American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
January 2020 Issue 1

Impact of Maternal Employment On Child Survival in India in The Era of Sustainable Development Goals

Preethi Karunakaran*

Department of Demography, University of Kerala, India


Remarkable achievements have been made in the last few decade to reduce the child mortality worldwide. The increased reach of health programs in India throughout the past few decades has contributed to a decline in postnatal mortality as well as child and infant mortality but, reduction in under 5 mortality remained negligible.  In this paper I explored, to what extent the participation of mothers in the work force influences the under-five mortality. The specific objectives are to explain the trend of survival of children in India and to trace the linkage between maternal employment and child survival in India. The present paper critically analyses the impact of mother’s work standing on under 5 mortality using highly reliable data collected from the recent NFHS conducted in 2015-16. The study population is comprised of children aged 0 to 59 months and born to mothers aged 15 to 49 years. Life Table techniques and Survival curve was used to trace the association of maternal employment on survival of children. The under-five mortality showed a consistent decrease in      India from 1992 to 2015. The results showed that high risk of mortality is identified more among children of non-working mothers rather than working.

Keywords: Child health, dual role of mother, maternal employment, motherhood, sustainable development goal, under-five mortality.



Optimization and Characterization of Herbal Hand Sanitizer by Using Drug Parsley

D. N. Hagir*, K.V.Otari, P.P. Surushe

NES’S Navsahyadri Institute of Pharmacy, Naigaon, Nasarapur, Pune- 412 213, India


Sanitizer are available in market, but contain chemical, that’s why they give side effects. So, attempt to prepare herbal hand sanitizer. Herbal hand sanitizer are used to show antimicrobial activity against, viruses, fungi, pathogens, and (bacteria - E.coli, pseudomonas aeuroginosa, staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis). Herbal sanitizer prepared from herbal drugs. So it’s having no side effects as compared to standard. Using medicinal herb and plant with human has been known since the old civilization. Old drug industry depend on raw materials of medicinal herbs and plant and their extract, which always proved safe. Herbal formulation is always use as protective purpose by micro-organisms such kind of this formulation is helpful to protect from bacteria and virus and it’s should have capacity to kill micro-organism, bacteria, viruses, fungi etc1.

Keywords: Sanitizer, Parsley, Microorganism, Herbal drug, Zone of inhibition, E. coli.


Sphagneticola Trilobata (L.) Pruski: A Pharmacological Review

A.K. Anjana*, P.L. Rajagopal, P.K. Lithashabin, C.V. Yamuna

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Government Medical College Kannur,  Kerala-670503 


Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski, also known as Wedelia trilobata (L.), is a tropical perennial flowering plant which is distributed across various parts of the world. This plants has been used as a traditional folk medicine in India, China and other parts of the world. The plant possesses a large number of phytochemicals that contributes to its different pharmacological activities. The various pharmacological activities reported in S. trilobata include antioxidant activity, analgesic activity, anti-tumor activity, anti-bacterial activity, anti-fungal activity, anti-inflammatory activity, cental nervous system depressant activity, anti-diabetic activity and in the treatment of menstrual pain (dysmenorrhea). This plant also possess larvicidal activity, anti-hypertensive activity, apoptotic activity, anti-proliferative activity, cytotoxic effects and anti-pyretic activity. Further studies in this plant and its phytoconstituents will reveal more pharmacological activities. It will provide a way for developing lead molecules which may further be used for the development of novel medicinal agents.

Keywords: Sphagneticola trilobata, pharmacological activity, phytoconstituents.


Clinical or Surgical Study of Warm-e-Mararah (Cholecystitis)

Md. Reyazuddin1, Mohammad Ali,1 Md Tanwir Alam2*

1. Dept. of Ilmul Jarahat, DUMC Hospital & Research Centre, Deoband(UP),

2. Dept. of Preventive & Community Medicine, Govt. Tibbi College & Hospital, Patna, Bihar


Cholecystitis is a medical condition where inflammation occurs in gallbladder. This condition can be associated with or without the presence of gallstones. Bacterial infection accounts for 50% to 85% of the disease's onset. Since there is a close relationship between the biliary system and the gut. In Unani system of medicine SBM and MDW, are compound formulation is effective in the treatment of Amraz-e- Jigar and may be useful in the treatment of Warm-e-Marara also. So the aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of Unani Formulation on scientific parameters. This study was an open observational study, carried out on 40 patients. The test drug was given in the form of decoction with 7 gm Majoon Dabeedulward with 50 ml Sharbat Bazoori Motadil twice a day after meal for the period of 2 months. All the patients of were assessed fortnightly on subjective parameters (0th, 15th, 30th 45th and 60th day) whereas objective parameters were assessed before and after the treatment. The outcome of intervention was analyzed using appropriate statistical methods. The subjective parameters of pain in abdomen, nausea & vomiting, dyspepsia and loss of appetite were satisfactorily alleviated by the test drugs and all the findings found in USG and CT scan were also seen to subside within the protocol duration. The findings about the parameters suggest that the test drug was effective in Warm-e-Marara and the cure was substantial. It reduced the subjective parameters as well as the findings in USG and CT scan of the Warm-e-Marara patients.

Keywords: Acute Cholecystitis; Warm-e-Marara; Majoon Dabeedulward; Sharbat Bazoori Motadil.


Mother and Child Wellbeing In Unani System Of Medicine

Aisha Perveen1*, Nasreen Jahan2, Md Tanwir Alam, 3 Shaista Perveen4

1.Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine(Under CCRUM, Govt. of India, New Delhi), Gujri, Patna City.,

2.Dept. of Ilmul Advia, National Institute of Unani Medicine, Kottigepalaya, Magadi Main Road, Bangalore-560091,

3.Dept. of Tahaffuzi Wa Samaji Tib (Community Medicine), Govt. Tibbi College & Hospital Patna.

4. Dept. of Ilmul Advia, NIUM, Bengaluru.


One of the most powerful relationships is in between a mother’s health and her child’s overall development. Throughout the world, especially in the developing countries, there is an increasing concern and interest in maternal and child health care. Woman is major determinant for her family’s development and indirectly to a nation so higher priority should be laid on policies for woman and child health. Unani can help improving Mother and Child Health (MCH) through increased access to low cost high quality healthcare, free from undesirable side-effects. This article emphasizes the Unani ways to conserve and maintain MCH so as to provide a healthy environment to upcoming generation. It highlights the potentials of Unani medicine and suggests ways to adopt these practices.

Keywords: Mother and child health; MCH; Unani Medicine; AYUSH; Maternal.


Management of Primary Hypertension by Al-Hijamah

Md. Nafis Iqbal1*, B. D. Khan2

1.Department of Munafe-ul-Aza, Sufia Unani Medical College Hospital & Research Centre, East Champaran, Bihar.

 2.Department of Moalejat, A. K. Tibbiya College, AMU, Aligarh, UP, India


The present day health system focuses more on diagnostics, less on treatment and least on prevention. The escalating costs of diagnostic tests and interventions have made today’s health care out of reach for common man. There is a lot of loud thinking in the west and it has rightly scaled down from evidence centric approach to patient centric approach. Al Hijamah (Cupping Therapy) is an important tool for treatment of various diseases. Aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Al-Hijamah on Zaghtudam Qawi Ibtedae (Primary Hypertension). This study was a randomized open standard controlled study done on 50 patients. Male Patients of age group 20-60 years were randomly allocated in two groups comprising 30 and 20 patients in test and control groups respectively. Patients with primary mild to moderate hypertension ranging from systolic pressure 140 to 159 mm Hg and diastolic pressure 90 to 109 mm Hg were enrolled. In test group, Al Kahil (the interscapular region excluding vertebral column) of the patient was selected for application of Hijamah and the procedure was performed on four consecutive days. In control group, one tablet of 25 mg Atenolol was given orally once daily. Subjective parameters viz. headache, dizziness, fatigue, palpitation, breathlessness and loss of libido were evaluated in each follow up. Significant improvement was observed in SBP and DBP in the test group. Inter group comparison shows p<0.001significant w. r. t to control group. No side effect is observed in the test group. 


Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS): An Approach To Increase The Solubility Of Lipophilic Drugs

Sunitha Reddy M*, Sowmya V

Centre for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Institute of Science and Technology, JNTUH, Kukatpally, Hyderabad, 500085, Telangana, India.


Solubility of orally administered medication is the significance test for pharmaceutical industry as almost 40% of recently propelled medications have low water solubility which prompts their lower dissolution and bioavailability, bringing about high intra and inter subject changeability and absence of dose proportionality. This can be expanded by various techniques including salt formation, complex formation, solid dispersions. Self-emulsifying drug delivery System (SEDDS) is picking up fame for improving the solvency of lipophilic medications. Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS), which are isotropic blends of oils, surfactants, solvents and co-solvents/co-surfactants which have the novel capacity of forming fine oil-in-water (o/w) micro emulsions upon mild agitation pursued by dilution in aqueous media, i.e., GI fluids. It can be utilized for the formulations so as to improve the oral ingestion of profoundly poorly soluble drugs. Self- emulsifying drug delivery systems are composed of emulsion droplets whose size ranges from 50-500 nm whereas the systems which have droplet size below 50 nm are known as Self-Nano emulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS).

Keywords: Self- Emulsifying Drug Delivery System, Isotropic Mixtures, Gastrointestinal tract, surfactants, self-emulsification, bioavailability.