American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
April 2013 Issue 1

Naturally Occurring Mycotoxins – Aflatoxin


Deepak Sahu1*

1. Ass. Professor, Geetanjali Institute of Pharmacy, Dabok, Udaipur Rajasthan – 313022



A toxin produced by mold that can damage the liver and may lead to liver cancer. Aflatoxins cause cancer in some animals. The fungi that produce aflatoxin grow on crops such as peanuts (especially) and wheat, corn, beans and rice. Aflatoxin is a problem particularly in undeveloped and developing countries. Aflatoxin is a naturally occurring mycotoxin produced by two types of mold: Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aspergillus flavus is common and widespread in nature and is most often found when certain grains are grown under stressful conditions such as drought. The mold occurs in soil, decaying vegetation, hay, and grains undergoing microbiological deterioration and invades all types of organic substrates whenever and wherever the conditions are favourable for its growth. Favorable conditions include high moisture content and high temperature. At least 13 different types of aflatoxin are produced in nature with aflatoxin B1 considered as the most toxic. While the presence of Aspergillus flavus does not always indicate harmful levels of aflatoxin it does mean that the potential for aflatoxin production is present.

Keywords: Aflatoxin; mycotoxin degradation; culture supernatant; Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Aspergillus flavus.


A Widely Growing Disease of Teeth: Dental Caries


Gaurav Solanki*1

1.Jodhpur National University, Jhanwar Road, Narnadi, Jodhpur-324003



Dental caries called as tooth decay is basically a disease in which bacterial processes changes carbohydrate to acid. This acid then dematerializes the hard tooth structure. They are produced when demineralization amount exceeds the remineralization amount. streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus are the bacteria responsible for the dental caries. This article throws light on the dental caries disease, its sign and symptoms, treatment, prevention and risk factors associated with it. A review of some patents on dental caries is also provided that summarizes the recent technical advancements taken place in this area.

Keywords: Dental caries, causes, diagnosis, treatment, patents.


Quantitative Estimation of Single Component Eperisone as API and in Tablet Dosage form using U.V. Spectrophotometry


Bharat Jhanwar1*, Sourabh Jain1

1.Department of Quality Assurance, Lachoo Memorial College of Science and Tech, Sector-A, Shastri Nagar, Jodhpur (Raj)



U.V. spectrophotometric method for estimation of Eperisone hydrochloride as individual and in tablet formulation using graphical extrapolation method has been developed. Methanol was selected as solvent for estimation at 258 nm. Linearity was followed in the range of 2.5-17.5 mg/ml with correlation coefficient of 0.997. Detection limit and quantitation limit were found to be 0.082 mg/ml and 0.22 mg/ml .Developed method has followed all the criteria for validation as per ICH norms and found to be accurate, precise, reproducible and sensitive with negligible excipients interference. Accuracy of the developed was assessed using spiking technique on available tablet dosage forms. Results obtained greater than 98% meant good accuracy of method for analysis in any dosage form.

Keywords: Eperisone hydrochloride, Graphical method, Methanol, Recovery, Validation.


Experimental Study of Curcuma Longa Rhizomes and Azadirachta Indica Leaves Extracts on Wound Healing Activity


Shiv Kumar Purohit1*, Manoj Mathur1, Renu Solanki2

1. College of Veterinary and Animal Science, Rajasthan

2. Lachoo Memorial College of Science and technology, Pharmacy Wing, Rajasthan



Most of skin diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms which include Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococci, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Wounds are major responsible for physical disabilities. Wound disease spread by the invasion of bacteria inside the body through skin. Bacterial infections on skin are the common ailment for generation of other diseases in the body. Wound infections represent the invasion of tissues by number of species of microorganisms. These infections disturb the body immune system and cause inflammation, tissue damage and delayed wound healing process. Rhizomes of Curcuma longa (Turmeric) and leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neem) are used for various medicinal purposes. Curcuma longa possesses antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, anti-hepatotoxic and anti-allergic properties. Ayurvedic texts described it to be good for skin ailments and also as a blood purifier, wound cleanser, healer, remover of body toxins, killer of abdominal worms and a wind-repellent agent etc. While Azadirachta indica is useful in tiredness, cough, fever, loss of appetite, worm infestation. It heals wound, heat-rash, boils, jaundice, leprosy, skin disorders, eye disorders, stomach ulcers, chicken pox, excessive thirst, diabetes and insect poisons. It act as anti-leprotic, antimalarial, anti-hemorrhoidal and anthelmintic agent. The present study was undertaken on evaluation of combinational effect of ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa rhizomes and Azadirachta indica leaves for wound healing activity through topical route on excision wound model. The activity was compared with standard drug Povidone Iodine ointment (5% w/w). Combinational effect of both rhizomes and leaves ethanolic extract was found to have better and faster wound healing effect than standard drug Povidone Iodine ointment on excision wound model.

Keywords: Curcuma longa, Azadirachta indica, povidone iodine ointment, wound healing activity, excision wound model.