American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
August 2017 Issue 8

A Review On Analytical Methods For Estimation of Formoterol Fumarate In Pharmaceutical Dosage Form and Biological Fluids

Priyanka Neval*, Dhara Patel, Khushboo Patel, Dhananjay Meshram

Department of Quality Assurance, Pioneer Pharmacy Degree College, Vadodara, Gujarat, India.


Formoterol fumarate is a selective long acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist indicated for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Various analytical methods used for the estimation of Formoterol fumarate alone and combination with other drugs have been reviewed in this paper. These are  include Ultraviolet spectrometry, High performance thin layer chromatography, High performance liquid chromatography, Ion pair to determine the amount of Formoterol fumarate in bulk drugs and pharmaceutical formulations as well as in Biological Fluids. Stability indicating and impurity profiling methods for Formoterol fumarate are also described. These analytical methods can be used for qualitative and quantitative estimation of Formoterol fumarate and / or its related impurities or degradants in bulk and formulation.

Keywords: Formoterol fumarate, analytical methods, estimation, formulation and Biological Fluids.         


Analytical Method Development for simultaneous estimation of Calcipotriene and Dipropionate in Pharmaceutical dosage form.

G. Sumalatha1, L. Srikanth1*, A. Venkatesham1

1. SVS Group of Institutions, School of Pharmacy, Hanamkonda Warangal, Telangana - 506015.


A new method was established simultaneous estimation of calcipotriene and dipropionate by RP-HPLC method. The chromatographic conditions were successfully developed for the separation of calcipotriene and dipropionate by using coloumn xterr C-18(4.6*250mm) 5µm, flow rate was 1.0ml/min mobile phase ratio Phosphate buffer (0.05M) pH 3.6: ACN (40:60%v/v) (pH was adjusted with ortho phosphoric acid), detection wave length 260nm.the instrument used was water HPLC auto sampler and PDA or detector. The analytical method was validated to ICH guidelines. The linearity range Dipropionate   and Calcipotriene were found to be from 100-500 µg/ml of Dipropionate and 1-5µg/ml of Calcipotriene. Linear regression coefficient was not more than 0.999.

Keywords : calcipotriene, dipropionate, RP-HPLC, phosphate buffer and  ACN.




A Study of Factors Influencing Ocular Morbidity in Primary School Children of Aligarh

Naeem1, S M Safdar Ashraf2, Ammar Ibn Anwar1, Abdul Aziz Khan1

1.Department of Tahaffuzi wa Samaji Tib, Sufia Unani College and Research Centre, 12 Chakia Bihar.


Human eyes are the precious gift from the Al-mighty Allah. The eyes play an important role in mobility, function and enjoyment of life. Without it, a man won't be able to see the beauty of this wonderful world. For this reason it is important to maintain good ocular health. Having good ocular health means that the eyes are disease free and vision is at least 20/20 or better with or without correction Health services related with eyes are one of the important aspect of school health services in which children are screened for various systemic and eye diseases such as refractive error, squint, amblyopia, cataract, vitamin deficiency etc. The basic aim of this study was to assess the factor influencing on ocular Morbidity amongst school going children. School surveys were conducted in various AMU Schools, Aligarh. A total of 1129 children between age group 8 to 12 years were enrolled in the study. Prevalence of Ocular morbidity was found in 32.3 % (n=365 out of 1129) Refractive error was found to be the most common cause of ocular morbidity 84.9 % (n= 310) followed by Conjunctivitis 7.9 % (n= 29).

Keywords: Human eyes, Ocular Morbidity, Refractive error, Conjunctivitis, Stye, Blepharitis 


The Role of Senna and Fennel In Ameliorating Cardiovascular Disease In Diabetic Rats

              Nadia Nour Osman 1,2, Wadiah Saleh Backer1 , Abrar Mohammad Al-Ahmadi1

1.Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

2.Food Irradiation Research Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt.


Diabetes alters the biochemical pathways of body and increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to cardiovascular diseases. Compounds showing antioxidant activity could have a protective role against cardiovascular disease in diabetes. The current study aimed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of senna (Cassia angustifolia) and/or fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) against streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes in rats. Rats were divided into five groups: control, diabetic (60 mg·kg⁻¹of STZ), diabetic rats treated with senna (150mg/kg/day), diabetic rats administered with fennel (120mg/kg/day) and diabetic rats administered with a combination of senna and fennel. Diabetic rats demonstrated a substantial increment in the levels of blood glucose, lipid profile, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, nitric oxide and xanthine oxidase accompanied with a noteworthy decline in reduced glutathione content, vitamin C level and catalase activity in heart tissues with comparison to the control group. Daily oral treatment of senna or fennel aqueous extract for 4 consecutive weeks showed a marked attenuation of oxidative stress in heart tissues. Combination of both senna and fennel extracts exhibited more amelioration than these extracts alone and reversed the adverse effect of diabetes in rats by bringing blood glucose levels and lipid profile near to that of control.  The present investigation has demonstrated that treatment with a combination of senna and fennel extracts in STZ induced diabetes in rats show significant antidiabetic activity and pronounced cardioprotective effects.

Keywords: Antioxidant, diabetes, senna, fennel, cardioprotection


Effects of Cotinus Coggygria Extract on the Transcriptional Levels Of Histone Deacetylase Genes In Breast Cancer Cells In Vitro

Zlatina Gospodinova*, Maria Krasteva, Vasilissa Manova

1.Laboratory of Genome Dynamics and Stability, Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria


Despite the significant progress in cancer treatment in recent years, the disease remains a leading cause of death worldwide. Histone deacetylases are a family of enzymes recognized as key regulators of the process of histone acetylation, a main epigenetic event involved in the control of gene transcription. High expression levels of histone deacetylases are distinctive for cancer cells and a searching for new more effective and less toxic histone deacetylase inhibitors with natural origin is a nowadays intensively studied research direction in cancer prevention and therapy. Cotinus coggygria is a medicinal plant possessing numerous valuable biological properties. The antitumor potential of C. coggygria extracts is poorly studied and the available data concerning the anticancer capacity of the Bulgarian herb are limited only to a previous research of the authors, which detected reduction in viability of breast cancer cell line MCF7 after treatment with aqueous ethanolic leaf extract. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the ability of C. coggygria extract to modify the process of histone acetylation by transcription analysis of nine genes coding for histone deacetylases after treatment of MCF7 cells for different time periods through quantitative Reverse Transcription - Polymerase Chain Reaction. The obtained results showed statistically significant reduction in the relative amount of HDAC5 and HDAC7 mRNA transcripts at 48 hour after treatment and a tendency of HDAC3 expression inhibition at 72 hour. Future investigations will be directed to assessment of the extract effect on the expression of genes coding histone acetyltransferases in MCF7 cells.

Keywords: Cotinus coggygria, MCF7, HDACs, gene expression


Evaluation of Teratogenicity of Semecarpus Anacardium l. And Trigonella Foenum-Graecum l. In Zebrafish.

Trupti Tuse1*, Satish Bhise1

1.Smt. Kashibai Navale college of Pharmacy, Kondhwa (Bk), Pune, Maharashtra, India


Semecarpus anacardium L. and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. has been traditionally used in India. These drugs have a long history of use for the prevention and treatment of diseases. But due to the toxic potential of these drugs there is need to have an easy model which can be used for screening teratogenic potential of such plants. The zebrafish embryo is a promising alternative model in some fields of biomedical research, such as drug screening, safety pharmacology, and developmental toxicity assessment. This study is aimed at evaluating teratogenicity of aqueous extracts of Semecarpus anacardium L. and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seeds on zebrafish embryos. The concentrations of the aqueous extracts of Semecarpus anacardium L. and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. used were 0.01, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.08%. Zebrafish embryos were exposed from 24-96 hpf to both the aqueous extracts. Malformations assessment was carried out at 96 hpf. They were evaluated for phenotype changes such as head malformation, pericardial edema, yolk sac edema and jaw malformation. There was dose dependent teratogenicity shown by both the extracts on zebrafish embryos. Based on these results, it was concluded that Semecarpus anacardium and Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds extracts may have potential teratogenic effects on fetuses.

Keywords: Semecarpus anacardium, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Teratogenicity, Zebrafish embryo, Fetus.


Callus culture and Morphogenetic Reposes of a Medicinally Important Plant Butea monosperma.

Chandkor Kumari1, * Renu Sarin1

1.Laboratory of Bioactive Natural Products , Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur-302004, INDIA;


An in vitro protocol was developed for callus production and regeneration of Butea monosperma of family fabaceae which is widely used in traditional medicine around the world. It is a common plant of medicinal value and distributed throughout India and is known as Flame of forest,  palash, mutthuga, bijasneha, dhak, khakara, chichra. Different explants (seeds and nodal segments) used in the present investigation responded differently to various concentration and combinations of hormones. Nodal segments were founds to be more suitable explants than seeds of this plant.  In vitro generation of callus was initiated from young nodal segments on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of phytohormones. The callus initiation took place within 15-24 days of inoculation of nodal segments. The unorganized mass of callus tissues thus developed was hard and blackish. It was maintained on MS media by frequent subculturings after every 4-6 weeks. It grew profusely after a number of subculturings and possessed high capacity of growth. It was observed that BAP (2.5 mg/L) in combination with NAA (0.5 mg/L) was best for callus induction and establishment. Kn did not proved to be beneficial for producing callus in the present investigation. Nodal segments inoculated in the media supplemented with BAP: NAA: IAA (1:1: 0.2mgL-1) gave long multiple shoot .  These shoots were rooted in media without any growth regulators. Profuse rooting was seen in in vitro regenerated shoots grown in the media  supplemented with IBA (3.0mgL-1)  and when NAA also added in the media IBA: NAA (2: 0.2mgL-1),  rooting from in vitro  shoots  were observed. The results accomplished were found to be useful in developing a complete in vitro regeneration protocol towards the mass production of Butea monosperma, which may provide a basis for further genetic improvement that may prove its use as an alternative medicinal resource in commercial applications. 

Keywords:   Butea monosperma, Multiple shoots, Callus cultures, Growth regulators


Development and validation for Simultaneous Estimation of Alogliptin and Metformin in combined dosage form by UV Method

S.Malathi1*, M.Vijayalakshmi1

1. Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, PSG College of Pharmacy, Peelamedu,   Tamilnadu-641004.


A simple, sensitive, accurate and precise simultaneous UV spectrophotometric method has been developed for the estimation of alogliptin and metformin in tablet dosage form. The absorption maxima of the drugs were found to be 225 and 237 nm for alogliptin and metformin, respectively, in methanol, using a Shimadzu UV- visible spectrophotometer (model UV-1650). Alogliptin and metformin in obeyed beer’s law in the range of 0.05-0.25 µg/ml and 2-10 µg/ml, respectively. The correlation co-efficient value for metformin was found to be 0.99963 and 0.99936 at 225 nm and 237 nm, respectively. The correlation co-efficient value for alogliptin was found to be 0.99968 and 0.9333 at 225 nm and 237 nm, respectively. The method was validated for various parameters according to ICH guidelines. The low relative standard deviation values indicate good precision and high recovery values indicate accuracy of the proposed method.

Keywords: Alogliptin, Metformin, Methanol, UV spectrophotometric method, simultaneous equation method.