American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
November 2016 Issue 11

Attention and Perception Related aspects in Balint syndrome-Neuropsychological and Neurophysiological prospects

Bandla. Aswani1*, S. Laxmi Priyanka 1, MD. Mehnaz 1, MD. Shifa1

1. Department of Pharmacy Practice, Narayana Pharmacy College, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, South India. PIN - 524002.


Balint syndrome is an uncommon and incompletely understood triad of neuropsychological impairments. Balint syndrome is characterized by dysmetria secondary to visual perceptive defect and inability to recognize more than one object at a time. Balint’s syndrome most often occurs with an acute onset as a consequence of two or more strokes at more or less the same place in each hemisphere, therefore it occurs rarely. Disorders such as tumours, trauma, near drowning, Eclampsia, drug toxicity, HIV encephalitis, Alzheimer’s can also leads to balint syndrome.  It is a strange combination of optic ataxia, Gaze apraxia, Simultanagnosia. Although it has been generally constructed as a biparietal syndrome causing an inability to see more than one object at a time, other lesions and mechanisms are also possible. Key syndrome components are dissociable and comprise a range of disturbances that overlap the hemineglect syndrome. Balint syndrome usually from large and more or less symmetrical lesions involving the posterior parietal region, including extensively the superior parietal lobe, as well as part of the inferior parietal lobe and the superior part of the occipital lobe. Diagnosis of individual components and of the whole syndrome may remain difficult, particularly when elementary motor, sensory, and visual deficits coexist.  Lack of awareness of this syndrome may lead to misdiagnosis and resulting inappropriate or inadequate treatment, therefore clinicians and other healthcare professionals should be familiar with the balint syndrome.  The goal of this review is to explore a range of anatomical and psychological explanations for this disorder.  

Keywords: Balint syndrome, Stroke, Optic ataxia, Gaze apraxia, Simultanagnosia


Arsenic Trioxide induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats - Protective role of Alcoholic Leaf Extracts of Annona squamosa

M. Nagalingam1, G. Arumugam1, N. Henita Geo1, A. Panneerselvam1*

1.Department of Zoology, Thiruvalluvar University, Serkkadu, Vellore-115


Liver is the largest gland in the human body. Liver performs various vital functions in our system. The liver breaks down toxic substances and most metals products in a detoxifying manner. The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of an alcoholic leaf extract of Annona squamosa on Arsenic Trioxide induced liver damage in albino rats. Wistar albino rats weighing around 180-200g were used. Blood and liver tissue were collected for the assessment of serum marker enzymes such as ALT, AST and ALP.

Keywords: Annona squamosa, Arsenic, Albino rats, Biochemical tests, Histological studies



Effect of Erythropoietin as Combination Therapy and Monotherapy on Serum Hemoglobin Levels In Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis

G. Kannan1*, A. Jhanavi2, N. Vanitha Rani2

1. Acharya & B.M. Reddy College of Pharmacy, Bangalore

2.Faculty of Pharmacy, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai


Hemoglobin level variability is common in hemodialysis patients with chronic kidney disease. The main objective of the study was to assess the influence of combination therapy (erythropoietin + iron preparations) and monotherapy (erythropoietin) on hemoglobin levels in patients with CKD on maintenance hemodialysis. The study was conducted in 150 patients (102 (68%) males and 48 (32%) females; mean age 51 ±13.8 years) undergoing once/twice/thrice weekly maintenance hemodialysis and were prescribed with combination therapy of erythropoietin + iron preparations and monotherapy of erythropoietin. Hemoglobin levels were estimated once every month prior to hemodialysis session for a period of 5 months. Patients were regularly monitored for side effects. There were significant increases in the serum hemoglobin levels (8.5 ± 2.1 at 1st month to 9.1 ± 1.6 at 5th month) on treatment with combination therapy (p < 0.05). Combination therapy is effective than monotherapy in maintaining the hemoglobin levels (variability) in chronic kidney disease patients on maintenance hemodialysis. 

Keywords: Anemia, Erythropoietin, Iron, Hemoglobin, Hemodialysis, Chronic kidney disease


Histological Effect of 5-Aminosalicylic Acid and Vitamin-E on Acrylamide Induced Prostate Toxicity In Rat

Nisreen Abdullah Rajeh1*, Wajnat Abdulmajed Hariri1

1.Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia


The aim of this work was to study the association between subacute acrylamide  exposure and prostate toxicity in male rats; and to compare the effect of two known antioxidants: Vitamin-E and 5- aminosalicylic acid on the induced prostate toxicity in male rats. King Fahad Medical Research Centre, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A total of 49 adult wistar rats (250 ± 20g) of 60 days age were divided into seven groups (control, acrylamide alone, acrylamide + 5-aminosalicylic acid, acrylamide + Vitamin -E, acrylamide + 5-aminosalicylic acid + Vitamin-E, Vitamin-E alone, 5-aminosalicylic acid alone). After 5 days of acrylamide oral gavage, rats were observed for 24 hours and sacrificed. Histopathology for the prostate and testosterone hormone were carried out. No significant changes were observed in testosterone, lactate dehydrogenase serum level and rats’ body weight. Rats treated with 5-aminosalicylic acid alone did not show any protection against acrylamide induced prostate toxicity. Further Vitamin-E alone did not show any protection against acrylamide induced prostate toxicity. Interestingly, injection of acrylamide treated rats with both Vitamin-E and 5-aminosalicylic acid concomitantly showed moderate improvement in the general histology of the prostate toxicity induced by acrylamide. Injection of acrylamide treated rats with 5-aminosalicylic acid or Vitamin-E alone did not show protective effect on acrylamide induced prostate toxicity on the level of prostate histology. However concomitant treatment of acrylamide treated rats with both antioxidants showed moderate improvement in general prostate histological structure.

Keywords: Acrylamide, 5-Aminosalicylic acid, Antioxidant, Prostate toxicity, Vitamin-E.


Synthesis and Pharmacokinetic studies of Effective and Safe New Antimicrobial Derivatives of Substitited Hydroquinoxaline-2,3-diones

Mostafa A. Hussein1*, Fergany A. Mohammed2

1.Faculty of Clinical Pharmacy, Baha university, KSA,

2.Pharm. Organic Chemistry Dept. Faculty of Pharmacy Assiut University Assiut Egypt


A series of 1,4-disubstituted octahydroquinoxaline-2,3-dione derivatives was prepared through two steps reaction. The latter involves the formation of N,N-disubstituted cyclohexane-1,2-diamine derivatives (la-g) through reductive alkylation of 1,2-cyclohexanediamine with different acetophenones in presence of sodium cyanoborohydride. Fusion of compounds (1a-g) with diethyl oxalate affording the target compounds (2a-g). Elucidation of structures of compounds (2a-g) was based upon different spectral data as well as the elemental methods of analyses. In addition, mass spectrometry and X-ray diffraction analyses were carried out. Moreover, the lipophilicity of the target compounds as expressed from the Clog P. Most of the test compounds (2a-g) showed weak to moderate antibacterial and antifungal activities against most of the used bacterial and fungal strains in comparison to norfloxacin and clotrimazole as reference drugs respectively. The pharmacokinetics of the most active hydroquinoxaline-2,3-diones derivative (2e) was determined  in  Rabbit plasma after intravenous and oral administration by a  simple, sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). Norfloxacin (NFL) was used as internal standard. The mean Cmax, tmax and AUC0-8h were 16.50 ± 2.10 µg/ml, 2 ± 0.11h and 74.84 ± 5.11 µg h/ml respectively for compound (2e).  The mean elimination half-life (t0.5e), absorption half-life (t0.5a), elimination rate constant ke and absorption rate constant ka values were 3.11 ± 0.22h, 0.60 ± 0. 1h, 0.231± 0.03 h-1 and 0.1.155 ± 0.13 h-1, respectively. The absolute bioavailability is 80.96% indicating good absorption after oral administration.

Keywords: antimicrobial, activity, octahydroquinoxaline-2,3-dione, diffraction, synthesis, structure elucidation, pharmacokinetic study


A Comparative Patho-Physiological Study of Diclofenac and Meloxicam Induced Toxicity In Gallus Domestics

Ram Prakash Saran1, Ashok Purohit1, Heera Ram1*

1. Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur, Rajasthan 342001, India.


The present study was conducted to evaluate comparative toxicity of two widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) i.e. Diclofenac and meloxicam in Gallus domesticus. Diclofenac is claimed to be a major responsible cause of vulture population declination and considered as most devastating environmental toxicant. Today, it is replaced by meloxicam which is believed to be a safer drug than diclofenac.  The whole experiment was divided in three comparative groups consisting of seven adult healthy broilers in each group. After the completion of experiments, the animals were autopsied as per standard protocols and blood was collected directly from cardiac puncture whereas vital organs were fixed in formalin for histopathological investigations. The results of serum biochemistry, hematology and histo-pathology revealed significant alterations in comparison to vehicle control. The levels of SGOT and SGPT were significantly (𝑃 ≤ 0.001) increased by diclofenac treatment as compared to meloxicam. The levels of uric acid, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, albumin, globulin and total proteins were indicated abnormalities in renal and hepatic functions in the diclofenac treated birds. Histopathology of the renal and hepatic tissues showed different degrees of degeneration like pyknosis, apoptosis and necrosis by diclofenac treatment as well as meloxicam when compared with vehicle control. Although the hematology parameters were not altered significantly. Therefore, the results of pathophysiology and biochemistry indicate that meloxicam shows less toxicity in comparison to diclofenac at same dose and duration in the experimental model Gallus domesticus.

Keywords: Diclofenac, meloxicam, Pathophysiology, Toxicity, Environmental Pollutant, Vulture.