American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
May 2018 Issue 5

A Review of Tablet in Tablet Vitamin D3 Formulation Techniques

P. Inigo*, R.Ramprasad1, S.R.Senthilkumar1, N. Venkateshan2

Department of Pharmacy, Arulmigu Kalasaligam College of Pharmacy


The studies is to review formulated core tablets (tablet in tablet) and difficulty in the formulation and evaluation. Numerous techniques are used overcome the problem of stability. The tablet coating have number of advantages like masking odor, taste, color of the drug, providing physical and chemical protection to drug, Protecting drug from the gastric environment. Most of the tablets are instable in gastro industrial tract. Coated, encapsulation, capsules instructed tablet, gel coated tablet. Vitamin D3 containing  cholecalciferol (made from 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin). Several forms (vitamins) of vitamin D exist. The two major forms are vitamin D2 or ergocalciferol, and vitamin D3 or cholecalciferol; vitamin D without a subscript refers to either D2 or D3 or both. Vitamin D3 contain natural foods like Fatty fish, like tuna, mackerel, and salmon Foods fortified with vitamin D, like some dairy products, orange juice, soy milk, and cereals, Beef liver, Cheese, Egg yolks. Industrial production encovndred several  evaluation error  like weight variation, hardness, friability, thickness, solubility, disintegration test. Here dissolution test not necessary because vitD3 was a supplementary USP not recognized.  Nutrients do not work alone, and when it comes to taking vitamin D, its important that you take any compound and vitamin D together and not JUST vitamin d alone in large doses as this can lead to what people BELIEVE are vitamin d side effects.

Keywords:  Vitamin D3, cholecalciferol , coated tablet


Study of Prescribing Pattern In Treatment of Pediatric Pneumonia and Parent Counselling In Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital

Gade Ashok Reddy1*, K.Saravanan1, S.Chidambaranathan2

1.Department of Pharmacy, Annamalai University

2., Rajah Muthiah Medical College & Hospital, Annamalai University


Pneumonia is a lower respiratory tract infection that specially affects the lungs and is caused by micro-organisms. Pneumonia kills more children than any other illness, more than AIDS, malaria and measles combined. It occurs in people of all ages, although the clinical manifestations are most severe in the very young, the elderly, and the chronically ill. The aim of study was to assess the prescribing pattern of drugs used in treatment of pneumonia in children and to provide parent counselling regarding post discharge drug administration in a tertiary care teaching hospital. A Prospective Observational Study which was carried out in the Department of Paediatrics of Rajah Muthiah Medical College Hospital in Chidambaram, Cuddalore District, Tamil nadu in the period of June 2016 to October 2016 (5 months). The patient demographics, antibiotics prescribed, discharge advices were collected in a specially designed data collection form. A total of 30 patients were enrolled post obtaining consent from parents into the study. 19 patients (63.33%) were male and 11 patients (36.66%) were female. The age distribution of the study showed majority of patients with pneumonia aged between 2months and 1 year, for 53.33% of the total whereas the patients at 4-12 year occupied the least. Drug use pattern showed all the 30 patients were prescribed with various nebulizing agents. In which 25 patients were mostly prescribed with 3% NACL + O2. Among 30 patients, 7 patients underwent mono therapy, 16 patients underwent dual therapy, 3 patients underwent triple therapy & 4 patients were not treated with antibiotics. Counselling for patient caretakers upon discharge were based upon certain parameters which included dose, dosing interval, side effects. Study outcomes concluded that male patients and patients with age group > 2 months and <1year were affected mostly with pneumonia. The study suggests that occurrence and recovery of young patients from pneumonia can be greatly improved if the parent/care taker is aware of causes of the disease and appropriate treatments Cephalosporins are the most used antibiotics among the patients and is of first choice.

Keywords: Pediatrics, Pneumonia, Antibiotics.


Impact of Drinking Water Quality On Human Health In Selected Areas, Near Tirupati, India

S.V. Dorairaju1,3, C. Narasimha Rao2, P.V. Chalapathi3*

1.Department of Chemistry, Rayalaseema University, Kurnool, 518002, Andhra Pradesh, India.

2.Department of Chemistry, S. V. University, Tirupati, 517502, Andhra Pradesh, India.

3.Department of Chemistry, S.V. Arts Degree and P.G. College, Tirupati, 517502 Andhra Pradesh, India.


The impact of drinking water quality at different locations of Ramapuram, near Tirupati, India has been assessed to study its effects on human health. Water samples were collected from different locations and analyzed for physicochemical parameters such as pH, hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, iron, nitrates, chlorides, sulphates, electrical conductivity, total solids (TS), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and bio chemical oxygen demand (BOD). The results were compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) water quality standards. Correlation studies reveal that drinking water of some of the areas was not suitable for drinking purpose and needs purification before drinking.

Keywords: Water quality, Human health, BOD, TSS, TDS, Correlation coefficient.


Correlation Analysis of ground water: A Case Study in Selected Areas Near Tirupati, India

S.V. Dorairaju1,3, C. Narasimha Rao2, P.V. Chalapathi3*

1.Department of Chemistry, Rayalaseema University, Kurnool, 518002, Andhra Pradesh, India.

2.Department of Chemistry, S. V. University, Tirupati, 517502, Andhra Pradesh, India.

3.Department of Chemistry, S.V. Arts Degree and P.G. College, Tirupati, 517502 Andhra Pradesh, India.


Ground water quality and its impact on human health in an industrial area near Tirupati, India has been assessed. Water samples were collected from 40 different locations of Vadamala Pet near Tirupati and analyzed for physicochemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, calcium, chlorides, sulphates, nitrates and dissolved oxygen etc. The found values of physicochemical parameters were compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) water quality standards. Based on the physico-chemical analysis and correlation studies, it was found that ground water of some of the studied areas was polluted and not suitable for drinking purpose. Thus the ground water of such areas needs purification before drinking.

Keywords: Ground water, physicochemical parameters, purification, total dissolved solids, hardness.


Caffeine inhibits Levodopa-Induced Potentiation of Haloperidol-Induced Catalepsy and Tardive Dyskinesia in Balb/ C Mice

Premsaroj B. Bhansali1, Shivraj Vhanale2, Sanjay Kasture3

1. Dr. Vasantrao Pawar Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Nashik, India;

2. Sanjivani College of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Kopargaon, India

3. Pinnacle Biomedical Research Institute, Bhopal, India


Caffeine is a nonspecific adenosine receptor antagonist useful in treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Haloperidol induced catalepsy and vacuous chewing movements in laboratory animals are inhibited by caffeine. There is a report that repeated administrations of levodopa produced increased formation of 6-OHDA in Balb/C mice which aggravates the extrapyramidal effects of neuroleptics. Chronic administration of levodopa is reported to alter mitochondrial respiratory chain activity in rats and this activity is thought to be related to an oxidative stress and is responsible for progression of PD. We therefore studied the effect of repeated administration of levodopa (with carbidopa) on haloperidol induced catalepsy and vacuous chewing movement (VCMs) and the modifications by caffeine. We also studied effect of chronic levodopa on SOD, Catalase, lipid peroxidation, and reduced glutathione levels in mice. In the experiment to study the effect of levodopa + carbidopa (LD+CD; 6:0.6 mg/kg i.p.), with or without caffeine (10 & 20 mg/kg i.p.), administered for 27 days and the duration of catalepsy in 5 min interval was recorded every 30 min till 180 min. The effect on the biochemical parameters was assessed on the 27th day. Haloperidol induced catalepsy and VCMs intensified gradually and simultaneous treatment with LD + CD potentiated both catalepsy and VCMs. Caffeine in both the doses significantly reduced duration of catalepsy and number of VCMs in all the treated groups. Caffeine also reversed the effect of haloperidol given with or without LD+CD on the enzyme markers of the stress significantly. The results suggest involvement of oxidative stress in exaggeration of pharmacological effects of haloperidol and their inhibition by caffeine.      

Keywords: Caffeine, haloperidol, catalepsy, vacuous chewing movements, stress