American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
January 2017 Issue 1

Azithromycin Use As Broad Spectrum Antibiotic

Battu Rakesh *1, Jaladi Himaja1

1. Department of Pharmacy Practice, Bharathi College of Pharmacy, Bharathinagara, K.M.Doddi, Mandya, Karnataka, India-571422.


Azithromycin is a semi-synthetic 15-membered azalide antibiotics derived from erythromycin. Azithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic suitable for the management of a number of bacterial infections. This comprises respiratory tract infections, skin infections, chlamydia infections, and syphilis. It may also be used during pregnancy to prevent Group B streptococcal infection in the new-born. It can be given intravenously and by mouth. Azithromycin displays bacteriostatic activity or inhibits growth of bacteria, principally at higher concentration, however the mechanism is not completely understood. By binding to the 50s subunit of the bacterial rRNA complex, protein synthesis and subsequent structure and function processes critical for life or replication are inhibited. Azithromycin is very rapidly absorbed, and diffuses into most tissues and phagocytes. Usual dosage range: -Oral: 500 mg once daily. Azithromycin has pharmacokinetics that allows shorter dosing schedules because of prolonged tissue levels. The bioavailability of azithromycin is approximately 37 % in humans. Tissue concentrations exceed serum concentrations by as far as 100-fold after a single 500 mg oral dose. Macrophages and polymorphonuclear leucocytes concentrate azithromycin at levels greater than those found in tissues themselves. High concentrations of drug are found in tissues such as tonsil, lung, prostate, liver and lymph nodes with relatively low concentrations in fat and muscle. As with all antimicrobial agents, pseudomembranous colitis can occur during and up to several weeks after azithromycin therapy. However, it has a few side effects like mild diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain. Azithromycin can cause abnormal changes in the electrical activity of the heart that may lead to a potentially fatal irregular heart rhythm. Evidence indicates that azithromycin is largely excreted in the faeces unchanged, with a small percentage appearing in the urine. Exacerbations of myasthenia gravis have also been reported with the use of azithromycin. Azithromycin’s pharmacokinetics and tolerability make it particularly useful in the treatment of sexually transmitted infections, intracellular enteric pathogens and for prophylaxis of mycobacterial infection. It is furthermore beneficial for treating a variety of respiratory diseases. Unfettered use of azithromycin, particularly for its immunomodulatory properties, is of concern in light of macrolide resistance.

Keywords: Azithromycin, Macrolide Antibiotic, Chlamydia Infections, Syphilis, Bacteriostatic, Phagocytes, Pseudomembranous colitis and Myasthenia Gravis.


UV Visible Spectrophotometric Estimation of AntiRetroviral Drugs

C.M.Bhaskar Reddy1*, N.Ananda Kumar Reddy2 L.Maheswara Reddy3

1. Research Scholar ,Dept of Chemistry, Rayalaseema University, Kurnool,AP, India.

2. S.V. Degree  College. Kadapa, kadapa dist,AP, India.

3.YSR Engineering College of Yogi Vemana University,Proddatur-516360, kadapa dist,AP, India


A new spectrophotometric method has been developed for the estimation of antiretroviral drugs namely Efavirenz and Emtricitabine in bulk and tablet dosage form. Efavirenz shows maximum absorbance at 256nm and Emtricitabine at 298nm in presence of solvent chloroform and phosphate buffer of pH 7.4.  The Beer’s law is obeyed in the concentration range of 4-28 μg/ mL for Efavirenz and 2-20 μg/ mL for Emtricitabine. The graph of both drugs shows a straight line with correlation coefficient of 0.9970 for Efavirenz and   0 .9910 for Emtricitabine. The assay method of both drugs was validated by of accuracy and precision of the proposed method. The results are validated as per the directions of International conference on Harmonization.

Keywords: Efavirez, Emtricitabine, UV spectrophotometry, Beer’s law, validation, Tablet Analysis.


Drug Resistance Against Antimalarial Drugs

Rupali Kalra1*, Anupama Diwan1, Shekhar Sharma1

1.School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Apeejay Stya University, Sohna Palwal road, Gurgaon-122001


In this short communication, we have discussed about killer disease malaria and drug resistance caused by many popular drugs. Malaria is oldest and very important parasitic disease in mankind from ancient times. Millions of people are at high risk of this disease every year. This disease has become major cause of morbidity and mortality in this world because of emergence of resistance to first line drugs. Because of development of resistance of old drug molecules and therapies, WHO recommends combination therapies for the treatment of malaria. This short communication will highlight the reason of resistance along with new findings of molecules against resistance developed molecules in the market. Artemisinin combination therapies are first line treatment for all Plasmodium falciparum parasites in malaria endemic countries of the world according to WHO recommendations. Malaria eradication will become a battle in the world with urgent need of new drug molecule or therapy to combat against this disease leading to effective global malaria control programme.

Keywords: Malaria, Drug resistance, Artemether, ACT Artemisinin combination therapy.


Formulation and Evaluation of Propranolol Hydrochloride Loaded Mucoadhesive Microspheres

Nethaji Ramalingam1*, Heeshma Thazhe Parayil1, Manikandan Palanivelu1, N. Subramaniam Surendiran1, Babu Ganesan2

1. Department of Pharmaceutics, 2.Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry,

Devaki Amma Memorial College of Pharmacy, Chelembra-673634, Malappuram Dt, Kerala, India


Propranolol hydrochloride is a beta blocking agent which is used for the treatment of hypertension and it is highly lipophilic and completely absorbed after oral administration. The present study, Propranolol  hydrochloride  Mucoadhesive microspheres were formulated using  sodium alginate and the different concentration of polymers like Xanthan gum  and Guar gum by ionic gelation technique with  an  aim  to  controlled  release and improve bioavailability.  Six formulations were prepared by using different drug to polymer ratios, and evaluated for relevant parameters.  Depending upon the drug to polymer ratio, the percentage yield is found between 51.06±0.51% to 72.42±0.83 % in all formulations. The surface morphology of the microspheres was characterized by SEM. The prepared microspheres were discrete, spherical in shape and showed free flowing properties. The mean particle size of microspheres significantly increases with increasing polymer concentration and it was in the range between 23.10±0.12 µm to 33.66±0.41 µm. Among all the formulation, XG-III showed a high drug entrapment efficiency of 68.28±0.53 % and highest percentage swelling index of 67.75±0.06 %. The in-vitro drug release studies revealed that XG-III formulation is controlled and found to be 86.8±0.20 % and GG-III is found to be 89.8±0.11 % at the end of dissolution studies. The mechanism of drug release was evaluated using the linear regression coefficient. Stability studies of selected formulation showed good results. It could be also concluding that the all the formulations were shown satisfactory results and suitable for potential therapeutic uses.

Keywords: Propranolol hydrochloride, Mucoadhesive Microspheres, Xanthan gum, Guar gum, In-vitro drug release, Stability studies. 


Improving the Photostability of Vitamin K1 (Phylloquinone) in organic solvent

Farida M. El-Daras 1, Marwa H. Tammam 1, Omnia I. M. Ali1, Shaymaa S. Nour2*

1. Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Ain Helwan, Cairo, 11795, Egypt

2. Bioavailability center, National Organization for Drug Control and Research (NODCAR), P.O.  Box 29 Giza, Egypt


The photostability of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) in bulk powder and in its dosage form was studied according to the conditions suggested by ICH Guideline (option 2).  The results showed that the rate of Photodegradation of vitamin K1 follows first order kinetics and it is higher in its dosage form than in bulk powder. Attempts have been made to improve the photostability of vitamin K1 by combination with different photoprotective agents such as p-aminobenzoic acid (PAPA), tartaric acid, boric acid, citric acid, sodium benzoate, titanium dioxide (TiO2), zinc oxide (ZnO), propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate and methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate. The photodecompositions products were monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometric method and HPLC. It was found that 0.01% PABA was the best photoprotective agent, which improved the photostability of vitamin K1 by 46 fold. The method was validated according to ICH guideline. The calibration graph was linear over the concentration range of 1.1× 10-5- 30.0 ×10-5 mol L-1. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification were 2.42 × 10-6 and 7.35 ×10-6 mol L-1, respectively.

Keywords: Phylloquinone, Photostability, 4-aminobenzoic acid; HPLC, UV-Vis spectrophotometry


Geriatric Nails as A Window to Their Health and Skin

Ajay Agrawal1*, Suga Reddy2

1. Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, Chhattisgarh Institute of Medical Sciences (CIMS), Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, 495001.

2.Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, JJM Medical College, Davangere, Karnataka


Dermatological examination is never complete without a careful evaluation of the nails. The elderly, who constitute a significant proportion of the present day society, show various age-related changes and disorders affecting their nail. This is generally due to susceptibility of the aging nail to fungal infections and impaired circulation. Concurrent dermatological or systemic diseases, and related treatments and faulty biomechanics also play a crucial role.[1] Age associated disorders include brittle, dull and lusterless nails, onychorrhexis, onychodystrophy, longitudinal ridging, melanonychia, platyonychia, sub-ungual hyperkeratosis, transverse ridging, pitting, onycholysis, longitudinal splitting, onychomycosis and koilonychia This study has been undertaken for nail disorders and nail changes in the elderly because of the scarcity of such studies in our country.

Keywords: Nail, Elderly, Geriatric


Silver oxide nanoparticle synthesis from Bacillus species and its anti-bacterial action against clinical pathogens

Kapil Devidas Kamble1*, Sonali Rajkumar Bhagat1

1.Department of Microbiology, Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati, India


Silver nanoparticles inhibit microbial growth and have been gaining importance as a solution for numerous biomedical applications. In this study, synthesis of silver nanoparticles is carried out using Bacillus species isolated from silver fabrication area. Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed the size of particles ranged from 39 to 67.4 nm and spherical shape. XRD spectra revealed nanoparticles are of silver oxide. The anti-bacterial activity of silver oxide nanoparticles of Bacillus species was prominent against the three clinical strains of major Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) causing Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Keywords: Urinary Tract Infection, nanoparticles, biomedical applications


A Study on Pattern and Treatment of Poisoning In A Teaching Hospital

Venkata Rohit Kumar.Chandolu1*, V.Satyanarayana1, J.N.Suresh Kumar1

1. Department of Pharmacy Practice, Narasaraopeta Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Narasaraopet, Guntur(Dist), Andhra Pradesh, India, 522601.


Back ground: Many studies carried out to determine the effect of Posioning on the success of implantation, poisoning is an important cause of mortality& morbidity rate in India. The objective of the study was to determine the demographic profile and mode of poisoning of patients & determine the exposure and outcome of patients. And also to asses the oxidative damage, hemoglobin levels  & leucocyte count in Posioning cases. Methods :It is retrospective type of design. The cholinestrase levels was  assessed by  the toxicity markers& also oxidative damage was assessed by the estimating the serum aldehyde levels, glutathione peroxidase levels. The significant decline  in choline straese correlation with the severity of poisoning was observed. The over all 157 cases of poisoning were reviewed retrospectively in tertiary care hospital. Among them, 153 cases were of intentional poisoning and rest 4 cases were accidental poisoning: The results of the present study suggested that the young age people with the age of 21 to 30 were more prone to suicide, particularly male in this age group. Most of them have used Organo phosphorous pesticides for committing suicide.

Keywords: Medical record room(MRD),Poison, Date of admission(D/A),Date of discharge(D/D).