American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
May 2016 Issue 5

Cyclodextrins Based Rotaxanes and Polyrotaxanes: The Potential Hauler in Drug Delivery and Therapeutics

Nikhil P. Patil1, Arvind Ram A.S.2, D.V. Gowda1*, Riyaz Ali M. Osmani1, Gritta Sebastian1, Godugu Karunakar1, Santhosh T.R.1 and Karamsetty V.M. Suryatej1

1.Dept. of Pharmaceutics, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS University, SS Nagara, Mysore-570015, Karnataka, India

2.Dept. of Pharmaceutics, Farooqia College of Pharmacy, Tilaka Nagara, Mysore-570001, Karnataka, India


This article deals with cyclodextrin (CD) based functional rotaxanes and polyrotaxanes for drug delivery. First, we present an overview of polyrotaxane preparations for biomaterials applications. Then we bring to light the studies and strategies implied for augmented drug delivery using CD-based polyrotaxanes. The concept for enhancing multivalent interaction of a ligand-mobile polyrotaxane with receptor proteins; which is significantly related to receptor-mediated drug delivery and the efficiency of ligand-conjugated polyrotaxanes is also demonstrated in the design of inhibitors which are recognized by intestinal transporters in mammalian tissues but neither absorbed into the tissue nor exhibiting any toxicity. This concept is of more practical applications, the studies on cytocleavable polyrotaxanes for gene delivery is the modern therapy. The dynamic motion of polyrotaxanes would contribute significantly to forming a polyplex with DNA to be delivered into target cells. Moreover, dissociating the polyrotaxane structure in intracellular environments is an effective way to release DNA for transfection at the nucleus. Furthermore, polyrotaxanes are also useful in manifestation of Niemann-pick type C disease. In present article, efforts have been taken with the intention to get thorough information of polyrotaxanes conjugation with drug/ligands along with a comprehensive review of diverse approaches adopted for drug delivery till date.

Keywords: Cyclodextrins, Polyrotaxanes, siRNA, Niemann-pick type C disease, Gene silencing.


Design and In-Vitro Evaluation of Floating Tablets of Gabapentin

Shivaji Vasudeo Shinde1*, Ritesh Suresh Bathe1

1. Sahyadri College of Pharmacy, Methwade, Sangola-413307, Solapur, Maharashtra, India.


Gastro retentive system can remain in the gastric region for several hours and hence prolongs the gastric residence time of drugs. The present research work was an attempt to formulate and in-vitro evaluate gastro retentive floating drug delivery system containing Gabapentin in the form of tablets using polymer like HPMC K100M and sodium bicarbonate, citric acid as gas generating agent. A 32 factorial design was applied systematically; the amount of HPMC K100M (X1) and amount of citric acid (X2) were selected as independent variables. The floating lag time, percentage drug release at 6 hr (Q6) and percentage drug release at 12 hr (Q12) were selected as dependent variables.  The tablets were prepared by direct compression method. The tablets were evaluated for the pre and post compression parameters such as weight variation, thickness, friability, hardness, drug content, in-vitro buoyancy studies, and in-vitro dissolution studies and results were within the limits. Hardness was found to be in the range 5.1±0.13 kg/cm2 to 7.1±0.36 kg/cm2, the percentage friability was in the range of 0.30% to 0.82% w/w, and tablets showed 99 to 101.10 %w/w of the labeled amount of Gabapentin indicating uniformity content. The in-vitro dissolution studies were carried out in a USP type-II apparatus in 0.1N HCl. Among all the formulations (GFT1 to GFT9) prepared, batch GFT7 was the best formulation which showed buoyancy lag time 5 sec  and the tablet remained buoyant for >12h. At all the strengths of the polymer tested HPMC K100M and citric acid gave relatively optimum release of gabapentin over 12 h when compared to other formulations. The tablets containing Gabapentin released 92.09 to 99.06% of drug release at the end of 12 hr by in-vitro drug release study. The in-vitro data is fitted in to different kinetic models and the best-fit was achieved with the Higuchi model. The optimized formulation GFT7 followed zero order release kinetics followed by non-Fickian diffusion.

Keywords: Floating tablets, Gastric retention, Gabapentin, Factorial design, Anticonvulsant.


Study of hepatoprotective activity of Liv Well liver tonic in CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats

Supriya CS1, Samhitha J1,  Khader Shareef KS2, Loganayaki N2, Shivalinge Gowda KP*2, Venkateshwarlu K2.

1.Depat of Pharmacology, 50 ft Road, Hanumanthanagar, Bengaluru-560050, India

2. M/S Suguna Foods Pvt. Ltd., Herbal Division, Suguna Lifeherbs, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India


The hepatoprotective activity of Liv’Well liver tonic was investigated using CCl4 (1ml/kg i.p for 7 days from 3rd to 10th day) albino Wistar rat liver. The Liv’Well liver tonic was administered orally at a dose of 200 and 400mg/kg po, for 10 consecutive days. The doses were determined from the acute oral toxicity study in albino mice. The CCl4 was administered to all the groups except group I (normal control). Liv-52 syrup 5ml/kg, p.o was used as a standard hepatoprotective drug. After 24h of the last day treatment, blood was withdrawn by retro orbital puncture and serum SGOT, SGPT, ALP, total bilirubin was determined. Then the animals were sacrificed under ketamine over anesthesia (150mg/kg ip) and the liver was isolated and processed for the histopathological investigation.  The rats treated with Liv’Well + CCl4 significantly reduced the levels of SGOT, SGPT, ALP, total bilirubin when compared to CCl4 hepatotoxic rats. Histopathological examination also reveals the hepatoprotective activity of Liv’Well liver tonic. From the results of the present study, it is concluded that Liv’Well- liver tonic formulated by M/s Suguna Foods Pvt Ltd, Herbal Division, Suguna Lifeherbs Coimbatore, TN, possesses superior hepatoprotective properties that may serve to protect users against diseases associated with hepatic diseases

Keywords: Liv’Well, liver tonic, Liv-52 syryp, total bilirubin, ketamine.


Perception of Malaria In Pregnancy and Prevention Practice Among Rural Women of Child Bearing Age (15-49) In Zungur, Bauchi, Nigeria

Umar Ibrahim1*, Maryam Mohammed2 ,Ismail Farouk Umar3

1.Nursing Department, Health and Human Services Secretariat, Federal Capital Territory Administration, FCDA Secretariat, 11 Kapital Road, Area 11, Garki, Abuja-FCTA, Nigeria

2.Project Coordinator, A Syndicate in Supporting Women & Children Initiative (SISWACHI) , No 200, Opposite Justice Quarters, Near Baitul Hiqma, Old GRA, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria

3. State Coordinator/NPO Routine Immunization, World Health Organization, WHO Taraba State Office-Jalingo, Taraba State-Nigeria, West Africa.


This study was conducted at Zungur District, Bauchi Local Government Area (LGA) to assess the perception of malaria in pregnancy and prevention practice among rural women of child bearing age (15-49). A cross section survey research design, through the use of questionnaire was used in this study. Three hundred respondents were randomly selected for the study.  The data collected was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics such as frequency distribution and chi square analysis to test the hypothesis. Major findings of the study are the existence of misperception of malaria been caused by mosquito, where 18% of the respondents were undecided and 16% disagreed. 39% of the respondents were undecided, 12% strongly disagreed, while 10% disagreed that malaria in pregnancy is a multidimensional public health problem. Also, two-third of the pregnant women in this study was observed to commenced ANC visits late, mostly after 20 weeks of gestation. Health education, intensification of efforts by government on malaria in pregnancy preventive strategies, and conducting of periodic monitoring and sensitization programmes on malaria in pregnancy preventive strategies by civil society organizations should be employed. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics such as frequency distribution and chi square analysis to test the hypothesis.

Keyword: Malaria, Perception, Pregnancy, Prevention, Rural-Women


Prescribing Patterns of Glucocorticoids In the Skin OPD of A Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital, Palakkad

Diya Sarju1*, Julia Joseph1, Prejith Prem1, AnusreeRaj.S1, Sivakumar R1

1.Grace College of Pharmacy, Palakkad – 678 004


DUE helps to improve the quality and cost effectiveness of drug use and there by helps to improve the patient care. It helps in identifying ADR, optimizing the drug therapy etc. Glucocorticoids are widely prescribed. In spite of these actions they produce several ADE which should be monitored. Till now, effective treatment guidelines for Glucocorticoids are not available, so our study aims to bring out a prescribing pattern for steroids. A prospective, observational study was conducted from November 2015 to April 2016.About 106 patients were included in the study. Of the 106 prescriptions analyzed, Clobetasol was most commonly prescribed topical corticosteroid (30%) and Prednisolone was most commonly used in systemic routes (25%). Diseases like contact dermatitis (26.41%) and eczema (25.47%) were most commonly seen.35 prescriptions contained fixed dose combination (25.92%). Most of the prescriptions contained monotherapy (64.15%). The generic name, strength, quantity to be used, site of application were not mentioned in most of the prescriptions. Frequent periodic prescription monitoring is essential for better healthcare outcomes for the patients.

Keywords: Glucocorticoids, Drug Utilization Pattern, Dermatitis, Eczema


Formulation and Evaluation of Darifenacin Hydrobromide Extended Release Matrix Tablets

Ayesha Farheen*,D.Saritha, B.Rajkamal

1.K.V.K College of Pharmacy, Department Of Pharmaceutics, JNTUH Hyderabad India


Darifenacin is a muscarinic M3 selective receptor antagonist, which is intended for symptomatic treatment of urge incontinence and/or increased urinary frequency and urgency as may occur in patients with overactive bladder syndrome. Darifenacin extended release tablets were developed to overcome the inconvenience of multiple dosing per day that is necessary with the immediate release formulation. There is therefore a need of administrating darifenacin in an oral dosage form once or twice daily in the form of extended release tablets  provide therapeutically effective plasma concentrations of darifenacin for the treatment of overactive bladder in humans. Therefore the present investigation concerned with the development of once-a-day darifenacin hydrobromide extended release tablets to extend the duration of action up to 24 hrs by controlling the dissolution rate using different viscosity grades of HPMC.

Keywords: extended release, HPMC, sympathomimetic, Darifenacin.


Probiotic profiling of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from the intestine of Sperata seenghala and Labeo bata

Rafia Karim1, Tama Das1, Forhad Karim Saikot1*

1.Dept. of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Jessore University of Science and Technology, Jessore-7408, Bangladesh


A very common probiotic bacterium is Lactobacillus. In the current study for the first time the isolation has been done from Sperata seenghala and Labeo bata. The objective of the current study was to isolate and identify Lactobacillus bacteria from the intestines of these two fishes. The total bacterial counts were 2.1x106 and 1.8x105 CFU/g. Isolation was done by dissection, homogenization and filtration. The isolates were identified as Lactobacillus by gram staining, microscopic observation and biochemical tests. The isolates showed growth within pH 3 to 8 with maximum growth at pH 7. They stood firm at bile salt concentrations of 0.0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3%. Antibiotic sensitivity test was done by disc diffusion method. The Lactobacillus isolated from S. seenghala was resistant to Ampicillin, Ceftazidime, Cefuroxime, Co-trimoxazole and Nalidixic Acid. Isolate from L. bata was resistant to Ampicillin, Azithromycin, Ceftazidime, and Cloxacillin. Both these isolates can be denoted as potential probiotics and they will serve as very useful tools for future research.

Keywords: Probiotic, Lactobacillus, Sperata seenghala, Labeo bata, pH and bile salt tolerance, antibiotic sensitivity


Diabetes and Health Related Quality of Life of Elderly Type 2 Diabetic Patients In A Tertiary Hospital In Nigeria

Winifred Aitalegbe Ojieabu1*, Uchenna Ifeyinwa Helen Eze1, Saka Sule Ajibola1, Owokola Motunrayo Victoria1

1. Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Biopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Sagamu, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria.


Previous researches have shown that diabetes and its major complications result in patients’ poor quality of life. This study aimed to evaluate health related quality of life in diabetic patients and to explore associated socio-demographic parameters that needed intervention. A cross sectional study carried out at the endocrinology clinic of  Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital had 150 elderly type2 diabetic patients aged 50years and above. Necessary information was collected from patients' files. RAND 36 health-Item questionnaire (version 1.0) was used for self-evaluation of health related quality of life. Scores were on a scale of 0-100. While 0 indicated poor, 100 indicated excellent health status. Statistical package for social sciences 16.0 was employed for statistical analysis with p value at ≤0.05.  Mean age of patients was 65.8±10.0. No statistical differences between males and females except in occupation where majority (59.3%) of the females were artisans/traders. Significant higher scores in role limitations due to physical health and role limitations due to emotional problems (p< 0.05) were found in males when compared to females. Significant physical functioning scores were found among the singles, primary level education and those with FBS < 126mg/dl.  The overall quality of health of this study group was very poor. This study reveals all the socio-demographic variables assessed needed intervention which might bring about optimal patient outcome. Educating them about their disease, counseling them on adherence to their medications and to life style modifications will be a good step in the right direction.

Keywords: Diabetes, Elderly patients, HRQOL, Associated socio-demographics.


Comparative Studies on Serum Lipid Profile of Ganoderma Lucidum Extract And Atorvastatin In Normal and Diabetic Mice

Debendra Nath Roy1*, A.S.M Monjur-AL-Hossain2, MD. Rafiqul Islam1, MD. Abdullah Aziz1

1.Department of Pharmacy, Jessore University of Science and Technology, Jessore- 7408, Bangladesh.

2.Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.


This work was carried out to investigate the lipid profile level in ethyl acetate extract of Ganoderma lucidum and atorvastatin in normal and alloxan induced diabetic mice.  Ganoderma lucidum and atorvastatin have shown to reduce LDL level 10.4 and 14.59%, TC level 06.76 and 09.78%, TG level 07.40 and 09.82% alongside equipotently increased HDL level to 09.33 and 15.18% respectively in normal mice. However, in case of diabetic mice, these values were 11.61 and 14.46% for LDL, 10.56 and 13.00% for TC, 10.38 and 13.96% for TG, 14.94 and 20.02% for HDL as well. Therefore, these results suggested that, intra peritoneal administration of Ganoderma lucidum have significantly (p<0.05) reduced bad cholesterol level and increased good one in blood plasma not more than that of atorvastatin which finally suggested that Ganoderma lucidum itself a good diet supplement provided health benefits by maintaining a normal lipid profile in serum.

Keywords: lipid profile; atorvastatin; cholesterol; diabetic.


Prescribing Trends of Antihypertensive Drugs At Government Hospitals and Private Clinics In Bangladesh

Debendra Nath Roy1*, Nowrin Ferdiousi1, Mosharraf Hossain1, Nelufar Yasmen1.

1.Department of Pharmacy, Jessore University of Science and Technology, Jessore-7408, Bangladesh


Hypertension (HTN) is the most common chronic condition dealt with primary care physicians and other health practitioners and is arguably the most important modifiable risk factor for coronary heart disease and stroke. The aim of our current study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of hypertension on age it is more prone to be started now a day, alongside the spectrum of HTN in respect with gender categorization. This study was carried out in the cardiology clinics as well as government hospitals and others at four cities in Bangladesh. From this survey the outcome was found that 39% of 45-60 years and 27% of 35-45 years aged was hypertensive patient, of which 54.83% were male and 45.17% were female. However, HTN control rates of patients cared for longitudinally by cardiologist, it was observed that beta blocker was present in 45% mono therapy prescriptions, among which only propranolol was for 34% cases and losartan was 20% at second. Combination therapy was also found to prescribe where olmesartan plus atenolol was 19% and amlodipine plus atenolol was prescribed for 17% of hypertensive patients. 

Keywords: Hypertension, Cardiology, Prescription, Physician.


A Review On Eye Cancer

Kripa Kochukunju*1, Akshara Ravi1, Karthika santhosh1

1.Nazareth college of pharmacy, Othera p.o, Thiruvalla, Kerala


Cancer eye, technically known as squamous Cell Carcinoma, is a common locally invasive tumor of the eyes and eyelids of older cattle. Like pinkeye, its occurrence is associated with exposure to sunlight and is more common in cattle with white eyelids and conjunctiva. As a result, cancer eye is very common in Colorado dairy cattle. The third eyelid appears to be the most common site of cancer eye in dairy cows, followed in frequency by the lower lid and then by the limbus (junction of the clear cornea with the sclera or colored portion of the eye). Cancer eye may exist in a "premalignant" form as a flat white plaque or as a wart-like growth on the lower lid. The malignant form is not well-circumscribed, and its surface is ulcerated. Malignant squamous cell carcinoma will grow steadily and will invade adjacent tissues including the eyeball itself, conjunctiva, and eventually the bony orbit. Once the eyeball is invaded, blindness in the affected eye will soon follow. Metastasis to distant sites is uncommon; the tumor is more likely to extend to local lymph nodes such as those below the ear and behind the mandible.

Keywords: Melanoma, Melanocytes, Tumor, Enucelation