American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
July 2014 Issue 7

Cassia auriculata Linn.” A Phytopharmacological Review

P.L.Rajagopal1*, V.C.Reshmi1, K.R.Sreejith2, S.S. Kiron3, S.Aneeshia4, K.Premaletha3, Robin Jose2

1. Department of Pharmacognosy, Academy of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Pariyaram Medical College, Kannur, Kerala, India

2.Department  of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Academy of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Pariyaram Medical College, Kannur, Kerala, India

3.Department of Pharmacy Practice, Academy of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Pariyaram Medical College, Kannur, Kerala, India

4.Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Academy of Paramedical Sciences, Pariyaram Medical College, Kannur, Kerala, India


Cassia auriculata is a shrub with large bright yellow colored flowers. The plant can be seen throughout south India. Tribals of various states of south India are using different parts of this plant due to its  various medicinal properties. This review gives an account of updated information on its Pharmacognostical, phytochemical and pharmacological activities which will be a valuable information to researchers in getting advanced knowledge about the plant

Key words: Cassia auriculata,  Phytochemistry and Pharmacology


A Review on Glioblastoma Multiforme (Brain Tumour) -Grade IV Glioma

Gaurav Kumar1*, Ms Nonita Kawatra2, Pragya Sharma3, Raghvendra Sharma3

1. RA Executive, B L Life Science Pvt. Ltd. Kasna, Greater Noida, (U.P.)   India 201306.

2. GM Operations, B L Life Science Pvt. Ltd. Kasna, Greater Noida, (U.P.) India 201306.

3. Asst. Professor, Department of Pharmaceutics, Aligarh College of Pharmacy, Aligarh (U.P.)  India 202001.


Worldwide, there are an estimated 240,000 cases of brain and nervous system tumours per year – GBM is the most common, and the most lethal, of these tumours. The treatment a patient receives depends on the location of the tumour in the brain and their overall health and age, but the current standard of care for GBM is surgery followed by treatment with both chemotherapy and radiotherapy, after which patients continue with chemotherapy alone. Biological therapies (also called targeted therapies) are a relatively new approach to GBM treatment. Unfortunately, most patients ultimately lose their life to GBM; therefore, maintaining optimal quality of life is very important to patients and their caregivers and is a significant consideration when selecting potential treatment options. This review provides an overview of glioblastoma, including its incidence, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment options.

Keywords: Gliomas, Glioblastoma multiforme, Common risk factors, Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment regarding GBM


Solid Dispersion: An Effective Approach for Bioavailability Enhancement for Poorly Soluble Drugs

Pande SV.*, Biyani KR.

1.Dept. of Pharmaceutics, Anuradha College of Pharmacy, Anuradha Nagar, Sakegaon Road, Chikhli, 443201.


The simplest and easiest way of drug administration is oral route. The formulation of poorly soluble compounds for oral delivery at present is one of the most frequent and greatest challenges to formulation scientists in the pharmaceutical industry. The present review relates the solid dispersion technique for bioavailability enhancement of BCS class 4 drug. the dispersion classification in this review give detail idea about the mechanism of drug to be dispersed in the carrier for solubility enhancement with different mechanism of the solubility of drug in biofluids enhancement which helps further in bioavailability enhancement of the drug to minimize dosing frequency and dose. the review also gives detailed methods for solid dispersion preparation with their recent advancement techniques as well as their different evaluation techniques. the review concludes with the suggestion for the scope of the further research with practical limitation of the solid dispersion technique with further study like practical scale up technique and poor flow and compressibility.

Keywords: Solubility Enhancement, Solid Dispersion, Methods for Solubility Enhancement, Bioavailability Enhancement.



R Surya1*, Lalitha Shanmugam1, M Sathish kumar1, I Anand Shaker2

1. Department of Physiology, MelmaruvathurAdhiparasakthi Institute of Medical Sciences, Melmaruvathur-603319, Tamilnadu, India.

2. Department of Biochemistry, MelmaruvathurAdhiparasakthi Institute of Medical Sciences, Melmaruvathur-603319, Tamilnadu, India.


The lacuna in realising the importance of exercise needs in diabetic patients for oral immunity is noted. This aticle reviews and emphasises the above statement. Considering the branching complications of Diabetes mellitus, and the various beneficial effects of exercise in to account, an idea is proposed, that exercise might be a remedy for few of the complication of diabetes mellitus with evidences.

KEYWORDS: Oral immunity, Diabetes mellitus, Exercise.


Antipyretic Activity of Artabotrys hexapetallus Flower Extract

Rahini D1, Anuradha, R1*

1.PG and Research Department of Biochemistry, Sengamala Thayaar Educational Trust Women’s College, Sundarakottai, Mannargudi – 614016, Tamilnadu, India.


The objective of the study of antipyretic effect of ethanolic extract of flowers of Artabotrys hexapetallus tested on yeast induced pyrexia in albino rats. The flower extract at oral doses of 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg has been used to investigate the antipyretic potential of flowers extract. At a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight showed significant reduction in body temperature on yeast induced pyrexia when compared to standard drug Paracetamol (200 mg/ml).

Keywords: Antipyretic activity, Paracetamol, Ethanolic extract, Artabotrys hexapetallus.


Phytochemical and Anthelmintic studies on the whole plant of Merremia emarginata Burm. F

P.L.Rajagopal1, Robin Jose1,  K.R.Sreejith1, S.S. Kiron1, K.Premaletha1  S. Aneeshia2

1. Department of Pharmacognosy, Academy of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Pariyaram Medical College, Kannur, Kerala, S.India.

2. Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Academy of Paramedical Sciences, Pariyaram Medical College, Kannur, Kerala, S.India.


In the present study ethanol and aqueous extracts of the whole plant of Merremia emarginata Burm. F were investigated for their anthelmintic activity against Ecinia foeitida and Pheretima posthuma. Four concentrations (100, 150, 200, 250 mg/ml) of each extract were subjected for evaluation. The study is mainly concerned with the determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the parasites. The gradual increase in the dose showed a gradual increase in the anthelmintic activity. The ethanolic extract of the whole plant showed a significant anthelmintic activity at highest concentration of 250 mg/ml.

Keywords: Merremia emarginata Burm. F, Ecinia foeitida and Pheretima posthuma, Piperazine citrate , Anthelmintic activity


Effect of Chrysanthemum indicum Against Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity

Sreedevi Adikay1*, Sandhya Akuthota1

1.Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Sri Padmavathi Mahila Visvavidyalayam,Tirupati- 517502.


The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of ethanol extract of flowers of Chrysanthemum indicum against Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Nephroprotective activity was studied in male Wistar Albino rats. Nephrotoxicity was induced by Cisplatin at a dose of 6mg/kg i.p., on day 1. Nephroprotector activity of the ethanol extract was tested at two dose levels i.e., 250mg and 500mg/kg body weight. Nephroprotector activity was assessed by determination of serum marker levels, urinary functional parameters and lipid peroxidation activity (LPO) in kidney homogenate. Histological studies were conducted. In the present study, Cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity was characterized by significant elevation of serum markers levels, increased urinary protein excretion, raised LPO levels, reduced creatinine clearance. Extract of flowers of Chrysanthemum indicum had significantly prevented the renal injury by decreasing the levels of serum total proteins, urinary total proteins, lipid peroxidation levels and increasing the creatinine clearance. Histological studies substantiated the above results. Significant nephroprotective activity of ethanol extract of flowers of Chrysanthemum indicum may be due to its antioxidant properties and the effect was dose dependent. The present study provides the corroborative scientific evidence for the folklore use of Chrysanthemum indicum in urinary troubles.

Keywords: Chrysanthemum indicum; Cisplatin; Serum markers


Synthesis and molecular docking studies of 2,3-dialkylindoles and carbazoles with MDM2-p53 and PBR receptor proteins

Jagadeesh N. Masagalli1, Kittappa M. Mahadevan1*, Honnali Jayadevappa2, Mariswamy Mahesh3, Preenon Bagchi3

1.Department of Post Graduate Studies and Research in Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, Karnataka-577451, India.

2.Department of Chemistry, Sahyadri Science College (Autonomous), Shivamogga-577203, India.

3.Department of Bioinformatics, Azyme Biosciences Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore-560069.


Fischer indolization was achieved conveniently using samarium iodide to obtain 2,3-dialkylindoles and carbazoles. The in silico docking study was carried out to all new compounds on Murine double minutes-2 (MDM2) receptor bind p53 and Pheripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) proteins. The structures was established by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and LCMS analysis for all 2,3-dialkylindoles and carbazoles. Among the test compounds, the 1,3-difluoro-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-carbazole 3g and 1,3-dichloro-6-neopentyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-carbazole 3i shown selective excellent interaction with active site amino acid such as GLN20 LYS21 with binding energy of -2.494e+2 kcal/mol and LYS105, LYS107, LEU108 with binding energy of -2.919e+2 kcal/mol in PBR protein. And, the compound 3g was also shown excellent binding interaction with active site amino acid ARG97 in MDM2-p53 protein with binding energy of -4.211446e+02 kcal/mol.

Keywords: Samarium iodide, Fischer indole synthesis, Docking, MDM2-p53, PBR.


Compatibility Method Validation of Medroxyprogesterone Acetate And Estradiol Cypionate Combination Drug In Injectable Suspension Dosage Forms

M. Sankar1*, S. Arulantony1, R. Gunshekhar2, K. Pavan Kumar3

1.Post Graduate and Research Department of Chemistry,Presidency College, Chepauk (TN), Chennai - 600 005, India

2.Department of Chemistry, Annamalai University, Chidambaram - 638001, TamilNadu- India

3. Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Nandha College of Pharmacy, KoorapalayamPiruvu, Erode-638052, TamilNadu, India


A simple RP-HPLC compatible method for the injectable suspension dosage of combined medroxyprogesterone acetate and estradiol cypionate was developed and validated according to ICH and USP guidelines. The chromatographic separation was achieved by using the Zorbax Eclipse C18 column (50 mm×4.6 mm, 2.7 µm) with gradient elution technique at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The UV detection was performed at 225 nm. The linearity of medroxyprogesterone acetate over the concentration range was 49.65 to 744.69 μg/ml and 10.15 to 152.28 μg/ml for estradiol cypionate respectively. The accuracy was evaluated by means of spike recovery method and the result showed in the range of 99.7% to 101.4% for medroxyprogesterone acetate and 98.6% to 101.8% for estradiol cypionate. The specificity of the method showed that the analyte was not interfered by the presence of co-formulated substances. The robustness of the study was found agreeable; hence it proves that the method was robust. The stability of the analyte was found stable for 24 hours. The developed method was successfully employed for the determination of combined medroxyprogesterone acetate and estradiol cypionate in injectable suspension dosage forms.

Keywords: Medroxyprogesterone acetate, Estradiol cypionate, RP-HPLC, Validation


Studies on Some Possible Biochemical Aberrations in Type II Diabetes Mellitus

Venkatesh R*1, Kalaivani K1,Vidya R1, Subbaiyan B2, Samydurai P3

1. PG. Research Department of Biochemistry, Kongunadu Arts and Science College  (Autonomous), Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu - 641029, India.

2. PG. Research Department of Botany, Kongunadu Arts and Science College (Autonomous), Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu - 641029, India.

3. Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding  (Govt. of India), Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.


To evaluate the liver and kidney function status of Type ll Diabetic patients. In the present research work on type II diabetes mellitus, various biochemical parameters have been analyzed in a systematic manner. Blood samples were collected from Sun and Apollo laboratory in Coimbatore. About thirty type ll diabetic patients (age : 40 – 70, 15 males and 15 females) and thirty normal individuals (age 30 – 50, 17 males and 13 females) were selected. Among with elevated blood sugar level, serum creatinine, urea, uric acid and protein were also significantly increased. Significantly increased levels of AST and ALT were observed in diabetic, when compared to normal control. The present study suggests that an elevation of blood glucose level might precede the development of liver diseases and renal problems in patients with type ll diabetes mellitus. In conclusion, the hyperglycemic patients were also observed the elevated levels of liver function enzymes and blood metabolites like urea, creatinine and uric acid.

Keywords:  Diabetes mellitus (DM),  hyperglycemia, insulin, Asparatate transaminase (AST), Alanine transaminase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP),  urea, creatinine, and uric acid.



Anti-Atherosclerotic and Lipolytic Property of Polyherbal Formulation

Vedasri R1*, Geetha K2, Uma Maheswara Rao. V3, Vijay R. Chidrawar1, Mounika Talla1, Swathi R1.

1.Department of Pharmacology, CMR College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, AP, India.

1.Department of Biotechnology, CMR College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, AP, India.

1.Department of Pharmacognosy, CMR College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, AP, India.


The incidence of coronary heart disease has markedly increased in India over the past few years. Ischemic heart disease, the largest cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed and developing countries today is overwhelmingly contributed by atherosclerosis. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the phytochemical screening of the plants and find out the potency of polyherbal formulation in high fat diet induced atherosclerosis in rats. Terminalia arjuna, Nardostachys jatamansi, Garcinia combogia, Tribulus terrestris, Inula racemosa are ayurvedic medicinal plants used in India to treat several ailments. The present study was aimed at performing pre-clinical studies of a polyherbal formulation prepared from the above mentioned plants in high cholesterol diet induced atherosclerosis in rats. The study highlights the activity of the polyherbal formulation in the treatment of atherosclerosis. 6 groups of male rats containing 5 animals per each group were taken and given 200mg/kg/day, 300mg/kg/day and 400mg/kg/day of hydroalcoholic extract of polyherbal formulation orally for 28 days along with the high cholesterol diet. The experiment showed promising results by significantly decreasing cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL levels. Significant reduction in serum total cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol was seen. The extract also showed hepato protective activity. MDA levels were reduced considerably. Our studies indicate that hydro alcoholic extract of plants used in polyherbal formulation exerts potent hypolipidemic effects in atherosclerotic rats which are evident from the histopathological results.

Keywords:  Atherosclerosis, Plaque, Cholesterol, Atherogenic index, Cardiovascular diseases.


Coryneforms causing surgical site infections- characterization and antimicrobial sensitivity pattern

Shireen Siddiqui1*, Meher Rizvi2, Asfia Sultan2, Fatima Khan2, Indu Shukla2, Bilal Bin Asaf3.

1.MD (Microbiology),Consultant Microbiologist, Kailash Hospital, New Delhi, INDIA

2.J.N Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (UP) INDIA

3. MS(General Surgery) ,Consultant Surgeon , Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi, INDIA


Coryneforms have been recognized as pathogenic organism with increasing frequency in recent years and can no longer be discarded as laboratory contaminants. Emerging antimicrobial resistance in various species has created an additional need for their identification at the species level and continuous surveillance of their antimicrobial resistance pattern. This study was conducted to identify the role and resistance pattern of coryneforms in the surgical site infections. C. jeikeium was found to be the commonest species among the 54 isolates of coryneforms. Furthermore alarming resistance profile was observed among all the species. One of the important highlight of the study was the unexpected synergism noted between erythromycin & vancomycin and pristinomycin & vancomycin. On the basis of our results we would like to conclude that the role of coryneforms in surgical site infections really needs to be looked into and the synergistic activity among the erythromycin/ pristinomycin and vancomycin will prove to be helpful in delaying the development of resistance against vancomycin which is the need of time.

Keywords: Coryneforms, surgical site infection, antimicrobial resistance.


Studying and Comparing diagnostic method to determine the abundance of type 1&2 of Herpes simplex virus in CSF in encephalitis patients

Somaieh Nasereslami*¹,Mohammad Hassan Shahhosseiny²

1.Department of Microbiology Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2.Microbiology Department, Shahr-e-Qods branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.


Type 1&2of  Herpes simplex virus [HSV] is infection causing factor in central nervous system encephalitis in human molecular methods are the best ways to diagnose this pathogen agent. In this study new molecular technique LAMP to determine both types in virus evaluated.  In an experiential study, 184 sample of CSF in Tehran Mofid hospital was provided. Sample of DNA was extracted by DNA Cinaclonekit. A bundle of 6 primers especially for DNA polymerase gene of HSV virus was designed. Reaction product LAMP by increasing saber green was confirmed. The result of LAMP technique by K square test was compared with the result of PCR technique by K square. The sensitivity of modified technique LAMP was up to 5 particle viruses and the sensitivity of PCR technique was up to 50 particle viruses. Both technique LAMP and PCR to diagnose HSV virus types 1, 2 had specificity 100%.From 184 samples CSF according to LAMP technique 60 samples were positive while in PCR technique 45 samples were reported as positive. The sensitivity of LAMP was 10 times higher than PCR technique. Comparing these two methods using K square test showed that this to methods in a meaningful level P<0.05 are different. Determining type 1 &2of  HSV in CSF samples by LAMP technique has a high specificity and sensitivity.

Keywords :Herpes simplex virus, LAMP, PCR, CSF.


Prevalence of Ectoparasite Infestations and Diversity in the South-South Geopolitical Zone In Nigeria: A Pharmacotherapuetic Approach.

Aburoma HLS1, Onyeachonam FCO 2, Okuduwor AA3.

1. Lecturer/Consultant Public Health/Clinical Epidemiologist, Clinical Research Analyst, Faculty of Clinical Sciences University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

2. Lecturer/Consultant Veterinary Physiologist; Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria.

3. Agricultural Economist, PhD Candidate Agic-Economics Pending Federal University of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.


Ectoparasitic infestation is one of the major veterinary problems affecting livestock industries globally, as it significantly reduces production Efficiency, and costs of acaricides used in its control are enormous and run into billions of dollars worldwide. Ectoparasites including lice, ticks, mites and flies are economically serious parasites that play important roles in the transmission of certain pathogens, due to their usual habit of blood sucking and wound licking. Infested animals keep poor physical condition and develop unthrifty, anemic appearances, skin discoloration and greasy hair, which adversely affect the economic production. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of ectoparasites infestations and diversity in the South-south geopolitical zone in Nigeria and to institute a conventional intervention. A total of 4617 livestock of different breeds, husbandry and sex were surveyed for ectoparasites identification from November 2012 to November 2013. Ectoparasites identified were ticks (11399), mange mites (5555), lice (5248) and flies (2167) The investigators deduced that a high prevalence and diverse fauna of ectoparasites could potentially hamper the productivity of livestock in the study area, hence serious attention is warranted.

Keywords: Eectoparasites, Livestock, South-South, Nigeria.


Primary Insomnia Induced by Caffeine Consumption: A Non-Pharmacological/behavioral Remedy

Stanley PC 1, Aburoma HLS 2, Ukaigwe PC3,George AN 4

1.Lecturer/Consultant , Dept of NueroPsychiatry Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Choba Rivers State, Nigeria.

2.Lecturer/Consultant Public Health/Clinical Epidemiologist, Clinical Research Analyst, Dept of Nursing, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences,  University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria.

3.Lecturer/Consultant, Dept of Nursing, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria.

4.Lecturer/Consultant Dept of Nursing, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Choba,  Rivers State, Nigeria.


Insomnia, the most common type of sleep disorder is fast encroaching cavernously into the global community. The impact and correlation of insomnia with caffeinated food and beverages is often under-estimated. Failure to identify caffeine as the culprit in most cases of insomnia and many psychiatric problems may result in false diagnosis of anxiety, depression and related disorders.  Without a quantitative listing of caffeine on food labels, consumers lack the information needed to control their intake of caffeine. There is paucity of data from various locales to support the basis and outcome of insomnia, in the developed countries especially Nigeria. A quantitative survey of 120 respondents receiving treatment for primary insomnia was investigated in three primary, secondary and tertiary institutions in Port Harcourt, from June 2012 to June 2013. Findings divulged the role caffeine played at the end of acute treatment, given   that diminished use of caffeinated food/beverages exhibited a comparable efficacy in quality of sleep than most pharmacotherapy. We deduced that caffeine induced insomnia is a growing major public health concern in the Sub Saharan region especially in Nigeria. Excessive use of caffeine and many other substances that alter sleep-wake circle constitute a significant etiological factor for most insomnia. This article deserves the attention of the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration Control (NAFDAC) in Nigeria, as the authors urge NAFDAC to ensure that a routine quantitative labeling of caffeine content in food and beverages, be made a material factor for consumers.  

Keywords:Insomnia, Caffeine Consumption, Labeling, NAFDAC, Nigeria.


Comparison of Abhrak Bhasma and Silicon Dioxide efficacy against Single dose of Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity in rat by evaluation of Lipid Peroxidation

Parashuram Teli1, Jaywant Jadhav2,  Aruna Kanase3*

1.Cell Biology Section, Dept. of Zoology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, 416 004, India.

2.PCV Dept., Serum Institute of India Ltd. Hadapsar, Pune, 411028, India

3.APT Research Foundation-National Toxicological centre, Pune, 41, India


Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induces lipid peroxidation in liver and other tissues. Abhrak  bhasma, an Ayurvedic drug known for its hepatoprotective potency and is derived from silicate/silicon ore. Its preparation involves heating and it is assumed by many that it is SiO2. Thus to compare their hepatoprotective potency, both the drugs were tested against the single dose of CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rat. Graded single doses viz. 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and 40mg of abhrak bhasma and SiO2/ kg body wt were used simultaneously. The hepatoprotective potency was evaluated by studying malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of liver and kidney in experimental rats. The results show that abhrak bhasma has counteracted CCl4 induced MDA levels to bring them to normal levels. Though SiO2 has influenced free radical scavenging positively. None of the doses used did not counteracted fully to normalize the MDA levels in CCl4 induced lipid peroxidation in male albino rats. In kidney, CCl4 induced levels of MDA were low which were protected by all the doses of abhrak bhasma and high doses of SiO2 (30 and 40 mg/kg body wt). Thus, present results help to use abhrak bhasma as a potential drug which is capable of protecting liver and it can potentially be used for possible prevention of diseases associated with oxidative stress. However, further study need to be assessed for doses optimization in human.

Keywords: Abhrak bhasma, SiO2, hepatotoxicity, lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde, hepatoprotective potency.


Overall Survival & Tumor response rate in Metastatic Breast cancer Chemotherapy

Rajat Rana1*, Aravinda Swami1,  Soumadip Das1, K KPerumal1 , Isha Patel2

1. Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D), R.M Medical College & Hospital, Annamalai University, India 608002

2.Ph.D., Clinical, Social and Administrative Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1065, USA


To compare Taxanes, antitumor antibiotics and platinum containing chemotherapy regimens in the management of metastatic breast cancer in terms of overall survival, objective response rate and time to progression.Cochrane breast cancer group specialized register; cochrane central register of controlled trials (central), medline, embase, cinahl and who international clinical registry platform were searched using the appropriate search strategy selection criteria. Response rates were analysed as dichotomous variables. 35 trials were included with sample size of 16272 patients with Advanced Metastatic Breast Cancer treated with either Antitumor Antibiotics or Platinum Regimens or Taxanes. The observed overall survival derived for a sample size of 2710 exposed to chemotherapy where as a comparator group of 2591 exposed other therapies. The overall risk ratio was 0.98(M-H, fixed, 95% CI; 0.95 to 1.01).Tumor Response Rate derived for a sample size of 3037 exposed to chemotherapy in comparison to the comparator group of 2951 exposed to other therapies. This study confirms several benefits of chemotherapy especially taxanes, antitumor antibiotics and platinum regimen in metastatic breast cancer, but the selection of drug therapy must be based upon the presentation of the case.

Key words: Breast Cancer, Metastasis, Overall Survival, Tumor Response Rate.


Nutritional scrutiny of Pulp and Juice of Phyllanthus emblica

G.Karpagam1, D. Gomathi1 and A.Soundhirarajan2*

1. Post Harvest Technology Centre, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore- 641003

2. HOD- Biochemistry, Institute of laboratory medicine, KG Hospital & PG Medical Institute, Coimbatore- 641018


Medicinal plants are the gift of natures to human beings to uphold a healthy life. Some medicinal plants consider as important source of nutrition and important source for active ingredients in food substances. Phyllanthus emblica is widely used in traditional medicine for treatment of various diseases. The fruit of P. emblica is known as a rich source of vitamin C and also contains a mixture of phenolic compounds. The present study was designed to study the nutritive and antioxidant activity of different contents of P. emblica. Analysis of carbohydrates, fibre, fat, protein, vitamins and phenols were studied by using standard protocols. Results showed the presence of higher amount of nutritionals (vitamins, phenols, antioxidants, protein, carbohydrates and mineral content) in pulp as well as in juice. Hence P. emblica fruits and its juice can be used to enhance the certain biological, chemical activities and phytochemical properties.

Keywords:  Proximate nutrients, Phyllanthus emblica, antioxidants,  phenols, calorific value. 


Microwave –Assisted Efficient Synthesis of Thiazoles Containing Piperidone- 4-One Moiety as Probes for Antimicrobial Activities

R. Sumathi, S. Syed Shafi*

Department of Chemistry,Thiruvalluvar University,Serkadu, Vellore – 632115, Tamil Nadu.


Microwave  assisted organic reaction enhancements (MORE) is a simple, clean, fast, efficient, economic and environment friendly method for the synthesis of 4- piperidones. The aim of this article is to synthesize characterize and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of certain novel thiazole compounds. The synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis and IR, NMR and mass spectral data. All compounds were found to exhibit a fair degree of antimicrobial activity.

Keywords:Piperidine -4-one, thioesemicarbazone, various substituted phenacyl –bromides.


Modification and Physical Characterization of Hupu Gum As A Carrier In Solid Dispersion Containing Clopidogrel Bisulphate

Shejul Amar*, Deshmane Subhash, Biyani Kailas

1.Department of pharmaceutics, Anuradha College of pharmacy, Sakegaon road, Chikhli, Dist- Buldana - 443201, Maharashtra, India.


The objective behind this study was to enhance the solubility of clopidogrel bisulphate by solid dispersion technique and also to modify, evaluate and compare desired properties of carriers for solid dispersion. The melting point, swelling index, viscosity, bulk density, tapped density, angle of repose, water retention capacity were evaluated for plain and modified Hupu gum (MHG). The plain and modified Hupu gum was also characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction technique for physical interaction and crystallinity respectively, the comparative evaluation of plain and modified Hupu gum highlighted that the modified Hupu gum shows more desirable properties for preparation of solid dispersion. It concludes that modification of natural gums by heating at different temperature is one of the best techniques to acquire desired properties of carrier. Solid dispersion was prepared by Gel entrapment technique using and MHG in the ratio 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 respectively. Solubility of pure Clopidogrel bisulphate was determined and compared the same with solid dispersion. Finally it was observed that enhancement in solubility of Clopidogrel bisulphate was obtained using MHG and drug in 1:2 ratio.

Keywords: Hupu gum, Modified Hupu gum, Clopidogrel bisulphate, Solid dispersion.


Association of Glycosylated Haemoglobin to Red Blood Corpuscles Indices

Rajeswari S1, Anila Mathan2 &Swaminathan S3

1 Junior Technical Officer, Department of Biochemistry, Lab Services

2 Senior Consultant& Head,  Department of Haematology and Transfusion Medicine, Lab Services

3 Senior Consultant& Head,  Department of Biochemistry, Lab Services


Variations in Red Blood Corpuscles indices survival can cause clinically important differences in Glycosylated Haemoglobin levels. Many previous studies have shown that Glycosylated Haemoglobin levels did not correlate with the degree of anemia for a given mean plasma glucose and hence Glycosylated Haemoglobin level in patients with iron deficiency anemia should be interpreted with caution.  Glycosylated Haemoglobin level is not affected by degree of anemia or glucose level alone but red blood corpuscles indices, notably Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin, Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration, Platelet Distribution Width, Red Cell Distribution Width & White Blood Cells. fractions may affect. This study has proved that all the above indices are significantly correlated to Glycosylated Haemoglobin levels, thus giving an understanding that Glycosylated Haemoglobin levels in Diabetes with iron deficiency anemia could be interpreted with Red Blood Corpuscles indices.

Keywords: Anemia, Glycosylated Haemoglobin, Red Blood Corpuscles , Platelet Distribution Width, White Blood Corpuscles.



Synthesis of Indolecarboxamides and Their Docking Studies with H1,5HT and CCR2 Antagonist Receptors

E Siddalingamurthy1, K. M. Mahadevan1*, N. M. Jagadeesh1, M. N Kumara2

1.Department of Post Graduate Studies and Research in Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, Karnataka-577 451, India.

2.Department of Chemistry, Yuvaraja’s college, University of Mysore, Mysore-570005, Karnataka, India.


A simple and straightforward novel method to synthesis indolecarboxamides by amidation of indole carboxylic acid and amines in the presence of TCT was developed. The newly synthesized  indolecarboxamide ligands 3a-m were subjected to in silico docking studies against H1,5HT and CCR2 antagonist receptor. Good to excellent yield of 3a-m was obtained when we use 0.25 equivalent of TCT to couple indole carboxylic acid and amine in THF solvents.  This methods was convenient both for aliphatic and aromatic amines. Further this method tolerates different functionality such as hydroxyl, chloro, fluoro and trifluoromethyl as well. In silicostudy reveals that the ligands 3a-m were exhibited good to excellent binding interactions with H1 protein receptor. In particular 3b, 3c & 3i have shown strong 3 hydrogen bonding interaction each with H1 protein receptor whose binding energy is -19.1501, -14.8505, -17.1749 Kcal/mol and inhibitory constant of is 91.6718, 100.49, 85.0736 µM respectively. At the same time the ligands 3a-m have shown moderate inhibition and hydrogen bond interaction with 5HT and CCR2 protein receptors. Here the ligands 3b, 3c & 3i  shows single hydrogen bonding interaction with 5HT protein receptor whose binding energies are -10.9311, -9.2191 -11.1749 Kcal/mol respectively is a moderate interaction and thus drawing the attention  in terms of high degree of selectivity of the ligands with protein receptors.

Keywords: Indolecarboxamides, TCT, docking, antagonist receptor.


Assessment of food effect on 12.5 mg Hydrochlorothiazide capsule in healthy Indiansubjects

Ashvin M. Patel1, 2*, Falguni Majmudar3, Naveen Sharma2, Bhavin N. Patel2

1.Research Department, Hemchandracharya North Gujarat University, Patan-384265, Gujarat, India

2. Bio-Analytical Laboratory, Cliantha Research Ltd., Bodakdev, Ahmedabad-380054, Gujarat, India.

3. Department of Pharmacology, SMT. N.H.L. Municipal Medical College, Ellis bridge, Ahmedabad 380006, Gujarat, India.


For the assessment effect of food on the pharmacokinetic parameters of Hydrochlorothiazide(HCTZ) data of reference product (12.5 mg capsule) from two bio-equivalence studies were combined and evaluated. 36 male healthy subjects participated in the fasting and non fasting study. Subjects received the drug product after 12 hours(h) overnight fast for the fasting study and after 30.0 minutes of high fat  breakfast for the non-fasting study. Blood samples were collected from time of dosing to 60 h of the post dosing at predefined time. Blood samples were analyzed for the concentration of the HCTZ by using validated LC/MS/MS technique. Food decrease the Cmax by about 28% and AUC by about 9%. While Tmax was delayed about 97%(from 2.185h to 4.320h). food prolonged the mean resident time of HCTZ. 

Keywords:Hydrochlorothiazide; food effect; Pharmacokinetics; bioavailability 


Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Standardization of Nimbadi Yoni Varti - An Ayurvedic Formulation

Poonam Choudhary1*, Laxmipriya Dei2, Sushila Sharma3

1. Dept of Stree roga and Prasuti tantra, National Institute of Ayurveda, Amer Road Jaipur, Rajasthan

2. Prof. & I/c Head, Dept of Streeroga and Prasutitantra, Institute of post graduate teaching & Research in Ayurveda, Jamnagar, Gujarat.

3. Asso.Prof. & Head, Dept of Streeroga and Prasutitantra., National Institute of Ayuveda, Amer Road Jaipur, Rajasthan


In the era of technology, when the manufacturing of Ayurvedicdrugs become the part of industrial business, then the standard parameters to check the market quality of drugs should be necessary then and then by the invincible Ayurvedicscience, treatment will be found efficacious. Present work had been carried out to analyzethe Nimbadi yoni vartifor their Physico-chemical parameter. The present study will assist in standardization for quality, purity and sample identification. Various standardization parameters like morphological characters, microscopic evaluation, physicochemical evaluations, preliminary phytochemical screening and TLC chromatographic profile of the drug were carried out and the qualitative parameters were reported. Pharmacognostical and phyto-chemical observations revealed the specific characters of all active constituents used in the preparation. The presence of tannin, fibers, sclerides, stone cells and calcium oxalate crystals were the characteristic features observed in the microscopy of drug combination. Phyto-chemical analysis showed that average weight  ofvarti is 3.5gm, disintegration time 1 hrs, pH 5.0, water soluble extract 36.88% w/w , Methanol soluble extract 4.212% w/w, Ash value 3.95% w/w, Loss on drying 33.84% w/w.Qualitative analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins and anthraquinon glycosides. These studies provide referential information for correct evaluation and standardization of the Nimbadi yoni varti.

Keywords:Nimbadi yoni varti, Shwetapradar, Abnormal vaginal discharge, Pharmacognosy, Phyto-chemistry. 


Development of Diclofenac Sodium Matrix Tablets using Sunflower Stem Residue

Mir Azam Khan1, MaqsoodurRehman1 , Waqar Ahmed1, Hamayun Khan2,  Abdullah1, Manzoor Ahmad3, Jahangir Khan1

1. Department of Pharmacy, University of Malakand. Chakdara, Dir(L)

2. Department of Chemistry, Islamia College University, Peshawar.

3. Department of Chemistry, University of Malakand. Chakdara, Dir(L)


Hydrophilic matrix based tablets using different concentration of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (Methocel K4M) and treated sunflower stem residues were developed by using wet granulation technique for Diclofenac Sodium (DS) (100mg). Different formulations were prepared and evaluated for the release of DS over a period of 10 hours in phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) using USP type II dissolution apparatus. Along with usual physical properties, tests like friability, weight variation, hardness, drug content, thickness and the dynamic of water uptake and erosion were also studied. The in vitro drug release revealed that the replacement of HPMC by treated sunflower stem residues in tablet dosage form controlled the release of DS for 10 hours. The drug release was comparable with the commercially available Fenbar SR (Diclofenac Sodium 100mg). Tablet friability, weight variation, drug content, thickness and hardness tests were also in conformity with United State Pharmacopeia (USP). Water uptake and erosion study of the tablets indicated that swelling followed by erosion could be the possible mechanism of drug *release. The in vitro release data indicated that DS followed zero-order kinetics. In conclusion, the in vitro release profile and the mathematical models indicate that using HPMC and treated sunflower stem residue in combination can effectively control the release of DS

Keywords:Diclofenac Sodium, Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, Sunflower stem,   Modified, Matrix tablets.



First and Second Derivative Spectrophotometric Methods for Determination of Alfuzosin in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

Kanchan Chauhan*

MCE Society’s Allana College of Pharmacy, Camp, Pune-411001.


Two simple, accurate and reproducible first and second derivative spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of alfuzosin in pharmaceutical formulation. The solutions of standard and sample were prepared in methanol. For the first method, UV spectrophotometry, the quantitative determination of the drug was carried at 245 nm and the linearity range was found to be 1-5 µg/ml. For the first and second derivative spectrophotometric methods the drug was determined at 237 nm and 245 nm. The calibration graphs constructed at their wavelength of determination were found to be linear for UV and derivative spectrophotometric methods. The proposed methods have been extensively validated as per ICH guidelines. The described methods can be readily utilized for the analysis of pharmaceutical formulation. There was no significant difference between the performance of the proposed methods regarding the mean values and standard deviations. Developed spectrophotometric methods in this study are simple, accurate, and precise.

Keywords: Alfuzosin, First derivative spectrum, Second derivative spectrum, ultraviolet spectrophotometry.


Increasing Prevalence of Neck Pain among youngsters of Bangalore: An Alarming Shift

Md Tanwir Alam1*, Mohd Zulkifle2, Abdul Haseeb Ansari1, Arish Mohammad Khan Sherwani1, Md Zeyauddin3, Aisha Perveen1

1. Dept. of Preventive and Social Medicine, National Institute of Unani Medicine (NIUM), Kottigepalya, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

2. Kulliyat (Basic Science), National Institute of Unani Medicine (NIUM), Kottigepalya, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

3. Preventive and Social Medicine, Govt, Tibbi College and Hospital (GTCH), Kadam Kuan, Patna, Bihar, India


Neck pain become a public health problem, its accelerating prevalence and  devastating side effect is exerting substantial load on national’s wealth; because its impact is more on productive population (adult working age people). Although it was a hospital based observational study; done for the intervention purpose. But here in this paper we are just mentioning its cross sectional perspective. Hence this study was carried out on patients attended NIUM hospital with a complaint of Neck pain. After getting ethical clearance from the Institutional Ethical Committee (IEC) patients were included in study. This study stretched from January 2011 to May 2011. A total 50 patients were admitted in the study; age group ranging from 20 to 59 years. In present study sample, patients from 20 years to 59 years were included and the 50 patients were distributed according to age with a class interval of 10 into four groups i.e., 20-29, 30-39, 40-49 and 50-59. Patients diagnosed with neck pain were included into the study. Maximum prevalence of neck pain was found in age group 30-39 years followed by 20-29, 40-49 and 50-59 years age group. Although it was a less sample study, but it shows prevalence of neck pain is more in younger age peoples (3rd to 4th decade of life); which is a new shift in prevalence of neck pain bearing with age.

Keywords: Cervical Pain, Cervical Spondylosis; Lifestyle Disease; Unani Medicine; Wajaul Unuq.


Experimental evaluation of an Ayurvedic drug on dissolution of encrustation

Sahu.M1, Barik.LD2,Shrivastav.SK3, Dwivedi .US4 , Mishra.SP5, Anupam G. Banerjee6

1. Dept.of Pharmaceutics6. Banaras Hindu University,Varanasi-221005


Encrustation, a crust or hard coating on the surface of urinary stent & catheter, is developed due to the formation of biofilm caused by super saturation, adherence of micro bacteria and eventually deposition of mucoroteins, ions and crystals. Blockage of the stents & catheters causes reflux of urine thereby increasing renal pressure and ultimately damaging renal parenchymal tissues. El-Faqih et al has reported that encrustation occurs in 76.3% of stents left in place longer than 12 weeks. Urinary pH plays a role in the etiology of Stone formation and also for encrustation. The formation of various types of kidney stones is strongly influenced by urinary pH. An alkaline pH favors the crystallization of calcium- and phosphate-containing stones, whereas acidic urine pH promotes uric acid or cystine stones. pH/pKa of the drug reacted with different crystal forming chemicals on micro (replicated) environment  Drug schedules-Dried  aqueous extract of  Bryophyllum pinnatum and Crataeva nurvala taken for the study. Solubility is a function of pH. Maintenance of neutral pH increases aqueous solubility. pH of  Drug with different crystal forming element was between 7.5 to 7.6 .

Keywords: Encrustation, Stent, catheter, quath extract(dried water extract)



Utility of Oxidation–Reduction Reaction for the Spectrophotometric Determination of Azithromycin

Hany A. Omara1 *, Hamid M. Younis1

1 Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Sirte University, Sirte, Libya.


Two simple, rapid, accurate, sensitive and economical visible spectrophotometric (direct, indirect) methods (A and B) for the determination of azithromycin (AZT) in bulk sample and in dosage forms are described. The first method (A) is based on the oxidation of the drug by ammonium metavanadate in sulfuric acid medium and the absorbance is measured at 750 nm. The absorbance concentration plot is linear over the range (0.3-29.7 μg/ml). The second method (B) is based on oxidation of AZT by iodine solution in acidic medium, and determination of the unreacted oxidant by measuring the decrease in absorbance using methylene blue dye (MB) at a suitable λmax (662 nm), respectively. Regression analysis of Beer's law plots showed good correlation in the concentration ranges (0.4-36.1 μg/ml). The quality control/assurance parameters such as limits of detection (LOD), quantification (LOQ), molar absorptivity and Sandelle’s sensitivity values are also reported. The accuracy and precision of the methods were studied on intra-day and inter-day basis. No interference was observed from common pharmaceutical additives. The methods are used successfully to assay AZT in its pharmaceutical dosage forms viz. tablets, capsules and spiked human plasma.

Keywords: Azithromycin, Spectrophotometric, Redox reaction, Ammonium metavanadate, Iodine, Pharmaceutical analysis, Spiked human plasma.


Comparison of normal and reverse phase HPLC study of meloxicam

Husnul Maab*1

1. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hajvery University, Lahore, Pakistan


In this study, work was done for the development of new precise, accurate and sensitive analytical methods for the evaluation of Meloxicam by reverse and normal phase HPLC. After development of two separate methods they are compared to determine the more authentic method of the two. In reverse phase HPLC, C18 column was used and mobile phase was acetonitrile and methanol. Similarly chloroform was used as mobile phase with silicon column for normal phase HPLC. Separately equal volume of standard solution and sample solutions in HPLC vials were injected in auto sampler compartment of HPLC. Chromatogram peak areas of Meloxicam in standard and sample solutions of different concentrations were recorded and compared. These methods are later validated in different ways. The calibration curve proved to have linearity coefficient of 0.999 for reverse and 0.994 for normal phase HPLC. The precision was equivalent to 0.0003%for reverse and 0.003%for normal phase. The LOD and LOQ were 0.0003ug/ml and 0.001ug/ml respectively for reverse and 0.002 and 0.006ug/ml for normal phase. The system also showed accuracy over the range of 95 to 99% for reverse and 91 to 97% for normal phase. These methods showed accuracy, reproducibility and sensitivity and reverse phase proved to be better than normal phase but both can be used alternatively.

Key words: Meloxicam, acetonitrile, methanol, HPLC.