American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
February 2014 Issue 2

An Overview of Qillate Haiwaine Manwiya (Oligospermia) and Its Management In Unani System of Medicine

Shaikh Imtiyaz,*1 Mohd Anwar,2 Mohd Nayab,3 S Javed Ali1

1. PG Scholar Dept. of Moalajat, National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore.

2. Professor, Dept. of Ilaj Bit Tadbeer, Ajmal Khan Tibbia College, AMU, Aligarh.

3. Lecturer, Dept. of Ilaj Bit Tadbeer, National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore.


Qilatte Haiwane Manwiya (oligospermia) is one of the most common causes of male infertility. Despite up to date advances in the management of male infertility, the problem has not been solved satisfactorily. There are various defects in spermatozoa found on semen analysis which produce male infertility such as inadequate number of spermatozoa in semen, the failure of spermatozoa to move with adequate power and speed toward their target etc. Eminent Unani physician are treating the problem since the time immemorial not only for improving the numbers of spermatozoa but also the other defects of spermatozoa. In almost every Unani treatise, the discussion about Qilatte Haiwane Manwiya is found in detail including the causes, pathology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, line of treatment and a vast range of treatment.

Keywords: Qilatte Haiwane Manwiya, oligospermia, infertility, spermatozoa, Unani 


Solubility Enhancement of Ketoconazole by different techniques and its comparison study

Md.Sahabuddin Ansari1, Mamta Arora1, Md. Sabir Azim2, Md.Adil Hussain1, Gopal Kumar3, Md. Rahmat Ali2,*

1.Translam Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Meerut (U.P) and Research, Meerut- 250001, (U.P). India.

2.Dept. of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi-110062, India.

3.Dept. of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi-110062, India.


Enhancement of the solubility is an important physicochemical parameter which affects the absorption of drug and its therapeutic activity. The poor aqueous solubility of drug affects the lack of formulation development. In this study the antifungal drug ketoconazole were prepared with β-cyclodextrin and PEG-6000 by four different methods with an intention to improve its dissolution properties. Solubility of ketoconazole was prepared by sonocrystallization, solid dispersion, hydrotropy and Inclusion complex formation technique. In vitro release profile were evaluated and compared with standard ketoconazole. Solubility by the hydrotropy method was found to be 12.159 fold increases while by inclusion complex, solid dispersion, and melt sonocrystallization method was found to be 9.644, 7.349, and 5.517 fold respectively. Dissolution profile of all four formulations (aqueous suspension), it was found that the formulation prepared by the hydrotropy method showed the best release profile that is 83.16%. Investigations of the properties of the dispersions were performed using release studies with analytical studies, Differential scanning calorimetery (DSC), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). FT‐IR spectra revealed no chemical incompatibility between drug and ß‐cyclodextrin. Interaction of Drug-polymer was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

Keywords: Ketoconazole, β-cyclodextrin, PEG-6000, Solubility enhancement, Hydrotropy.


Evaluation of Anti-Obesity Potential of Erythroxylon Monogynum Against High Fat Diet Induced Obesity In Wistar Rats

Rupesh Kanhere1*, Kandula Ravindra Reddy2, Korlakanti Narasimha Jayaveera3, Sadhu Nelson Kumar4, Cuddapa Rajaram4

1. Department of Pharmacology, P. Rami Reddy Memorial College of Pharmacy, Kadapa- 516003, A.P, India.

2. Department of Pharmaceutics, P. Rami Reddy Memorial College of Pharmacy, Kadapa- 516003, A.P, India.

3 International Science-Tech Research Institute, Anantapur – 515 001, A.P, India.

4. Department of Pharmacology, P. Rami Reddy Memorial College of Pharmacy, Kadapa- 516003, A.P, India.


Obesity is an abnormal excessive growth of adipose tissue, results from the combined effects of excess energy intake and reduced energy expenditure. Ever growing research in herbal drugs from Indian system of medicine suggests that beneficial effect herbs or its phytoconstitiuents in various ailments since ancient time. Anti obesity potential of chloroform fraction of erythroxylon monogynum (CEM) in high fat diet induced obesity in wistar rats was evaluated.  Female rats were fed with high fat diet for 8 weeks. CEM was administered at a dose of 250 mg/kg, p.o. and 500 mg/kg for last 3 weeks while high fat diet offering. Parameters like body weight, feed consumption were monitored throughout experimental period. On Day 57, various biochemical parameters like serum glucose, serum lipid profile e.g. total cholesterol and triglyceride , HDL-C, LDL-C, VLDL as well as other biochemical parameters like SGOT, SGPT and total protein were estimated.  Effect of treatment on cardiovascular risk factor indicator i.e. atherogenic index was also calculated. Finally effect on vital organs like liver, heart and kidney as well as epididymal fat pad was also recorded. Due to treatment, there was a significant reduction in dose dependant manner in body weight and other elevated biochemical parameters like serum glucose, TG, TC, LDL-C, and VLDL levels. Decreased HDL- C level in HFD fed animals were significantly improved due to treatment of CEM. Atheroginic index as well as relative epididymal fat pad weight was found to be reduced due to CEM treatment.

Keywords: Chloroform fraction, Atheroginic index, Hypolipidemic, Erythroxylon monogynum.


A New Validated Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Assay Method for Pentoxifylline In Bulk Drug

N.Murali Krishna1, S.V.M.Vardhan2 C.Rambabu3

1. Department of Basic humanities, Velagapudi Ramakrishna Siddhartha Engineering College
(Autonomous) Kanuru , Vijayawada

2.Department of Biochemistry, K.U.Dr.MRAR P.G. Centre, Nuzvid, AP, India

3. Department of Chemistry, Acharya Nagarjuna university, Guntur, AP, India.


An isocratic reversed phase stability-indicating reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay method have been developed and validated for the determination of pentoxifylline in bulk drugs. Separation of pentoxifylline from the degradation products was carried out using an Inertsil ODS C18 (250cm x 4.6)mm,5u column  with  mobile phase consisting a mixture of  acetonitrile  and  KH2PO4 buffer (pH 4.0) in the ratio of (60:40v/v). The detection was carried out at wavelength 275nm. The developed method was validated with respect to linearity, accuracy (recovery), precision, system suitability, selectivity prove the stability indicating ability of the method.

Keywords: RP-HPLC, Stability indicating and Pentoxifylline. 


Evaluation of Prescriptions Quality and Estimation of Antibiotics Prescribing According to Different Classes In Community Pharmacies of Lahore

Rana Shahbaz1, Allah Bukhsh*1, Bilal Hassan Mehboob1, Sami Hussain1, Ehsan Izhar1, Umer Mehmood1

1.Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, LAHORE


Irrational prescribing of antibiotics is a major cause of antimicrobial resistance worldwide. Moreover the lack of attention by the physicians to the quality of prescriptions also play a key role in antimicrobial resistance and other problems such as patient medical record keeping, inappropriate dispensing and inadequate counseling by a pharmacist. The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the quality of prescription according to WHO guidelines and finding the antibiotic prescribing habits of physicians. The area of the study was limited to six branches of leading community pharmacy of Lahore. The concurrent method of study was used in the project. It was noted that generic prescribing was 1.7. Strength of drugs were 84.62%, dosage form 92.31%, dose 70.94%, frequency 74.36 %, duration 65.91 %. Basic patient information was the second set of parameters analyzed in the research. It was seen that body weight and address was present in 7.69 % and 5.98 % prescriptions respectively. Diagnosis was present in only 35 % of prescriptions. The study shows that Quinolones are the most prescribed anti-biotics (24.2%). The second most prescribed class was Cephalosporins (19.8 %). Third most prescribed class was Penicillins (13.66 %). Macrolides comprise of 8.07% of total prescribed. Others classes were Tetracyclins and Aminoglycosides (both 3.727%), Lincosamides 3.1%, and Carbapenems 2.4%.

Keywords: Antibiotics, Prescribing, Community Pharmacy


Phamacokinetic Evaluation of Microcapsules Containing Fluvastatin Sodium Using Rats

Venkatesh DP*1, Roopa Karki1, Hanumantha Rayappa B1, Divakar Goli1

1.Department of Pharmaceutics, Acharya and B. M Reddy College of Pharmacy, Soldevanahalli, Bangalore, India.


Microcapsules containing Fluvastatin Sodium having better drug retaining property. Most suitable for controlled release. Most satisfactory Fluvastatin Sodium microcapsules were subjected to pharmacokinetic evaluation with an objective to evaluate their drug release retarding and rate controlling efficiency in vivo. The rats were used for the in vivo bioavailability study. Ion exchange resins coated microcapsules of Fluvastatin Sodium was prepared by w/o/w emulsification technique. Fluvastatin Sodium release from Indion454 resins coated with eudragit RS100 microcapsules was slow and spread over 24 h. In the in vivo study, the absorption of fluvastatin sodium was slow over longer period of time with a rate constant (Ka) of 1.605 h-1. The mean residence time was observed from 6.5 h. Cmax was found to be 2.24µg/ml, tmax was found to be 6h, AUC was found to be 2.24µg/ml. From pharmacokinetic evaluation, Fluvastatin Sodium from resins coated microcapsules was released and absorbed slowly over longer period of time.

Keywords:  Fluvastatin Sodium, Microcapsules, Pharmacokinetics, controlled release.


Formulation, Development and Evaluation of Rosuvastatin Calcium Immediate Release Tablets

Satyabrata Bhanja*1, P.Rushikesh1 , K. Lakshmi Deepthi 1, V.Neelima 1

1.Department of Pharmaceutics, Malla Reddy College of Pharmacy, Maisammaguda Secunderabad. Andhra Pradesh.


The objective of the study was to increase the stability, and dissolution rate of Rosuvastatin Calcium, an acid labile antihyperlipedemic drug which acts as 3-hydroxy3-methyl glut aryl CoA (HMG-CoA) Reductase inhibitor through incorporation of different alkalizers. The different alkalizers used in the study are trisodium citrate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium alginate, di sodium hydrogen phosphate and meglumine. The tablets are prepared by direct compression and wet granulation method. The prepared tablets were evaluated for various post compression parameters like hardness, friability, weight variation, thickness, drug content and in-vitro dissolution. The results of the study revealed that the organic monovalent alkaliser meglumine shows the best results when compared with the innovator formulation. The dissolution studies showed that the drug release from all the formulation was complete and uniform in pH 6.6 sodium citrate buffer and T12 hardness (8.2 ±0.6) kp ,thickness(4.18 ±0.12)mm, friability (0.44)%, drug content uniformity (102±0.9)% and dissolution profile(99.5%) shows near to that of innovator and found to be the best formulation showing the drug release matched with that of innovator. The stability of tablets was studied at 40°C & 75%RH for period of 3 months at 40°C & 75% RH and no significant changes were detected in the hardness, friability, assay and dissolution profile of tablets after 3 month. The release kinetics studies performed and it follows the first order release kinetics and Peppas model indicates the mechanism of drug release i.e. Fickian diffusion. From the study it can be concluded that the formulation T12 can be considered as the optimized formulation.

Key words: Anti hyper lipidemic, alkaliser, dissolution, stability.


Physicochemical and Phytochemical Investigation of the roots of Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr.

Arun Joshi1*, Nikita Naik1

1.Department of Pharmacognosy, Goa College of Pharmacy, Panjim, Goa, India


The present study was undertaken for the development of physicochemical and phytochemical parameters of the roots of Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr. belonging to the family Anacardiaceae. The plant is known in Hindi as Jhingan, in Kannada as Manjistha, in English as Wodier, in Sanskrit as Jhingini and in Konkani as Moi. The physicochemical and phytochemical investigation confirms the purity and authenticity of Lannea coromandelica roots by using standard methods. The physicochemical studies revealed the presence of moisture content as13.7 % w/w, total ash as 10.725 % w/w, acid insoluble ash as 0.975 % w/w, water soluble ash as 1.825 % w/w, alcohol soluble extractive as 10 % w/w, water soluble extractive as 10.8 % w/w, ether soluble extractive as 2.3 % w/w, foaming index as less than 100 and swelling index as 0.733 cm. The fluorescence analysis in short wavelength, long wavelength and day light is also reported, which is a tool to determine the chemical nature of crude drug. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the ethanolic extract of the roots revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, flavonoids, triterpenoids, steroids, tannins and saponins. All these methods will help in setting down pharmacopoeial standards in determining the quality and purity of the Lannea coromandelica roots.

Keywords: Lannea coromandelica, Anacardiaceae, Fluorescence, Physicochemical, Phytochemical.


Immunomodulating Activity of Aqueous Extract of Leptadaenia Reticulata

Aditi Dubey1, Neelgagan Singh2*, D.K. Saraf1

1.Department of Zoology, Dr H. S. Gour Vishwavidyalya Sagar (M.P.), India

2.Department of Zoology, Maitreyi College, University Of Delhi, India


The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Leptadaenia reticulata for immunomodulating activity. The aqueous extract of plant of Leptadaenia reticulata holds potential as a protective agent against cytotoxic drugs. The extracts when studied on humoral and cell mediated immunity in normal, as well as cyclophosphamide induced immunosuppressed rats, it produced an increase in carbon clearance, humoral antibody (HA) titre, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and white blood cell (WBC) count in a dose dependent manner. The aqueous extract also enhanced interleukin-2 (IL-2) level in a dose dependent manner while the IL-6 showed almost stable level. The present investigation established pharmacological evidence to support the folklore claim that it is an immunomodulating.

Keywords: Leptadaenia reticulata, Immunostimulant, Cyclophoshamide, Carbon clearance test, Delayed type hypersensitivity, Antibody titre.



IR Quantification of Isoniazid In Bulk and Oral Dosage Form

V.Niraimathi*1, A. Jerad Suresh1, R.Ramaprabha1, I.Senthil Kumar1

1.Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Madras Medical College, Chennai 600003,Tamilnadu, India.


Simple and sensitive infrared  spectrophotometric method have been developed for the estimation of  isoniazid in tablet dosage form and the Beer’s concentration range was found to be 0.5mg-2.0 mg. The correlation coefficient for the method was found to be 0.9 and the developed method was analyzed for specificity, linearity of response, precision and accuracy; thus the proposed method could be adopted for routine analysis of bulk drug and its formulation.

Keywords: Infrared spectroscopy (IR), Potassium thiocyanate(KSCN), Potassium bromide disc. 


Assessment of Overall Incidence of Esophagogastric and Swallowing/Choking Adverse Events of Alendronate Tablets

Kiran Krishnan1*, Kathiresan Krishnasamy1

1.Department of Pharmacy, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India.


Alendronate sodium is a nitrogen-containing synthetic bisphosphonate used in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, treatment to increase bone mass in men with osteoporosis, treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis and treatment of Paget's disease of bone. Alendronate sodium was approved by US FDA in 2000 later, generic applications was approved by FDA approved in 2008. Adverse reactions were reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.The present study was aimed to evaluate the overall incidence of esophagogastric and swallowing/choking adverse events for Alendronate. All case reports with adverse events/reactions reported for Alendronate Sodium from the international birth date between 17-Feb-2004 to 16-Dec-2013 were retrieved from the safety database. The  estimated  incidence  of  the  relevant  adverse  events  suggestive  of esophagogastric and swallowing/ choking in relation to the exposure data is as follows (a) Serious events - 0.0681 events per million patient days or 6.81% and (b) Non-serious events - 0.1431 events per million patient days or 14.31%. The study result have shown that the estimated incidence of the relevant adverse events suggestive of esophagogastric and swallowing/ choking in relation to the exposure data were 6.81 % serious and 14.31 % non-serious.

Key words: Alendronate Tablets, Esophagogastric, Swallowing/Choking Adverse Events, Alendronate Sodium



The Effects of Aframomum melegueta Aqueous extract on the Liver Enzymes of Adult wistar Rats

Obike HI*1, Ezejindu DN1, Nnagbo AC1.

1.Department of Anatomy, college of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria


This study is aimed at investigating the effects of Aframomum melegueta aqueous extract on liver enzymes of adult wistar rats. Twenty healthy wistar rats weighing between 180-215kg were used. They were divided into four groups (A, B, C & D) of five animals each. Group A served as the control and received 0.35ml of distilled water; the experimental groups B, C & D were orally administered with 0.55ml, 0.65ml and 0.75ml of aqueous extract of Aframomum melegueta respectively for twenty eight days. The control A and experimental groups were weighed, anaesthetized under chloroform vapour and dissected. Liver tissues were removed and weighed. Blood samples were collected through cardiac puncture using sterile syringes and needles. Blood for serum preparation was collected into sterile plain tubes without anticoagulant. The activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined using randox kit method. The final body weight of the experimental groups increased significantly (P˂0.001) with the control. The relative liver weight of the experimental groups (B, C & D) statistically increased (P˂0.001) relative to the control. The activity levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the experimental groups (B, C & D) are similar with the control (A). This study therefore suggest that consumption of Aframomum melegueta aqueous extract at low and high doses did not cause biochemical alteration in the liver enzymes.

Keywords: Liver weight, Body weight, Aframomum melegueta, Wistar rats, Hepatoprotective


In-vitro Evaluation of Lamivudine Extended Release Matrix Tablets Formulated By Eudragit S-100 And Eudragit L-100

Thumma Praveen Kumar Reddy1*, Ponnada Nutan. Deepthi2, B. Sudheer3, Swathi Kandukuri1, Poreddy Praveen Reddy1, Madatha Praveen Kumar1

1.Nalanda College of Pharmac ,Department of Clinical Trials, Nalgonda, India

2.  Global Data Pharmaceutics, Department of Clinical Trials, Hyderabad

3. ASN Pharmacy, Tenali, India


The aim of present research work was in-vitro evaluation of lamivudine extended release matrix tablets formulated by Eudragit S-100 and Eudragit L-100. FTIR studies shows that no chemical interactions were found. Physical mixture was evaluated for bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index, Hausner’s ratio and angle of repose before being punched as tablets. Various formulations of extended release matrix tablets of Lamivudine were prepared by different ratios of Eudragit S-100 and Eudragit L-100 by direct compression method with the rato of 16.66, 25.3 and 33. 3 % weight of both eudragit S-100 and eudragit L-100 were according to the total weight of tablet such formulations F1 to F6 and F7 to F9 both the polymers were taken as a combination F7 contains 8.33 % of eudragit s-100 and 8.33 % of eudragit L-100 similarly F8 and F9 also.. The tablets were evaluated for physical characterization.  From in-vitro dissolution studies all the formulations were analyzed and for the optimized formulation (F6) drug release was found to be 98% in 24hr with first order kinetics. The n values for the optimized F6 formulation was 0.620 which follows case II non-Fickian (anomalous) release (0.5≤ n ≤ 0.89). In the non-Fickian (anomalous) case II release, the rate of drug release is due to the combined effect of drug diffusion and polymer relaxation. Super Case II release generally refers to the polymer relaxation.

Keywords: Lamivudine, Extended release tablet, Eudragit S-100 and Eudragit L-100