American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
April 2015 Issue 4

Therapeutic Potentials of Asparagus Racemosus Willd. (Satavari)

Tanuj Joshi1*

1. Faculty, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Bhimtal Campus, Kumaun University,   Nainital.


Numerous new diseases are spreading in the world and allopathic drug therapy is not sufficient to combat all these diseases. So there is a need to find cure of various ailments by herbal therapy. Herbal drugs are now shaping the future of therapy of various diseases. Allopathic drugs are effective but they have numerous side effects, sometimes their adverse effects may outweigh the benefits in curing diseases in human beings. So the current approach is now directed towards developing technologies for developing herbal therapies which could cure diseases with no or minimal side effects. In the present review Asparagus racemosus Willd. has been discussed. This plant could prove to be a milestone in herbal therapy because of its wide spectrum of pharmacological actions and uses. The review discusses about Asparagus racemosus Willd ., its chemical constituents and therapeutic potentials.

Keywords: Asparagus racemosus, Satavari, Steroidal saponins, Flavonoids, Polyphenols, Vitamin C.


Implementation and Application of Process Analytical Technology in Pharmaceutical Industry

Rajkumar Sukdeo Moon1, Rukare Renuka Sangappa1*

1. School of Pharmacy, S.R.T. M.U. Nanded.


In pharma industry quality is important.Drug quality depends more on production, best development, storage, and distribution strategies. PAT focuses on the principles of building quality into the product and process as well as continuous process improvement. PAT is based on belief that quality cannot be tested into the products it should be built in or should be by design. PAT promises to provide benefits to both consumers and manufactures of pharmaceutical products. Such technology will improve manufacturing efficiency while enhancing process understanding. PAT is the process of understanding and control it is not easy to implement. For successful implementation of PAT co-ordination, flexibility, communication between the staff is very important. PAT processes are deemed successful on the basis of significant process understanding. PAT is applied in every step of manufacturing of pharmaceutical product. PAT generally uses pioneering technologies like FTIR, NIR, ATIR, NMR.

Keywords: Process Analytical Technology, Tools of PAT, applications of PAT, quality in Pharma


UV-Spectrophtometric Assay Method for the Assay of Tolterodine in Pure and Formulations

Siva Shankar Rao G1, P.S.Sarat1, Ramachandran D1*

1. Department of Chemistry, Acharya Nagarjuna University,Guntur,AP,India.


A simple, cost effective and reproducible UV-spectrophotometric method has been developed and validated for the assay of Tolterodine in pure and dosage forms. This assay is based on measurement of absorption at maximum wavelength of 282nm. Beer’s law of this proposed method was obeyed in the concentration range of 60-120μg/mL with regression equation of y = 0.0068x-0.0117 and with correlation coefficient of 0.9988 respectively. The percentage recovery of tolterodine ranged from 99.93- 100.37 in pharmaceutical dosage form. The results of the analysis for linearity, accuracy (recovery), precision and specificity were validated statistically and by recovery studies in accordance with ICH norms.

Keywords: Tolterodine, UV-Spectrophotometry.


Studies on Antimicrobial Activities of Bioactive Substances Produced by Methylotrophic Pseudomonas Species from Lonar Lake

Tambekar DH1, Tambekar SD2*, Mankar PP1

1. Post Graduate Department of Microbiology, S.G.B. Amravati University, Amravati–444604 (India).

2. Department of Microbiology, D.B. Science College, Gondia-441614 (India).


The alkaline Lonar Lake is a unique ecosystem formed by meteor impact, situated in the Buldhana District, Maharashtra, India. The Lonar Lake harbours diversified microbial flora which can detoxify and degrade most harmful pollutant such as methanol. The Methylotroph which degrade harmful methanol can produced bioactive substances having antimicrobial potentials. The two methylotrophic Pseudomonas species were isolated and characterized by cultural, morphological, biochemical tests and by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and identified as P. aerogenosa (DHT2) and P. hibiscola (DHT 11). All these selected Pseudomonas species exhibited antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacteria and data showed that and P. aerogenosa were stronger antimicrobial than to P. hibiscola. The Present study provides primary evidence that isolated Pseudomonas species were promising sources for production of antimicrobial bioactive substances and represent a new and rich source of secondary metabolites that need to be explored in medical microbiology.

Keywords: Lonar Lake, Pseudomonas species, Antimicrobial bioactive substances).


Conversion of Dye Soaked Dry Flower Industrial Waste into A Value Added Product Using Earthworm

K. Gayathri1*, A. Amutha Jaisheeba1, R. Sornaraj2

1. Research Scholar, Research Department of Zoology, Kamaraj College, Thoothukudi, India.

2. Head & Research Co-ordinator, Research Department of Zoology, Kamaraj College, Thoothukudi, India.


By adopting Vermi technology the dye soaked and chemically treated hard natured dry flower industrial waste, which became a major problem to the industrialists and one of the public nuisance to the people of Thoothukudi was converted into a value based bio-product, the vermin compost to some extent. This study was only a pioneer and hence a further improvement in the technology may improve this process a more successful one. In this experiment the hard mega sized dry flower industrial waste were pulverized into small pieces and mixed with cow dung in the ratio of 1:1 and 2:1 and earthworms were allowed to act on them. A separate control was maintained using cow dung and leaf litter. The process of vermi compost completed in the control on 80th day while in the treated, the process was preceded beyond 120days. The net compost obtained in control was 98.8% and in treated it was 85.7 and 62.08 in 1:1 and 2:1 ratio. The biochemical analysis also showed a remarkable alterations such as reduction of S, H and C/N ratio which are at the acceptable level by the plants.

Keywords: Vermitechnology, Dryflower Industrial Waste, Bio-conversation, Value added product, Earthworms.


Incidence of Breast Cancer and ABO Blood group: A Hospital Based Study

Ranjit Kumar1*, Vinita Trivedi2, Anita Kumari3, Rita Rani3, Richa Chauhan3, Md Ali1, Manisha Singh4, Arun Kumar5

1. Scientist, Mahavir Cancer Institute & Research Centre, Phulwarisharif, Patna (Bihar), India

2. Head, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Mahavir Cancer Institute & Research Centre

3. Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Mahavir Cancer Institute & Research Centre.

4.Director,  Mahavir Cancer Institute and Research Centre, Patna

5. Scientist, Mahavir Cancer Institute and Research Centre, Patna


Blood group antigens being the major antigen in humans are present on the surface of red blood cells and various epithelial cells. Since the majority of human cancer cases are derived from epithelial cells, changes in blood group antigens are an important aspect of cancer.  Thus the present work is designed to study ABO blood group and incidence of breast cancer in patients of Mahavir Cancer Institute. The study has been carried out on 400 breast cancer patients diagnosed and treated at Mahavir Cancer Institute and Research Centre and control blood samples of 200 healthy people were taken randomly and were classified according to their ABO blood group. The blood group frequencies were compared using Chi- square test. In control group of women 28 percent having blood group A. while 37.5 percent has blood group B. 12.5 percent and 22 percent has blood group AB and O.  In breast cancer 21.2 percent has blood group A. While 35.1 percent, 7.3 percent and 36.4 percent has blood group B, AB and O respectively. Thus it is evident from study that blood group O has more chances to develop breast cancer, while blood group B also has increased incidence of breast cancer. More than two third patients of breast cancer belong from these two groups. While blood group AB and A has less incidence of breast cancer comparatively. It is quite clear from study that blood group O people were more prone to develop breast cancer.

Keyword: ABO blood group, Breast cancer, Confidence Interval, Epithelial cells.


Molecular Characterization of Salmonella SP1 Component Proteins Involved in Pathogenicity and is Used for Potential Drug Targets.

Anuradha1, Shilpa N2, Shambu M G2, Anitha P.M2, Tanusree Bhattacharya2, Prashantha Nagaraja3*

1. Project Student, M.Tech Bioinformatics, Department of Bioinformatics, The Oxford College of Engineering, Bangalore.

2. Department of Biotechnology, The Oxford College of Engineering, Bangalore-560100

3. Division of Bioinformatics, Scientific Bio-Minds, Bangalore-560092.


Secretary component proteins (SP1) is highly conserved in Salmonella Typhi outer membrane, it modulate host pathogen interaction that is highly conserved in bacterial outer membrane. The molecular mechanism of pathogenicity is complex and these proteins have a wide range of biological functions from host cell toxicity production and block different signaling pathways. Furthermore, our study is to identify molecular characteristic of SP1 component signaling molecules interplay pathogenicity, molecular interactions, sequence assembly and structural organization and drug binding interactions need to understand. Using Computational drug discovery methods to understand the disease targeted virulence factors in SP1 protein should provide new insight into the new evolution of bacterial pathogenesis which could lead to the development of novel therapeutic drug molecules. Here, we report SP-1 component SopE2, SipA, SopA and SopB proteins in disease pathogenesis and reported the antibacterial drugs that inhibit the disease progression and used as a potential drugs.

Keywords: SP1, Salmonella, Outer membrane proteins, Secretary Proteins, drug design, lead generations.


A Cross- Sectional Investigation on Patients Demand for Rational Medical Health Care in Kalanaur Town of Haryana, India

Seema Chhokar1, Anjali Goyal1, Shashikant1, Rajesh Kumar1, Neeraj Gilhotra1*

1. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak 124001, Haryana, India.


The aim of the study was household’s survey to evaluate the families’ knowledge and communication with health provider in Kalanaur town of Haryana, India. A cross-sectional, pre and post-study was conducted using a set of 500 household interview questionnaires in Kalanaur town, Haryana, India. The majority of respondents were female 61.6% and 38.4% were male. Primary to high education level 49.8%, 42% had high to graduation level and 8.2% had post graduate. Families monthly income 1000-5000 (45.2%), 5000-1000 (23%), >10000 (31.8%). Prevalence of acute illness in families were headache 39.4%, cold 27.6%, cough 22.8%, fever 10.4%, diarrhea 0.2%, skin problems 0.4%, Prevalence of chronic condition was 67.4 %. Family monthly expenditure on medicines 100-500 (pre-intervention 46.2%, post intervention 55%), 500-1000 (pre-intervention 27%, post-intervention33.2%),1000-5000 (pre-intervention 24.6%, post-intervention 10%), > 5000 (pre-intervention2.2%, post-intervention 1.8%), families visited more health facility on the same day for the treatment (pre-intervention 12.6%, post-intervention 6.4%), families do not return to the same health facility if they do not feel better within the time they expected (pre-intervention 27.8%, post-intervention 17.2%), families inform the prescriber/dispenser about the medicines they were using currently (pre-intervention 90.6%, post-intervention 95.6%). Families asked side effect of prescribed medicines (pre-intervention 64%, post-intervention 74.6%), families asked how and when to take medicines (pre-intervention and post-intervention 100%), asked the prescriber/dispenser where to store medicines at home (pre-intervention 13.2%, post-intervention 19%). Focus for an effective public education to improve medicines utilization.

Keywords: Household, health provider, Communication, Intervention.


Assessment of Public Knowledge, Attitude and Practice on Medicine Use in Kabirpur of Sonipat City, Haryana, India

Rajesh Kumar1, Anjali Goyal1, Seema Chhokar1, Shashikant1, Neeraj Gilhotra1*

1. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak 124001, Haryana, India.


The objective of this study was to assessment the public knowledge, attitude and practice of medicine use in Sonipat city India. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a set of household interview questionnaire. 7% of respondents visited multiple facilities on the same day for the same aliment and 23% failed to go for follow up to the same facility.25% did not accept non-drug therapy and 92% preferred prescription of three or more medicines per visit. 9% did not inform the prescriber or dispenser about currently using medicine and 52% did not asked the side effect of medicines. A total of 60% were unaware that most medicines have side effects and 74% stopped taking their medicines when symptoms disappeared; 77% did not realize that the injections are riskiest dosage form, 13% had definite color and taste preferences;34% practiced self medication and 27% never consulted the dispenser; 21% choose medicines based on previous experience and 29% exchanged medicineswith others; 2% stored all their medicines in refrigerator and 24% did not check the expiry date; 64% threw unused medicines away; 28% kept them for future use and 8% returned them to a pharmacy or health facility. There is a widespread lack of knowledge about the appropriate use of medicines in Sonipat city. Certain attitude and beliefs can contribute to health risks and unnecessary expenditure. Most of the result can be improved by a well- targeted public education campaign.

Keywords: Attitude, Health knowledge, Household, Medicine, Practice.


Hypoglycemic Activity of Gloriosa Superba on STZ Induced Diabetic Rats

Geeta R.Basaiye1*, Sugandha G.Chaudhari1, Neetu R1, Rajendra Patil1, Mukeshkumar M. Chavan1, Vikram Bafna1

1. Department of Pharmacology Dr.Hiranandani College of pharmacy.Ulhasnagar-03, Mumbai.


Gloriosa Superba is an Indian medicinal plant demonstrated to expect multiple pharmacology effects. In light of traditional claim of the plant in treatment of diabetes, the present study was carried out to evaluate the hypoglycemic actvity of the plant in STZ induced diabetics rats. The diabetic’s rats were given ethanolic extract of Gloriosa superb (EEGS) (50mg/kg, 100mg/kg, and 200mg/kg) and metformin (180mg/kg) for 28days.The effect of both treatments on body weight and blood glucose were assessed. Three doses of extract and metformin show significant hypoglycemic actvity in acute, sub-acute study. Body wt. of extract and metformin treated rats were maintained during the study period where as body wt. of untreated rats had gone down. The result obtained from the study scientifically proved the folkloric use of Gloriosa Superba as Hypoglycemic agent. Thus the plant can be key contributor in treatment of diabetes.

Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Gloriosa Superba, Metformin, STZ.


Thermal Processing Effects on in vitro Antioxidant Potential of Fresh and Packaged Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Coriander (Coriandrum Sativum) and Cumin (Cuminum Cyminum)

Pallabi Saha1, Moumita Shib1, Tapan Kumar Pal2, Sauryya Bhattacharyya1*

1. Department of Food & Nutrition, Sarada Ma Girls’ College, Barasat, Kolkata 700126, India.

2. Department of Biotechnology, Bengal Institute of Technology, On Basanti Highway, Kolkata 700150, India.


Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) and Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) are three very important spices and essential flavoring agents in many cuisines, particularly in South-East Asia. The spices are available both as fresh and in commercial packages. The present study deals with the analyses of their in vitro antioxidant profile before and after thermal processing in water. The thermal processing resembled methods commonly practiced in India for cooking, viz. pressure cooking and microwave treatment. The assays performed included DPPH radical decolorization assay, reducing power assay and assay for total phenolic contents. It was observed that the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content was different in the two types of spices, and the packaged spices were better than the fresh samples. Antioxidant activity improved in case of all the three spices after thermal processing, probably due to better solublization of the antioxidants in hot water by thermal treatment. Improvement in the total phenolic contents also substantiated the radical scavenging abilities of the spices after aqueous extraction. Among the different extraction procedures, microwave extraction was found to be most effective with respect to radical scavenging abilities.

Keywords: Packaged, Curcuma longa, Coriandrum sativum, Cuminum cyminum, Antioxidant.


Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Novel Substituted 1,3,4-Oxadiazoles and 1,3,4-Thiadiazoles as Anthelmintic Agents

Prabhat Kumar Upadhyay1*, Pradeep Mishra1

1. Institute of Pharmaceutical Research, GLA University, Mathura- 281406, (U.P.) India


The aim of our study was to review on design, synthesis and various pharmacological activities associated with the substituted oxadiazoles and thaidiazoles. Series of 5-(2-Amino-4,5,6,7- tetrahydro-1-benzothien-3-yl) N-substituted 1,3,4-thaidiazole-2-amines(Va-e)  were prepared from thiosemicarbazides (IIIa-e) by cyclization using phosphoric acid and 5-(2-Amino-4,5,6,7- tetrahydro-1-benzothien-3-yl) N-substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-amines (IVa-e) were preparedfrom substituted thiosemicarbazides (IIIa-e)by treating with Iodine &NaOH. Compounds (IIIa-e) were prepared by treating 2-amino-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophene-3-carbohydrazide (II) with isothiocyanates.Compound II was synthesized by treating ethyl 2-amino-4,5,6,7-tetra hydrobenzeno [b]thiophene-3-carboxylate (I) with hydrazinehydrate. Compound I was prepared by one pot synthesis fromcyclohexanone,sulphur,ethylcyanoacetate in presence of diethyl amine. All the synthesized compounds were charecterized by IR, NMR and mass spectrometry and screened for and in vitro-antihelmintic activity. They showed  moderate to good anthelmintic activity against Indian earthworm Pheretimaposthuma.

Keywords: 1,3,4-Oxadiazole, 1,3,4-Thaidiazole; Antihelmintic activity.


Development and Validation of New RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Nortriptyline and Gabapentin in Combined Dosage Form

BV.Sreenivasulu1 V.Siva RamaKrishna2 and C.Ramababu2*

1.Department of Biochemistry, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, AP, India.

2.Department of Chemistry, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, AP, India


A simple, precise, rapid and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography method was developed for simultaneous estimation of Nortriptyline and Gabapentin in dosage form. Chromatographic separation was performed on Zorbax C18, (250 X 4.6mm, 5μm) column, with mobile phase comprising of mixture of buffer (pH 4.2) and acetonitrile in the ratio of 70:30v/v, at the flow rate 1.0 ml/min. The detection was carried out at 253nm. The retention times of Nortriptyline and Gabapentin were found to be 2.866 and 3.629 mins respectively with a run time of 6 mins, respectively. As per ICH guidelines the method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection and limit of quantitation, robustness and ruggedness. Linearity of Nortriptyline was found in the range of 60-180μg/mL and that for Gabapentin was found to be 300-900μg/mL. The correlation coefficient for Nortriptyline and Gabapentin were 1.000 and 0.9999 respectively. The LOD values for nortriptyline and gabapentin were found to be 0.0013µg/mL and 0.007µg/mL, respectively and the LOQ values 0.004µg/mL and 0.024µg/mL respectively.

Keywords: RP-HPLC Method Development, Nortriptyline and Gabapentin


An Assessment of Physicians’ Knowledge and Perceptions Towards Medicine Quality and Prices in Kabul, Afghanistan

Mohammad Bashaar1*, Mohamed Azmi Hassali1, Fahad Saleem1, Asrul Akmal Shafie1

1. Universiti Sains Malaysia School of Pharmaceutical Sciences Discipline of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, Pinang, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia


The survey was conducted with the aim to assess the knowledge and perceptions of physicians towards medicine quality and prices in Kabul City. A total of 400 physicians were approached and 347 (response rate of 86.7%) consented to participate. The majority of the respondents 85.6% recommended that the government should adopt health policies to control the medicine prices and expenditures, and similarly 85.2% agreed that the government must regulate prescription medicine prices. More than half of the respondents 76.3% reported that higher medicine costs negatively affect patient outcomes. Majority of the respondents 84.5% suggested that medicine prices to be made public and similarly 85.6% physicians recommended that all medicine price needs to be disclosed on the dispensed medicine label. Concerning the treatment affordability, 26.3% felt that medicine prices are affordable to their patients. About 60.5% of the physicians shown their concern that medicine price influence their prescribing decision. Therefore, this study suggests that there is substantial room for improvement in the knowledge of physicians about medicine quality and prescription cost. Taking in consideration, these issues effectively may improve the availability, affordability, access of medicines and patients’ adherence to treatment regimens and will improve their health outcomes.

Keywords: Physicians, Medicine Pricing, Quality Control, Affordability, Kabul, Afghanistan.


Assessment of Knowledge of Diabetes Mellitus, its Complications and Management among Diabetic Patients Visiting Tertiary Care Hospital in Islamabad, Pakistan

Danish Nadeem*1, Aijaz Ali4, Jamal Zafar 2, Shahzad Ali Khan 5, Zarlish Malik 3, Khizzer Pervaiz6

1. MSPH, BScN. Health Services Academy, Islamabad, Pakistan.

2. FCPS; MBBS; BSc, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan.

3. RN, BScN, Services Institute of Medical Science Lahore.

4 MSPH, Health Services Academy, Islamabad, Pakistan.

5. PhD, MPH, MBA, MBBS, Health Services Academy, Islamabad, Pakistan.

6. MSPH, MBBS, Health Services Academy, Islamabad, Pakistan.


A descriptive cross sectional survey was done in tertiary care hospital of Islamabad. The objective of the survey was to assess patients’ knowledge regarding diabetes mellitus (DM), its risk factors, complications, and of management among age range of 18 to 40 years. Our Research was done on relatively younger patients of diabetes. This study was completed on 145 patients (83 males and 63 females), by employing convenience sampling in the outpatient department of Pakistan institute of medical science hospital (PIMS). The structured questionnaire was used to complete the data collection process. Out of 145 participants, (57.2%) were males and (42.8%) were females. Average age of the participants was (34.65) with SD +4.971. Most of the patients were having income less than 10000 PKR (40.6%) per month. The majority of the participants (69%) were not aware about the type of diabetes they have. More than half of the patients identified lifestyle & diet modifications (64.8%) along with glucose level control (65.5%) as most important risk factors for developing complications. The knowledge of diabetes was significantly associated with the educational level and parental history of DM with p-value (0.002) and (0.017) respectively. The other factors gender, age, and income were not statistically associated with knowledge regarding management of diabetes. The patients in Pakistan having diabetes mellitus (DM) had satisfactory level of knowledge in some aspects of the disease. But, overall knowledge related to all aspects of diabetes mellitus (DM) was not up to the mark. The patients need education related to their disease and management.

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus (DM), Knowledge, Management, Complications, Risk factors.