American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
February 2016 Issue 2

Niosomes: An Exploration of A Novel Research Platform In Drug Delivery

Nappinnai Mohanavelu*1, Santha Sheela Natarajan Bhargavi2

1. Surya College of Pharmacy, Vikravandi, Villupuram Dist - 605 652.

2.C.L.Baid Metha College of Pharmacy, Jyothi Nagar, Thoraipakkam, Chennai 600 096.


The exploitation of the various approaches in the pharmaceutical field to develop a therapeutically efficient drug delivery system has lead to the exploration of niosomes as a suitable novel drug delivery system. Niosomes are vesicular systems made up of non-ionic surfactants with or without cholesterol and a charge inducing agent. Niosomes are similar to liposomes in vivo. Niosomes offer the advantages of having good stability, minimized toxicity, minimized side effects and are also economically feasible. In the present study, the various aspects on niosomal drug delivery system like the composition, methods of preparation, characterization, free drug removal, evaluation methods and applications in pharmaceutical field are explored. Niosomal formulations have been extensively studied and has showed enhanced therapeutic activity in the administration of drugs, hormones, markers and vaccines intended for systemic, topical, transdermal, ocular and targeted drug delivery. Considerable proven research in this efficient drug delivery system offers a pronounced scope for enhanced research with more drugs for targeted and site-specific drug delivery.

Keywords: Niosomes, non-ionic surfactant vesicles. 


Tylophora Indica Extracts Down Regulates Bcl2 and Induces Apoptosis in Melanoma Cells

Smitha C1, Sini S2, Finosh G T2, Rajesh Ramachandran2, Ratheesh M3

1.PMS Dental College, Thiruvananthapuram

2.Biogenix Research Center, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala-695013

3.St. Thomas College, Pala, Kerala


Melanoma is the least common but most dangerous skin cancer with the highest morbidity rate. Owing to increased toxicity towards normal cells, cancer chemo therapy is found to be great challenge with chemo sensitive agents. Phytochemicals derived anticancer agents is a field of great application. The unexplored plants remain the lead for novel therapeutic agents. Tylophoraindicaattracts research interest since little scientific data is available regarding the anticancer potential of the plant. In the present study purified ethanolic fraction showed the presence of compounds like alkaloids and quinines and the derivatives were confirmed by GC-MS analysis. Antiproliferative property of the alcoholic fraction was confirmed on malignant skin melanoma cell line SKMEL-28 by performing MTT assay, Neutral red uptake and LDH leakage assays respectively. The relative genotoxic effect of Tylophoraindica showed little damaging effects to genomic DNA when determined by comet assay and DNA fragmentation analysis. The apoptotic changes in nucleus were confirmed by fluorescent microscopic analysis by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. The molecular mechanisms of anticancer activity were mainly found to be due to the inhibition of BCL-2 gene expression by RT-PCR analysis. This study confirms anticancer activity of alcoholic fraction of Tylophoraindica, drawing new insights in their application for therapeutic regimens.

Keywords: Tylophoraindica, Bcl-2 gene regulation, SKMEL-28, Antiproliferative effects


The Prevalence of Depression among Patients with Diabetes Mellitus in the Levant and Gulf countries

Bassema Mahyoub Abu Farsakh1*, Jansi Rani Natarajan1

1.MSN Lecturer, College of Nursing, Sultan Qaboos University Al Koud, Muscat, Oman


The main purpose of this paper is to shed the light on the available data on depression among patients with diabetes mellitus in the Levant and Gulf countries, as well as get better understanding on the prevalence of the co-occurrence of this double whammy and find out what other sociodemographic factors that might affect the co-occurrence. Electronic databases CINAHL, Pub Med, Google Scholar, and Medline with Full Text were searched for English language articles in peer-reviewed journals between 2005 and 2014. A total of 11 studies exploring diabetes among patients with diabetes were selected, in order to review evidence on recent research in Gulf as well as Levant countries.  Nine of the reviewed articles reported high rates of co-morbidity of depression and diabetes. Moreover, diabetic women experience a higher prevalence of depression than men. Additionally, Poor glycemic control (Hb A1c) is linked with increased depressive symptoms. Also being on insulin regimen had shown to be associated with depression among patient with diabetes. Current research suggested that the risk of developing depression is increased in people with diabetes; however, further studies in the Gulf and Levant countries are required in order to establish the nature of the relationship between depression, glycemic control and the development of diabetes complications, then to make appropriate recommendations for treatment and to support management of diabetes.

Keywords: depression, diabetes, Gulf and Levant countries.


General public awareness, perceptions and observation towards pharmaceutical advertisements in the Dhaka city of Bangladesh: A cross-sectional study

Md. Mosiqur Rahman1*

1. Department of Pharmacy, Southeast University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.


The main objective of this study was to determine the general public awareness, perceptions and observation toward pharmaceutical advertisements. A cross-sectional study design was carried out in Dhaka city. One hundred and Thirty questionnaires were distributed to the general public using the non probability convenience sampling technique. Majority of them were males and with the age group between 30 and 39 years. Most of the respondents are highly educated. Majority of respondents were aware that only drugs without side effects are allowed to be advertised, medical advertisements should seek government approval and only registered drugs are allowed to be advertised. Health related magazines and advertisement on friends and family members have the highest influence on our respondents. Almost half of our respondents believed that advertised drugs are better than non-advertised drugs and another half disagreed that the quality of the frequently advertised products to be better than those prescribed by healthcare professionals. Side effects were the main things that the investigated sample is looking for once they read a pharmaceutical advertisement. Almost 40% of respondents will request their doctor to prescribe them an advertised drug. Most of respondents indicated that they will not change their current medications to a more frequently advertised drug. This study gives a brief knowledge on public awareness toward pharmaceutical advertisements which help the policy maker to implement their rules and regulations.

Keyword:  Pharmaceutical advertisement, Public awareness, Dhaka city, Side effects.


Ultrasonography an effective screening tool for Major salivary gland pathology: A pilot study

Juhi Gupta1*, Anshul Aggarwal2 , Masood H. Khan3, Kausar Jahan Khawaja4, Juhi Mujeeb5

1. Deptt. Oral Pathology/Oral Medicine and Radiology, Z.A. Dental College; AMU


There are three pairs of major salivary glands, namely Parotid, Submandibular and Sublingual. Parotid gland is located in the retro-mandibular fossa, Submandibular under the body of the mandible, & the Sublingual in the sublingual space lying lateral to the genioglossus muscle. Apart from obstructive and inflammatory diseases they are also prone for neoplastic changes. After clinical evaluation of gland ultrasonography is an important screening tool for salivary gland pathology. The aim of this study was to establish the usefulness of ultrasonography in screening of major salivary gland for various pathological conditions. 40 patients visited to Department of Oral Pathology/Oral Medicine and Radiology with chief complains associated with major salivary glands were included in our study. Patient was first subjected to plain radiography followed by ultrasonography. Ultrasound was not only found superior to plain radiography in screening of obstructive disease, it also provided valuable information about other pathological condition associated with major salivary gland. As ultrasonography is simple non ionizing, non invasive diagnostic procedure it should be used as first-line of imaging modality in assessment of salivary gland diseases.

Keywords: Ultrasonography, sialolith ,sialadenitis, tumor, Sjogren syndrome