American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
December 2015 Issue 12

Nitric Oxide: physiology and therapeutic applications

Luca Spaccapelo

MD, Clinical Pharmacologist, Science for Business Consulting, via Dionisotti 31, 42124 Reggio Emilia, Italy


The biology of nitric oxide (NO) has been extensively reviewed. NO was largely regarded as an environmental pollutant until 1987, when its biological similarities to endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) were noted. Subsequently, NO and EDRF were demonstrated to be identical, modulating vascular tone through stimulated formation of cyclic cAMP. Endogenous NO is formed from L-arginine by one of three (neural, inducible, and endothelial) isoforms of NO synthase, NOS. The physiological role of endogenous NO was first shown when an infusion of an inhibitor of NOS in healthy volunteers led to systemic and pulmonary pressor responses. In 1991, inhaled NO was shown to be a selective pulmonary vasodilator in patients with pulmonary hypertension and in 1993 inhaled NO emerged as a potential therapy for the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), because it decreases pulmonary vascular resistance without affecting systemic blood pressure and improved oxygenation by redistributing pulmonary blood flow toward ventilated lung units. In patients with acute lung injury and mild pulmonary hypertension, inhaled NO has been associated with a small, short-lived decrease in pulmonary arterial pressure, which has encouraged the use of NO as a supportive treatment for acute right ventricular dysfunction complicating cardiac surgery. Currently, NO is only approved in the US for the treatment of term and near-term (>34 weeks gestation) neonates with hypoxic respiratory failure associated with clinical or echocardiographic evidence of pulmonary hyper-tension in conjunction with ventilatory support where it improves oxygenation and reduces the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Endogenously produced NO contributes to the control and killing of multiple bacterial species, and while NO is not bactericidal per se, its cytotoxic effect is most likely realized by its reactive nitrogen oxides such as peroxynitrite, to produce potent cytotoxic actions against membrane lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins. In conclusion, several preclinical and clinical studies are providing evidence that the nitrate–nitrite–NO pathway critically subserves physiological hypoxic NO signalling, providing an opportunity for new nitric-oxide-based therapeutics.

Keywords: Nitric Oxide, acute respiratory distress syndrome, hypoxic respiratory failure, anti-microbial properties   


Review: Prevalence of HIV in Pakistan

Sahrish Farooqi*1,Hira Mubeen1,Shahid Raza1

1.Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of South Asia, Lahore, PAKISTAN


This study describes the demographic status of HIV-infected people in Pakistan. The major risks factors involve in the spread HIV infection among the population of Pakistan are discussed. The overall prevalence of HIV has been observed to be getting higher as compared to the prevalence of early years. Use of population-based surveillance data provided a glimpse of need to spread the knowledge of HIV safety programs among each and every individual of Pakistan. Our findings emphasize the importance of targeting HIV testing and prevention efforts to populations at risk of HIV.

Keywords: Prevalence, HIV, Population, Safety programs, HIV testing.


Role of Molecular Markers and their Significance

Shahid Raza1*, Sahrish Farooqi1, Muhammad Waseem Shoaib and Hira Mubeen1

1.University of South Asia, Lahore


In this review, we have discussed the basic principles, uses, advantages and disadvantages of the most widely used molecular markers for genetic diversity studies, genetic mapping, marker-trait association studies and marker assisted selection programs. It is theoretically possible to observe and exploit genetic variation in the entire genome with different molecular markers. Most common genetic markers include allozymes, mitochondrial DNA, RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, microsatellite and SNP. Hence, the development and use of molecular markers for the detection and exploitation of DNA polymorphism is one of the most significant developments in the field of molecular genetics and medical sciences.

Keywords: Variation, allozymes, RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, SNP


Dialysis and Its Complications and Dietary Management

D.Tagoore Vijaya Lakshmi*, K. Asha, B.Bhavana Krishna*

Chalapathi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lam, Guntur


Dialysis is a process of removing waste products and excess fluids from the body. It is divided majorly into four types. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis are majorly used in majority of cases. The principle involved in the hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis and advantages and disadvantages are discussed below. Complications induced by the both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis also mentioned such as nausea, headache, leg cramps etc. Dietary guidelines for patients who are starting on hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.

Keywords: Dialysis, Dietary guidelines, Hemodialysis


Formulation and Evaluation of Herbal Gel Containing Plumeria Alba Linn.(Apocynaceae) Leaves Extract

Krishnamurthy A. Kamalapurkar1*, Santosh H Pomaji1

1. D.S.T.S College of Pharmacy, Jule Solapur, Solapur-413004, India,


Herbal medicine has become an item of global importance both, medicinal and economical. The present research has been undertaken with the aim to formulate the herbal gel containing Plumeria alba extract for skin disease. The gel formulation was designed by using Plumeria albaleaves extract & various gelling agents viz: Carbapol 974P, Pectin, Aloe Vera gel, Ocimum Basilicum& Glycerin, propylene glycol, methyl paraben, propyl paraben in required amount of distilled water. The physicochemical Parameters of all formulations were determined. Drug-excipients compatibility studies were confirmed by carrying out FT-IR study. In-vitro drug release in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 and Diffusion study through cellulose membrane, and also Cadaver skin using a Franz diffusion cell, were performed. Stability studies have been carried out as per ICH guidelines for 3 months. It was observed that all the formulations showed good viscosity and Spreadability. In Vitro Drug release studies reveal that F5 and F7 formulations show  87.97 % and 84.29 % drug release respectively and permeation studies done with cadaver skin affirmed that  F5 and F7 formulation shows 85.32 % and 73.32 drug release respectively. The stability study revealed no significant difference between before and after storage. Overall result indicates that from that the combination of ocimum basilicum seed mucilage gel with natural or synthetic polymer can increase the drug release and stability of gel formulations containing Plumeria alba leaves extract.

Keywords: Plumeri aalba leaves extract, Pectin, Aloe Vera gel, Ocimum Basilicum gel.



A Hospital Based Prospective Study on the Prevalence of Anaemia In Elderly Patients

Sreeja PA*, Bincy. T. Abraham, Rukmini Ajikumar, Ayisha Jasmin.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Grace College of Pharmacy, Palakkad, Kerala, India.


Anaemia is a common disorder in older individuals. The prevalence of anaemia increases with age to over >20% in persons aged 65 years and over1. The aim of the present study was to analyse the prevalence rate of anaemia, and evaluate the various underlying causes, the haematological profile and types of anaemia in elder patients. A total of 82 subjects of age 65yrs and above were included in our study. Laboratory profiles along with various clinical conditions were collected to analyse the underlying cause. Majority of patients had Mild anaemia with a normocytic sub categorization. Pallor was the most common symptom, found in our study. The various underlying causes found were fever, renal problem, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, COPD, tuberculosis, etc. Identifying anaemia as an important aspect of a -comprehensive geriatric assessment is absolutely essential further to clinical detection. Confirming the type of anaemia is critical to direct the investigation for profiling the etiology since it is well known that the treatment of anaemia goes a long way in improving the overall outcome and quality of life.

Keywords: Anaemia, Geriatrics, Fe deficiency, Anaemia of chronic disease