concentrations and at 100µg/ml, percentage inhibition was found to be 64.53% and 37.09% for alcoholic and aqueous extracts respectively. Hence, ethanopharmacological use of P.amygdalus in Alzheimer’s disease was justified.

Keywords: Prunus amygdalus, Alzheimers Disease, In vitro study, anticholinesterase activity, extraction, ethanopharmacology


Effects of the Methanol Root Extract of Cissampelos Mucronata A. Rich on the Ovaries and Uterus in Rats: A Histological and Hormonal Study

S. H. Garba1*, T. W. Jacks1, P. A. Onyeyili2, H. A. Nggada3

1. Department of Human Anatomy, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria.

2. Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria.

3. Department of Human Pathology, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria.


This study was designed to investigate the effect of the methanol root extract of Cissampelos mucronata on the histology of the ovaries and uterus as well as the oestrus cycle. A total of 25 female rats were used for this study. The rats were randomly divided into groups of 5 rats  per dosage group (I-V). Group I served as the control group and were administered normal saline equivalent to the volume administered to the highest dosed experimental rats. Rats in Groups II, III and IV were administered with 100 mgkg-1, 200 mgkg-1 and 300 mgkg-1 doses of the extract respectively while rats in Group V were administered the highest dose (300 mgkg-1) of the extract for 20 days and allowed to stay for at least 14 days post treatment to observe for reversibility, persistence or delayed occurrence of toxic effects. The result of this study showed that administration of the methanolic extract of the root of Cissampelos mucronata in rats caused loss in body weight, degenerative changes in  Graafian follicles, inflammatory cells, degenerating follicles, proliferation of granulosa cells and atretic follicles with uterine tissues characterized by mild to moderate stromoglandular dissociation, focal areas of necrosis, proliferation of connective tissue stroma and alteration in estrous cycle length, characterized by prolonged metesterus and diestrus phases with no effect on progesterone, Luteinizing Hormone(LH) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) levels. The study revealed significant alterations in histological and hormonal profile of female rats. It is recommended that full stereology studies be carried out.

Keywords: Oestrous Cycle, Luteinizing Hormone, Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Graafian Follicle, Myometrium


The Spectrum of Extra pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Microbiological, Clinical and Epidemiological Retrospective Review in Chitradurga Region

Moulya M V1, Abubaker Siddiq1*, Shashank S Hosur1,Nataraj G R1, Bharathi D R1

1. Department of Pharmacy practice and Pharmacology, S J M College of Pharmacy,Chitradurga-577502, Karnataka, India


Out of 6.2 million cases of the Tuberculosis in the world notified to the WHO in 2011, 5.8million were new cases and of the latter, 0.8million cases had Extra-pulmonary Tuberculosis. Thus Extra-pulmonary Tuberculosis (EPTB) is defined as the isolated occurrence of TB in any part of the body other than the lungs. The objective of our study was to approach the microbiological, clinical and epidemiological spectrum of the people having the EPTB in Chitradurga district.  A retrospective study was carried out by collecting the data of the period of one year (Jan-Dec 2012) in the Chitradurga region by obtaining permission from Institutional Human Ethical committee. The results of the present study revealed that among 179 patients, the male patients were 96and female patients were 83, also the EPTB was found to more in the age group of 21-40years, even it was detected that the microbial culture of sputum shown the negative result in 178 patients of EPTB. Also the most commonly found EPTB was Pleural Effusion. The treatment regimen included for 173 patients were Category-1 treatment of Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) and 6 patientsCategory-2 treatment were given. Our study concluded that the EPTB was found more in 21-40years of patients and the most common affected part was Pleural Effusion in 66populations. With this we conclude that, this study required more patient education towards improvement in their health status and also in eradicating the EPTB.

Keywords: Extra Pulmonary Tuberculosis (EPTB), RNTCP, spectrum, pleural effusion


Phytochemical evaluation of some Salvia species from Ukrainian flora

Olha Semenchenko*1

1. State Institution “Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology of National Medical Academy of Science of Ukraine”, Kyiv, Ukraine. 14, Eugene Pottier str., 03680, Kyiv, Ukraine.


The genus Salvia, composed of more than 900 species worldwide distributed, is well known for its various uses, including therapeutic ones. Many species within the genus exhibit activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial etc. The chemical composition of these species includes polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenes, which induce such activities. The present study compares the polyphenolcarboxilic acids and flavonoids content of 3 species of Salvia present in Ukrainian flora, including S. patens L. and S. verticillata L. Using a HPLC method, polyphenolcarboxilic acids and flavonoid compounds were determined in S. officinalis L., S. patens L. and S. verticillata L.

Keywords: S. verticillata L.; S. patens L.; S. officinalis L.; rosmarinic acid; flavonoids; HPLC.


Development and Validation of RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Irbesartan and Simvastatin in Tablet Dosage Form

Kumaraswamy Gandla1*, R. Suthakaran1, Pravalika Kondoji1.

1. Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Teegala Ram Reddy College of Pharmacy –Meerpet, Hyderabad- 505172, Telangana.


A simple, fast, precise, selective and accurate RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of Irbesartan and Simvastatin from bulk and formulations. The proposed method was developed by HPLC Shimadzu Separation Module with PDA/UV detector connected to Empower software using Inertsil C18 ODS (4.6 x 250mm, 5mm) with an injection volume of 20 µl was injected and eluted with a mobile phase composition of Methanol: Acetonitrile (50:50), which is pumped at a flow rate of 0.8ml/min and detected by PDA detector at 245nm. Ambient column temperature has maintained. The total run time was 10mins.The retention time of Irbesartan and Simvastatin were found to be 2.9 min. and 4.1 min respectively. Linearity was observed in the concentration range of 0.2-0.8mg/ml for Irbesartan and Simvastatin respectively with correlation coefficient 0.999 for both the drugs. Percent recoveries obtained for both the drugs were98.0-101.50%, respectively. The method was validated according to the ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. The method developed can be used for the routine analysis of Irbesartan and Simvastatin from their combined dosage form.

Key words: RP-HPLC Method; Irbesartan and Simvastatin; Tablet dosage forms.