American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
October 2013 Issue 7

A Critical Review on Therapeutic Application of Dalk

Malik Itrat1*, Zarnigar1, A.H. Ansari1, M. Arshad Jamal2

1. Dept. of Tahaffuzi wa Samaji Tib, National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore

2. Dept. of Moalajat, National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore


Dal'k (Massage) has been in used for preventive, therapeutic and rehabilitative purposes since antiquity. In Unani medicine it is one of the methods of evacuation of morbid matter from the body to maintain the equilibrium of bodily humors. Medicated massage in Unani medicine has been indicated in various neurological, musculoskeletal and psychosomatic disorders. In recent years various studies have been conducted to establish the scientific validity of massage. In this paper, author have discussed about the classification of massage and therapeutic importance of massage in Unani perspective along with scientific reports of various studies conducted so far.

Keywords: Dal'k, Unani Medicine, Massage, Therapeutic application


Approaches In Solubility Determination of Drug

Akshay Vitthalrao Mundhe*

1.Department of Pharmaceutics, Anuradha College of Pharmacy, Chikhli, Dist. Buldana, Maharashtra- 443201


To describe the solubility related aspects in drug discovery and development with overview on factors affecting solubility of drug along with the special focus on the practical approaches of solubility determination. The solubility is essential factor in the initial stages of drug discovery and development. The determination of solubility gives an idea about the drug response prediction. The poor solubility results in ineffective response in experimental design. The use of solubility data in appropriate setting is very important before screening of drug. The biopharmaceutical classification system is of pH dependent used to classify drugs on the basis of pH dependent solubility and permeability. This article outlines solubility aspects in drug discovery and development with factors that influences solubility and methods to determine the solubility of drug with different models developed to predict solubility.  Investigators are constantly searching for different approaches to determine and predict the solubility of drug. But still there are several work is being done by the investigators to increase the efficiency and accuracy to determine the solubility.

Keywords – Solubility, factors, permeability, screening, models.


Use of Contraceptive Methods Down Through The History: An Overview

Aisha Perveen*1 , Nasreen Jahan1, Abid Ansari2, Md Tanwir Alam3, . Shaista Perveen1

1.Dept. of Ilmul Advia (Pharmacology), National Institute of Unani Medicine (NIUM), Bangalore-91, Karnataka, India

2.Department of Kulliyat, HMS Medical College, Tumkur, Karnataka, India

3.Dept. of Preventive and Social Medicine, Allama Iqbal Unani Medical College (AIUMC), Muzaffarnagar, U.P., India.


Ever since the dawn of history, women and men have wanted to be able to decide when and whether to have a child, thus contraceptives were used in one form or another for thousands of years throughout human history and even prehistory. In fact, family planning has always been widely practiced intentionally or unintentionally, even in societies dominated by social, political or religious codes that require people to ‘be fruitful and multiply.’ Although, the concept of family planning emerges in early 8th decade of 20th century (1971) when the world’s gross population surpass 3 billion with accelerating growth rate, but the use of contraception dated back to almost 4000 years. Here in this article authors try their best to collect the literature in the support of use of contraceptive methods and agents throughout the history.

Keywords: Barrier Method; Herbal Contraceptive; IUDs; Unani Medicine.


Comparative Meta-Analysis on Efficacy of Massage and Other Evidence Based Regimens for the Management of Neck Pain

Md Tanwir Alam*1, Abdul Haseeb Ansari2, Aisha Perveen3, Shaista Perveen3

1. Dept. of Preventive and Social Medicine, Allama Iqbal Unani Medical College (AIUMC), Muzaffarnagar, U.P., India.

2. Lecturer, Dept. of Preventive and Social Medicine, National Institute of Unani Medicine (NIUM), Kottigepalya, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

3. PG Scholar, Dept. of Pharmacology (Ilmul Advia), National Institute of Unani Medicine (NIUM), Kottigepalya, Bangalore, Karnataka, India


While there is much debate on how to treat neck pain either acute or chronic, the prevalence of it is increasing day by day. Various treatment modalities are being tried/used these days to counter this challenging situation. Allopathic drug therapies, other non invasive techniques’, invasion and surgical procedures and a long list of analgesic, anti-depressant, anti-inflammatory and muscle relaxant drugs are being prescribed despite of there limited response. Because of the limited and slow response to allopathic medicine, mass are turning to alternative therapies. Research into the mechanisms, side effect profiles, and efficacies of these, alternative therapies has increased in recent years; much more still remains unknown and untested. Herein, we review the literature on allopathic as well as complementary and alternative medicine for pain, with particular emphasis on evidence-based assessments pertinent to the most common alternative therapies, including acupuncture, herbal therapy, massage therapy, hypnosis, tai chi and biofeedback etc.

Keywords: Cervical Pain; Dalk; Therapeutic Massage; Herbal therapy; Unani.


Spectrophotometric Assay of Nateglinide In Bulk Drug and Commercial Pharmaceutical Formulations

Sudheer Challa1*,Tirumaleswararao1,Vardhan Svm2, C.Rambabu1

1.Department of Chemistry, Acharya Nagarjuna University Nuzvid Campus , Nuzvid.

2.Department of Biochemistry, K.U.Dr.MRAR.P.G.Centre,Nuzvid,AP,India


Two simple, sensitive selective accurate and economical spectrophotometric methods (Method-A&B) for the determination of Nateglinide in bulk drug and pharmaceutical formulations (tablets) have been described in the present work. Method - A is based on the formation of orange red colored ion-association complex between Nateglinide and Tropaeolineooo (TPooo) exhibiting absorption maximum at 470nm and obeying Beer’s law in the concentration range of 2.5-12.5µg/ml. The Method - B is based on the formation of Ion-association complex between Nateglinide and Alizarine Red S (ARS) to yield an yellow colored chromogen exhibiting absorption maximum at 440nm (Method B) and obeying Beer’s law in the concentration range of 2.5-12.5µg/ml. Statistical analysis of the results has been carried out for the proposed methods revealing high accuracy and good precision. The proposed methods developed by the author could be successfully extended to the commercial pharmaceutical formulations (tablets) containing Nateglinide.

Keywords:  Nateglinide, Linearity, Validation.


Solid Dispersion of Telmisartan Using Full Factorial Design

Seemanchala Rath*, Bijan Kumar Gupta, Dalia Datta, Nripendra Nath Bala, Kabita Banik

1.BCDA College of Pharmacy and Technology, 78, Jessore Road (south), Hridaypur, Barasat, City- Kolkata


Telmisartan is an angiotensin II (AT1) receptor antagonist used in the treatment of hypertension. The drug is practically insoluble in water and insoluble in the pH range 3-9. The principal aim of this work is to improve the dissolution profile of telmisartan by solid dispersion and to find out the effect of sodium starch glycolate and β – cyclodextrin on the dissolution profile of telmisartan tablets. The study also includes optimization of the amount of sodium starch glycolate and β – cyclodextrin by a 32 full factorial design. Other excipients used in the study are microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH-101), D- mannitol, magnesium stearate and talc. Both sodium starch glycolate and β – cyclodextrin had contribution towards the enhanced release profile of telmisartan (about 80 % drug is released in 40 minutes) but the effect of β – cyclodextrin is more pronounced as revealed from response surface plots as well as from their corresponding contour plots. The optimized amount of β – cyclodextrin and sodium starch glycolate was found to be 2.0 gm and 1.6 gm respectively. The predicted and observed responses for the optimized solid dispersions shown no significant difference (paired t-test, p – value = 0.2834 and 0.3403 for percentage drug released at 20 and 40 minutes respectively).

Keywords: Beta – cyclodextrin, Dissolution, Optimization, Regression equations, Sodium starch glycolate, Telmisartan.


RP-HPLC Method Development and Validation of Telmisartan and Hydrochlorothiazide in Combination Dosage Form

Saroj Bala1, O.P. Mahatma1, Md. Sabir Azim2,*

1.Bhupal Nobels' Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Udaipur-313004 (Rajasthan), India.

2.Depatt. of pharmaceutical chemistry, Faculty of pharmacy, Jamia hamdard, New Delhi-110062, India.


A simple, accurate, precise and fast reverse phase, gradient RP-HPLC method was developed for the separation of telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide in combination dosage form of Tablets. The method was carried out by using Kromasil, C18, 4.6 x 150mm, 5 μm enhanced polar selectivity column and mobile phase comprised of potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer pH adjusted to 3.2 ± 0.5 with orthophosphoric acid and acetonitrile, and degassed under ultrasonication. The flow rate was 1.5 mL/min and the effluent was monitored at 225nm. The retention time of hydrochlorothiazide and telmisartan were 2.7 ± 0.5 and 7.3 ± 0.5 respectively. The method was validated as per ICH guideline. The proposed method is suitable for simultaneous determination of telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide in pharmaceutical dosage form.

Keywords: Telmisartan, Hydrochlorothiazide, RP-HPLC, Kromasil, ICH Guideline.


Evaluation of the Impact of A Pharmaceutical Care Service Offered to Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Within an Ambulatory Setting

Grech Louise* 1,2, Coleiro Bernard 1,3, Borg Andrew 3, Serracino Inglott Anthony 1, Azzopardi Lilian M1

1.Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Malta, Msida, Malta

2.Department of Pharmacy, Mater Dei Hospital, Malta

3.Department of Medicine, Mater Dei Hospital, Malta


The objectives of the study were to evaluate the impact of a newly developed pharmaceutical care services directed to rheumatoid arthritis patients attending an out-patient setting.  A total of 88 patients participated in the study and were randomly divided into two equal groups, Group A and Group B.  The study was carried out over three phases. In phase 1 (time 0), Group A patients were assessed and offered a pharmaceutical care session. Group B patients were assessed but no pharmaceutical care session was delivered.  At phase 2 (4-6 months), group A patients were re-assessed (first assessment post pharmaceutical care plan).  Group B patients were re-assessed a second time (second baseline assessment) and a pharmaceutical care session was offered to Group B patients.  At phase 3 (time 10-11 months) both groups were re-assessed a third time. The Health Assessment Questionnaire and the Short Form-36 were used as outcome measures during each assessment.  There were statistically significant differences (p<0.05) in all the 8 domains of the SF-36 between Phase 1 and 3 for both groups.  For the Health Assessment Questionnaire, a statistical improvement in the daily activities was identified after the pharmaceutical care intervention for both groups (Phase 2 for Group A and phase 3 for Group B). The newly developed individualised pharmaceutical care service provided by the pharmacist led to an improved quality of life as measured by the health related quality of life questionnaires.

Keywords: pharmaceutical care, quality of life, rheumatoid arthritis, drug therapy problems, pharmacist contribution


Therapeutic evaluation of Unani formulation in the management of Bars – An observational study

Javed A Khan1*, Tanzeel Ahmad1*, Shagufta Nikhat2

1.Dept. of Moalejat, National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore

2. Dept. of Ilmul Advia, Jamia Tibbiya Deoband, Deoband


Bars (Vitiligo) is an acquired depigmentation of the skin, characterized by well-circumscribed, ivory or chalky white macules which are flush to the skin surface.These patches look ugly, especially in persons with dark complexion. It affects 1% of the population worldwide. Both sexes are affected equally. It is a disease of antiquity. The renowned Unani physicians like Razi, Majoosi, Rabbn Tabri and Ibne Sina all have mentioned this disease in their books.  An observational non randomised study was conducted on thirty patients. Sheetraj Hindi (Plumbago zeylanicum) and Neela thotha (copper Sulphate) was powdered mixed and applied locally for three months. The overall response was found encouraging, achieved cured in 6.37%, very good response in 7.00%, good response 26.33%, fair response in 25%, poor response in 16.47%, slow response in 15.5%, and no response in 3.33% of patients in 3 months duration.

Keywords: Bars, Vitiligo, macules, Sheetraj Hindi and Neela thotha


In-Vitro Antioxidant Activity and Determination of Total Phenolic, Flavonoid Contents of Peperomia Pellucida Linn

Leena K.Pappachen*1,2, Annam Chacko 3.

1.Research  Scholar, Karpagam University 1,Eachanari Post,Coimbatore.

2.Amrita School Of Pharmacy, Amrita Viswa Vidyapeetham University, AIMS Health Sciences Campus ,Kochi2.

3.St. Josephs College Of Pharmacy, Cherthala, Alappuzha3


Peperomia Pellucida Linn (Piperaceae) has been traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as abdominal pain, acne, boils, colic, fatigue, gout, headache, renal disorders, and rheumatic joint pain. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of phenols and flavonoids in P.Pellucida. Thus the present study, aims to determine the in vitro antioxidant activity and to estimate the phenolic and flavonoid content in the methanolic extract of the whole plant of  Peperomia Pellucida Linn .Total phenolic content (TPC) was estimated using Folin-Ciocalteau’s reagent and total flavonoid (TF) content by Aluminium chloride colorimetric method. DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl), ABTS (2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid )and nitric oxide scavenging method were carried out to evaluate  the in vitro antioxidant activity.  Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were found to be 3.91g gallic acid equivalent per 100 g and 5.80g quercetin equivalent per 100 g of methanolic extract respectively by spectrophotometric method.IC50 value of methanolic extract of Peperomia Pellucida Linn were found to be  351.56±0.21μg/ml ,76.51±0.19μg/ml and 282.30±0.42μg/ml respectively in DPPH, ABTS and nitric oxide scavenging assays . These primary findings suggest that the methanol extract of  P.Pellucida Linn possess phenolic and flavonoid constituents that are responsible for antioxidant activity.

Keywords: P.Pellucida, antioxidant activity, flavonoids, ABTS, DPPH