American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
December 2014 Issue 12

A Review of the Role of Melatonin in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Nicole R Brinn*1, Mona A Gandhi1

1. St. John Fisher College Wegmans School of Pharmacy Rochester NY, 14618.


Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a troubling disease experienced worldwide. The presentation of symptoms varies from patient to patient, and current prescription treatments can be inadequate in resolving symptoms. This article explores the available scientific literature supporting the use of melatonin in alleviating IBS symptoms.

Keywords: Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Current Treatments, Melatonin, Current Research


Novel Oral Drug Delivery System: Fast Dissolving Buccal Films

M. Sri rekha*1, SK. Shaheda Sultana1, K. Mahathi1, P. Parveen1, B. Prathima1, A. Seethadevi1

1. Dept. of pharmaceutics, Hindu college of pharmacy, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India.


Fast dissolving buccal films is a novel oral drug delivery system offers new possibilities for drug delivery by providing the advantages of oral delivery coupled with the enhanced safety and efficacy of a drug molecule, enhanced onset of action, improved bioavailability by avoiding first pass metabolism and enzymatic degradation in the GI tract and convenience to special patient categories such as pediatrics, geriatrics and bedridden patients who experience difficulties in swallowing the conventional oral dosage form. This delivery system consists of a thin oral film, which is simply placed on the patient’s tongue or any oral mucosal tissue (buccal/sublingual), instantly wet by saliva, rapidly hydrates and adhere onto site of application, where it disintegrates and dissolves to release the medication for oral mucosal absorption. More recently, fast dissolving films are gaining interest as an alternative to fast dissolving tablets to definitely eliminate patient’s fear of chocking and overcome patient impediments. Fast dissolving films are formulated using polymers, plasticizers, sweeteners, flavours and colours. Fast dissolving films were prepared by solvent casting, rolling, extrusion and solid dispersion method. The films evaluated for disintegration, dissolution, tensile strength, thickness, folding endurance and elastic modulus. This article overview the advancements in oral dosage forms, formulation considerations, method of preparation, evaluation, marketed products and it also suggests that this delivery system can be adopted by various pharmaceutical companies in future at large scale.

Keywords: Fast dissolving buccal film, polymer, plasticizer, solvent casting, bioavailability enhancement.



Management of Diarrhoeal Disease in Children

A. Avinash1, A. Anuradha1, V. Bhavan Kumar1, I.V.V.S.S Kartheek kumar1, R.T.Saravana Kumar2

1. Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D), R.M Medical College & Hospital Annamalai University, India 608002

2. Department of pediatrics, R.M Medical College & Hospital , Chidambaram, India.


Diarrhoea is the most common cause of death among children, mainly below 5 years of age. Increase in the frequency of defecation, fluidity of stools, and abnormal consistency of stools are the main indications of diarrhoea. It can be managed by rehydrating the children with ORT like ORS, continuing the feed, breast feeding up to particular age group. ORS helps mainly in reducing the frequency, fluidity, consistency of stools. Now-a-days conventional ORS was replaced with low osmolarity ORS, which has reduced the IV infusion and prolonged hospital stay. Zinc supplementation along with ORS reduces diarrhoeal deaths. Children should be fed with Nutritious food i:e foods containing high micronutrients like folic acid, zinc, vitamin A which helps in controlling and reducing diarrhoeal episodes. Factors like maintaining hygiene, supplying adequate pure and safe water, washing hands with soap, proper sanitation and immunization mainly for Rota virus and measles helps in preventing childhood diarrhoea. Prevention of stunting also plays a main role in preventing diarrhoeal episodes in children. Educating the mother about the disease helps in reducing episodes and preventing childhood deaths.

Keywords: Diarrhoea, ORS, zinc supplementation, vitamin A, stunting.


A Concised Review on Microspheres as Novel Drug Delivery System

M. Sankara Bhavani*1,G.Y.Srawan Kumar1

1. Department of Pharmaceutics, Hindu college of pharmacy, Guntur.


Microspheres are characteristically spherical and free flowing powders having particle size ranging from 1-1000 μm consisting of proteins or synthetic polymers. Microspheres are free flowing solid particle made up of biodegradable and non-biodegradable components Microspheric drug delivery system has wide range of application as it covers targeting the drug to particular site to imaging and helping the diagnostic features. Microspheres form an essential part of novel drug delivery systems. Microspheres reduce the dosing frequency and improve patient compliance by designing and evaluating Sustained Release microspheres for effective control of many chronic diseases. A well designed controlled drug delivery system can overcome some of the problems of conventional therapy and enhance the therapeutic efficacy of a given drug. There are various approaches in delivering a therapeutic substance to the target site in a sustained controlled release fashion. A Microsphere has its drug dispersed throughout the particle i.e. the internal structure is a matrix of drug and polymeric excipients. The objective of this article is to emphasize on the principles underlying the development and evaluation of microspheres as a controlled and targeted drug delivery system.

Keywords: Microspheres, Microcapsules, Cross linking agents, Polymeric matrix, Dispersion medium


Implementation and Establishment of Pharmaceutical Care service Center in Teaching Hospital and 150-Bedded Hospital- A Review

Alpesh Kumar Nagar*1, Anil Middha2, Bhimaray Krishnagoudar1, Mahadevamma L1

1. Research Scholar, Department of Pharmacy, Shri Jagdishprasad Jhabarmal Tibrewala University, Vidyanagari, Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan

2. Professor, Department of Pharmacy, OPJS University, Churu, Rajasthan.


Pharmaceutical care began in developed countries like United States and Canada, and has rapidly extended in many other countries. Although there are different trends in different part of the countries but they all have same objective to achieve definite outcome that improve a patient’s quality of life. With these objectives, a pharmaceutical care process has to be adopted and followed step-by-step, to identify potential medication-related problems. Along with, pharmacists have to work together with patients or caretaker and prescribers to accomplish a pharmaceutical care plan to obtain desire therapeutic goal and outcome of the diseases. The pharmaceutical care service with its dedication to support clinical service and research activities in the hospital will further improve the quality of drug therapy, provide better patient health care and utilization of drugs this will help reducing morbidity and mortality in the hospital. To success the pharmaceutical care process, various steps should be documented properly and required communication skill. The community pharmacists, hospital pharmacists and consultant pharmacists play an important role in implementation of pharmaceutical care programs. The government bodies should consider Pharmaceutical care service as a primary element of University, teaching hospital, 150-bedded hospital, graduates and postgraduate studies.

Keywords: Pharmaceutical Care, Medication-related Problems, Pharmacist.


Study on the Antibacterial Potential and Phytochemical Analysis of Thespesia populnea (L.) Sol. ex Corr. used in the Treatment of Diarrhoea and Dysentery.

Jethi Somani1, Khatoon Akhtari1, Nayak Sandeep Kumar1, Sahoo Sabuj2, Mishra Sagar Kumar 2, Satapathy Kunja Bihari1*.

1. P.G. Dept. of Botany, Utkal University, Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar-751004, Odisha, India.

2. University Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utkal University, Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar-751004, Odisha, India.


The current study was to investigate the hidden antibacterial potential of Thespesia populnea (L.) Sol. ex Corr. (Malvaceae) against some selected bacterial pathogenic strains responsible for diarrhoea and dysentery. The research work was done in the laboratory of P.G. Department of Botany, Utkal University, Odisha during the month of November 2012. Five bacterial strains were used in the study i.e. Escherichia coli (MTCC-614), Shigella flexneri (MTCC 9543), Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC-1430), Salmonella paratyphi (MTCC-3220) and Salmonella enterica typhi (MTCC-733). The study revealed that n-Hexane extract of Thespesia populnea exhibited the highest zone of inhibition against S. aureus at 6mg/ml and quite comparable with reference antibiotic Ciprofloxacin (0.5 mg/ml).The methanol extract was moderately effective against all above bacteria. From the phytochemical analysis it was found that the plant contained tannin, alkaloid, flavonoid and triterpenoid. The result indicated that the bark extracts of Thespesia populnea might be a source for a new drug against diarrhoea and dysentery which needs further investigation.

Keywords: Ciprofloxacin, in-vitro anti-bacterial activity, phytochemical analysis, Thespesia populnea.


Albinistic Refractive Challenges: a Case Study of People Living with Albinism Resident in Owerri Metropolis in Nigeria.

Uloneme G.C1*,Agu G.C2, Ekezie J.3

1. Anatomy and neurobiology department, Faculty of Medicine, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria.

2. Optometry Department, Faculty of Health Sciences Imo State University, Owerri

3. Prosthetics and Orthotics Department Federal University of Tech., Owerri


The study which focused on the refractive errors associated with albinism sourced for biometric refractive status and visual acuity data of eighty albino individuals resident in Owerri metropolis who visited the Imo State University Optometry department clinics and some private owned eye clinics in the city. Observations and investigations made in the eleven month long study revealed that sixty seven of the individuals were oculocutaneous; ten were ocular, and three were albinoids. The subjects who were aged between eleven and sixty years exhibited varying degrees of refractive errors. Results showed that myopia was most prevalent ‘(78.75%), followed by the far distantly placed hyperopia with 11.25% incidence. Astigmatism (which could be associated with myopia or Hyperopia), posed a challenge to only 10% of the study population. The lowest myope was found to be -0.75 OS, while the highest was -5.25 OS. Similarly, the highest hyperope in the study was +3.50 DS, while the lowest was +0.75 Ds. The study also revealed that forty three members of the study population who were myopes had varying degrees of astigmatism as opposed to only four hypropes with identified varying degrees of astigmatism.

Keywords: Albinism, Refractive errors, Visual status.



Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Studies on canthium Angustifolium Roxb Leaves

Nikhila Mary George P1, Bindu AR*1

1. University College of Pharmacy, Cheruvandoor, Kottayam- 686631, Phone: 0481-2537557, Kerala, India.


The present studies deals with the macroscopical, microscopical, pharmacognostical and phytochemical evaluation on the leaves of Canthium angustifolium Roxb Fam: Rubiaceae. The leaves of the plant is used as anti-inflammatory and the roots as anticephalgic. The Macroscopical evaluation of the leaf powder shows the presence of epidermal cells, xylem vessels, trichomes, starch grains and starch prisms. The total ash, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash content was found to be 5.736 %, 0.94 %, 5.31 % respectively

Keywords: Micro-scopy, Macroscopy, Canthium angustifolium Roxb, Fam: Rubiaceae


Evaluation of Setaria Italica Starch as Pharmaceutical Excipient

G. Usha rani1, K. Latha1, V. Neeharika1*

1. Faculty of Pharmacy, G. Pulla Reddy College of Pharmacy, Mehdipatnam, Hyderabad, India.


A study has been carried out to investigate the physicochemical, binding and disintegrating properties of millet starch obtained from Setaria italica (Family Gramineae). The isolated starch has been evaluated and characterized for various parameters like ash values, loss on drying, viscosity, amylose content and preformulation studies like sieve analysis, micrometry, flow properties, moisture content, compatability studies and compared with that of commercial available maize starch. The tablets were prepared by wet and dry granulation methods using drugs paracetamol and aspirin respectively with Setaria italica starch and maize starch as binder, disintegrant, binder and disintegrant and were evaluated. The results showed that Setaria italica starch employed in paracetamol tablets as binder(15%) and disintegrant(10%) and in aspirin tablets as binder(5%) and disintegrant(15%) concentrations produced hard and good quality tablets, comparable in friability, weight variation, disintegration and dissolution time to tablets produced with maize starch. The results indicate that Setaria italica starch can be employed as an alternative binder to maize starch in the formulation of paracetamol and aspirin tablets.

Keywords: Setaria italica starch, maize starch, binder, disintegrant and excipient.


Evaluating Physician’ Perceptions Regarding Generic Medicines in Riyadh

Bader F. Al- Shabrain1, Salah G .mojali1

1. Department of Health Administration College of Business Administration King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia


The aim of this study is to assess the physicians’ perceptions and practices on the use of generic medicines, also assess main influencers affecting the perception and the attitude of the physicians to enhance generic medicine in Riyadh region. Questionnaires are used to collect information from physicians from different settings in Riyadh region. Using a random sample, Data are analyzed by using descriptive analysis. Results 59.4% of physicians supported the uses of generic medications in all cases, 21.9% of them supported the generic medications in most cases and 18.8% of them don't support the generic medications. The causes that prevents the use of the generic medicines as reported by participants were Lack of knowledge among consumers about generic medicine, absence of awareness of consumers about the use of generic medicines and the participants reported the causes preventing the uses of the generic medicines were "less money will be used for research and development of new pharmaceuticals". The Majority of the participants talking with their patients about generic medicines by discussing the suitable use and side effects of prescription drugs. Also by using the lower cost of generic medicines. The majority supports alternative generic medicines.  There are critical factors that supported recommendation of generic medicine.

Keywords: Cost, Drugs, generic medicine


Vancomycin Induced Red Man Syndrome in Infant with Obstructive hydrocephalus 2o to Arnold Chain Malformation

Michelle Ting Lee Lee*1, Muhammad Zahid Iqbal1, Muhammad Shahid Iqbal1, Tan Su Ping1, Michella Tan Sheau Yee1, Heng Soo Teing1

1. Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, AIMST University Malaysia.


6 months old Indian Girl with underlying obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to Arnold-Chiari malformation and ruptured lumbosacral myelomeningocele, repaired on Day 2 of life (19/12/13) with problem of gross hydrocephalus block VP shunt associated with CONS, for removal of VP shunt and Omaya reservoir on Saturday with Day 26 post-revision of VP shunt. Child completed IV Cefazolin 280mg QID for 14days, CSF C&S x3 shows Staphyloccus Aureus coagulase negative, currently on IV Vancomycin 85mg 8hourly (15mg/kg/dose). Child developed facial puffiness and periorbital edema after last IV Vancomycin dose. No reaction after latest dose of IV Vancomycin.

Keywords: Red Man Syndrome, Obstructive Hydrocephalus, Arnold Chain Malformation, Paediatric


Establishment of Model of Visceral Pain due to Descending Colonal Distenstion and its Behavioural and Neuroendocrinial Assessmment before and after mGluR1 Antagonist (L-AP3) in sheep

Bogdan F. Kania1*, Danuta Wrońska2, Mikołaj A. Gralak3

1. University Veterinary Medicine JU-AU Center, Faculty of Animal Sciences and Biology, Department of Biotechnology, Hugon Kollataj University of Agriculture in, Cracow, Poland

2. Department of Animal Physiology and Endocrinology, Faculty of Animal Sciences and Biology, Hugon Kollataj University of Agriculture in Krakow, Cracow, Poland

3. Department of Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW, Warsaw, Poland.


The present study examined contribution of mGluRs to the development and maintenance of changes in behavioural and clinical symptoms, blood concentrations of cortisol and catecholamines during visceral pain produced by descsending colonal distension (CD). Experiments were carried out in fourth stages (each of six sheep). Every experiment was performed simultaneously on two unfed animals, which were placed in two individual metabolic cages at one week intervals. Blood was collected 30 min prior to the experiment, at 0 time, and 5, 10, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min after intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of the mGluR1 antagonist: L-2-Amino-3-phosphonopropionic acid (L-AP3, 0.2, 0.4 and/or 0.8 mg in toto), 10 min before, blocked the development of visceral pain symptoms and neuroendocrine changes in the plasma of sheep. This data demonstrated that the development and maintenance of the visceral pain symptoms of CD is dependent on activation of mGluR1 in central nervous system (CNS) and that these receptors play a crucial role in modulating acute jejunal (colic) experimental pain It can be concluded that the mGluR1 antagonists prevent behavioural, clinical and neuroendocrine symptoms of visceral pain. They can be possibly used in cases of acute visceral pain, especially, in combination with opioid agonists. Their simultaneous administration allows to minimise dose of opioids and slows down dynamics of the development of tolerance. This knowledge can be also useful in paliative medicine.

Keywords: L-AP3 (L-2-amino-3-phosphonopropionic acid), Descending Colonal Distension, Catecholamines, Cortisol, Sheep


Validated UV-Spectrophotometric Method for the Assay of Voriconazole in Pure and Formulations

B.V.Sreenivasulu1*, C.Rambabu2

1. Department of Biochemistry, Acharya Nagarjuna University,Guntur,AP,India.

2. Department of Chemistry, Acharya Nagarjuna University,Guntur,AP,India.


A simple, accurate, cost effective and reproducible UV-Spectrophotometric method has been developed and validated for the estimation of voriconazole in pure and dosage forms. The present UV-spectrophotometric method is based on measurement of absorption at maximum wavelength of 256nm. The Beer’s law of this method was obeyed in the concentration range of 5-30μg/ml with the linear equation of Y = 0.0218x - 0.0029 and correlation coefficient of 0.9996. The percentage recovery of voriconazole ranged from (99.96) in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

Keywords: Voriconazole, UV-Spectrophotometry, Dosage forms.


Solubility Enhancement of Pioglitazone Using Modified Karaya Gum Solid Dispersions

D.Prasanthi*1, K. Venkata Subramanyam1, Husnien Ali M.M1, P.K.Lakshmi.1

1. Department of Pharmaceutics, G.Pulla Reddy College of Pharmacy, Mehdipatnam, Hyderabad.


Pioglitazone, a novel anti-diabetic drug of thiazolidone dione group improves insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant patients. It belongs to BCS class-II, having low solubility and high permeability. Its low solubility in biological fluids, results in poor bioavailability after oral administration. To enhance its solubility, solid dispersions using modified karaya gum in different ratios were prepared by three different methods such as physical mixture, solvent evaporation and kneading method. The enhancement of solubility by natural carrier was compared with semi-synthetic carrier (β-cyclo-dextrins). The solid dispersions were evaluated for physico-chemical properties and dissolution studies in distilled water and 0.1N HCL. Among them, the solid dispersion prepared by solvent evaporation method showed maximum solubility (0.355±0.01mg/ml) when compared with β-cyclo-dextrins and pure drug.

Key words: solubility enhancement, solid dispersions, karaya gum, oral disintegrating tablet.


The Histological Effect of Aqueous Extract of Ginger on the Liver of Adult Wistar Rats.

Ezejindu DN1*, Udemezue OO1, Chukwujekwu IE1, Anyabolu AE1, Uchefuna RC2, Maduka SO2,1 Ezejindu CN3, Ndukwe GU4

1. Department of Anatomy, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria.

2. Department of Physiology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria.

3. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Abia State University, Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria.

4. Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Abia State University, Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria


The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of ginger on the liver of adult wistar rats. Twenty adult wistar rats weighing 190-215g were used for the study. They were divided into four groups (A, B, C & D) of five animals each. Group A served as the control and were orally administered 0.2ml of distilled water; the experimental groups B, C & D were orally administered 0.3ml, 0.6ml and 0.9ml of aqueous extract of ginger respectively for twenty one days. Twenty four hours after the last administration, the animals were weighed, sacrificed under the influence of chloroform vapour and dissected. The liver organ were harvested, weighed and trimmed down to a size of 3mm x 3mm and fixed in 10% formalin for histological studies. The final body weight result showed that groups C & D reduced significantly (P>0.05) when compared with the control while Group B final body weight increased significantly (P>0.05) relative to the control. The mean relative organ weight in groups C and D increased significantly (P>0.05) when compare with the control while group B had a similar weight with the control group A. Histological result showed that groups C and D tissues showed mild fibrosis around the central vein, congested sinusoids in a background of hepatocellular hypertrophy while group B showed normal cyto-architecture of the liver. From these findings, aqueous ginger extract administered in high doses may cause histopathological lesions to the liver.

Keywords: Ginger, Cyto-architecture, Liver weight, Body weight, Wistar rats.


Synthesis of Some γ-Benzopyrone Derivatives as Analgesic Agents

Sukhen Som1*, Jayaveera K. N2

1. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, M.M.U College of Pharmacy. K.K. Doddi, Ramanagara- 562159. Karnataka.

2. Department of Chemistry. Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Anantapur, Ananthapuramu- 515002. Andhra Pradesh.


Considering the potential to be a lead molecule and having a wide variety of pharmacological activities like anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antiviral etc., a series of bioactive γ-benzopyrone compounds were synthesized and analgesic activity was evaluated. The synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, 1H NMR and Mass spectral studies. Some of the compounds synthesized i.e. 4c, 4d, 4g and 4h showed appreciable analgesic activity.

Keywords: Acylation, condensation, amino derivatives.


Synthesis and Molecular Docking Studies of Novel 1-Substituted-2-((Methyl) Substituted)-1H-Benzo[D] Imidazole Derivatives

Lingala.Srikanth*1, Nerella. Raghunandan2.

1. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Prasad Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jangaon, Warangal.

2. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Balaji Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Narsampet, Warangal.


We report here the synthesis and preliminary evaluation of novel synthetic compounds in vivo and investigation of their anticancer activities by binding to cyclin dependent kinase 2. Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) are a family of proteins involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression and attractive targets in oncology. Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) is a member of a highly conserved family of protein kinases that regulate the eukaryotic cell cycle. Tumour-associated cell cycle defects are often mediated by alterations in cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity. According to current models, mammalian CDKs are essential for driving each cell cycle phase, so therapeutic strategies that block CDK activity are unlikely to selectively target tumour cells. Emerging evidence suggests that tumor cells may also require specific interphase CDKs for proliferation. Thus, selective CDK inhibition may provide therapeutic benefit against certain human neoplasias. The X-ray structures of the CDK2 (PDB ID: 1DI8) were retrieved from protein data bank based on good Resolution (1.90) and Ramachandran’s plot analysis. We have studied the influence of synthetic ligands on the binding of Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 with the help of docking studies by using Accelrys Discovery Studio2.5. The findings obtained in these studies indicate that these compounds could be a potent anti – leukemic agent.

Keywords: Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), synthetic compounds, Leukemia, Anticancer activity


Development and In-Vitro Evaluation of Bilayer Elementary Osmotic Tablet of Verapamil Hydrochoride

Sancheti Vikram Nirmal1*, ChordiyaMayur Ashok2, K. Senthilkumaran3

1. Department of Pharmaceutics, Padmavathi College of Pharmacy & Research Institute, Dharmapuri, Tamil nadu, India.

2. Department of Pharmaceutics, SNJBs SSDJ College of Pharmacy, Chandwad, Nashik, India.

3. Department of Pharmaceutics, K.K. College of Pharmacy, Chennai, India.


The purpose of this study was to develop a bilayer elementary osmotic tablet of Verapamil Hydrochloride. The drug candidate selected under the study is Verapamil hydrochloride, a calcium channel blocking agent used in the treatment of angina pectoris, hypertension and cardiac arrhythmia. Verapamil Hydrochloride has a short elimination half-life; this will bring down its dosing frequency to once a day and on the same time make a zero order release system. Tablets were prepared by using controlled release polymers. The formulations were evaluated for pharmacopoeial quality control tests and all the physical parameters evaluated were within the acceptable limits. Formulation B12 was proved to be good drug content, dimensional stability and drug release up to 24 h as compared to the other formulations. Stability studies were carried out on the optimized formulationB12 for period of 3 months at 400C/75 %RH. Finally it was observed that there was no change in physiochemical and physical properties as well as in drug release profile even after storage at 45 °C and 75 % for three months.

Keywords: Verapamil hydrochloride, dimensional stability, elementary osmotic tablet, stability study.


Drug Utilization Pattern among Geriatric Patients in A Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital

Venkateswaramurthy.N1*, Hafis Muhammed PM1, Sambathkumar.R1

1. J.K.K. Nattraja college of Pharmacy, Kumarapalayam, Tamilnadu-638183.


The elderly population is one of the most rapidly increasing populations in the world. Physiological alterations induced by the aging process make these individuals more susceptible to chronic diseases and, consequently, to increased drug utilization. The present study evaluated drug utilization pattern in geriatric medical out patients. A prospective, observational, cross sectional study was done among the geriatric patients attending the Outpatient Department of tertiary care Hospital. This study has shown the patterns of diseases prevalent in geriatric patients, drug use among them and also suggests that drugs to be avoided in elderly are among the most frequent inappropriately prescribed drugs. Prevalence of polypharmacy was high. This indicates that there is a need for multidisciplinary, multifaceted & multisector approach which may improve drug safety & adherence in the elderly. Drug utilization studies of this type may ultimately help in improving the quality of healthcare given to the geriatric patients.

Keywords: Drug Utilization, Geriatric patients, Polypharmacy.


Development and Evaluation of Aceclofenac Gel for Topical Application

Shetkar Madhav*1, Vaishali Potinas2, Millind Shete2

1. Maharashtra College of pharmacy, Nilanga (413521), Latur (413512) Maharashtra. India

2. Padm. Dr. D.Y. Patil Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Pimpri, Pune (411018). India.


Aceclofenac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, has been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. In order to decrease the gas triculcerogenic effects, aceclofenac gels have been developed. This study was conducted to develop agel formulation of aceclofenac using four types of gelling agents: carbopol, Triethanolamine, Ethanol (99.9 %) and Polyethylene glycol. Effect of penetration enhancer (propyleneglycol) on the release has been studied. The gels were evaluated for physical appearance, rheological behavior, drug release and stability. The drug release from all gelling agents through a rat skin for diffusion study was evaluated using Keshary-Chien diffusion cell. All gels showed acceptable physical properties concerning color, homogeneity, consistency, spreadability and pH value. Among all the gel formulations, carbopol showed superior drug release than followed by Ethanol (99.9 %) and Polyethylene glycol and Sodium hydroxide. Drug release decreased within crease in polymer concentration. Drug release was not linearly proportional with the concentration of penetration enhancer or co-solvents. Stability studies showed that the physical appearance, rheological properties, and drug release remained unchanged upon storage for three months at ambient conditions.

Keywords: Aceclofenac; topical gel; Carbopol 940, 971, 974; Polyethylene glycol 200, 400, 600; Triethanolamine; Isopropyl alcohol.


Formulation and Evaluation of Chitosan Microspheres for Intranasal Delivery of Zolmitriptan.

Digambar Mali*1, Sachin Bedse1, Tushar Bhambere1, Rekha Dighe1, Swati Talele1, GhanashyamChaudhari1

1. Sandip Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mahiravani, Nasik, Maharashtra, India.


Chitosan based microspheres containing were prepared by the emulsion cross linking method for nasal delivery of zolmitriptan. Nasal microspheres offer significant advantages over other type of drug delivery system. It modulates absorption characteristics of the drug by enhancing drug residence time in the nasal cavity and subsequently may increase bioavailability profile of administered drug. For the present study, Chitosan was selected as a mucoadhesive polymer. The microspheres were evaluated with respect to the particle size, production yield, encapsulation efficiency, shape and surface properties, drug and polymer interaction, mucoadhesive property, in vitro drug release. To optimize the microsphere formulation, 23factorial design was employed for investigating the effect of three factors, polymer concentration (chitosan), emulsifier concentration (Span 80) and cross-linking agent (gluteraldehyde) on response variable, which are encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release.

Keywords: Microspheres, Nasal Drug Delivery, Mucoadhesive


Assessment of Quality of Life in Asthma Patients of A Private Tertiary Care Corporate Hospital

B. Rajalingam*1, Nannapaneni Divya Bharathi1, Emmie Rose Ignatius1, Juliemol Juby1

1. Department of Pharmacy practice, College of Pharmacy, SRIPMS, Coimbatore


To assess the quality of life of patients with asthma using AQLQ(S) and the prescription pattern of asthma drugs for the patients getting admitted to hospital. Data were collected from the patients who are eligible and analyzed thoroughly. The study population consisting of 51 excluding 10 dropouts were predominantly male (60.7%), with major trigger was found to be dust (33.33 %), other predisposing factors like BMI, occupational status, social status were also studied. 51. 56% of study population belongs to  Adult (35-51 years) who were suffering and the average age was  51.56 ±15.95 years. Outcomes measured include PEF, FEV1% the clinical outcome and the humanistic outcome QoL were also measured at two different intervals using AQLQ(S) questionnaire. The questionnaire scores revealed that patients had a positive result on all the four domains which were statistically significant (p value of ≤ 0.05). The overall score had shown an increase from 3.79 ± 0.731 to 4.96 ± 1.07, which indicates the effectiveness of treatment. There was also an improvement in activity, emotion and environmental domains. The commonly prescribed anti asthmatic drug for subjects were Salmetrol in combination with Fluticasone propionate as inhalers. Reliever medications like Salbutamol and Levosalbutamol were also prescribed widely. There were 106 drug interactions including azithromycin along with moxifloxacin and levofloxacin along with the methyl prednisolone. The above results revealed that along with the pharmacotherapy it is always better to assess the treatment provided through assessing the QoL which may confirm the effectiveness of the treatment provided

Keywords: Asthma, QoL, AQLQ(S), ß2 agonists.


Frequency and Temperature dependent dielectric study of unsaturated linseed (Linum usitatissimum)oil

Harish C. Chaudhari*1

1. P.G. Department of Physics, J.E.S. College, Jalna-431 203 (India).


The dielectric constant (e’) and dielectric loss (e’’) of pure unsaturated Linseed (Linum usitatissimum) oil are measured at different temperatures and frequencies. X-band microwave bench operating in the frequency range 8.2-12.4 GHz is tuned to desired constant frequency. It is observed that the dielectric constant (e’) of linseed oil decreases with increase in temperature while the dielectric loss (e”) increases with increase in temperature. The dielectric constant (e’) of linseed oil decreases with increase in frequency, while dielectric loss (e”) increases with increase in frequency. The dielectric properties of oil samples are in good agreement with the earlier reported work.

Keywords: Microwave frequency, Dielectric constant, Dielectric loss, edible oils.


Potential Drug Interactions in Medical Prescriptions of Hospitalised Pediatric Patients

Siva S*1, Pradeep Battula1, Divya G2, Sridhar C3, Ranganayakulu D4

1. Pharm.D (PB) II Year, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Sri Padmavathi School of Pharmacy, Tiruchanoor, Tirupathi, Andhra Pradesh – 517503

2. Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Sri Padmavathi School of Pharmacy, Tiruchanoor, Tirupathi, Andhra Pradesh – 517503

3. Professor, Department of Analysis, Sri Padmavathi School of Pharmacy, Tiruchanoor, Tirupathi, Andhra Pradesh – 517503.

4. Principal, Department of Pharmacology, Sri Padmavathi School of Pharmacy, Tiruchanoor, Tirupathi, Andhra Pradesh – 517503.


Paediatric patients require special consideration from health professionals in terms of drug interactions, as they react to drugs differently from adults. To provide better treatment by screening potential drug interactions, to Minimise the unnecessary use of non prescription medications by providing counselling. A prospective observational study was conducted in paediatric patients of a government general hospital. The study included patients between 0 and 12 years old, containing three or more drugs excluding topical drugs in their prescriptions. The analysis of interactions in prescribed drugs was done using Micromedex program. Based on the interactions found an analysis was performed on their relevance to the patients current situation, and after that, the medical teams were informed using the criterion service form of the pharmaceutical unit of the hospital. A total of 150 patients were included and 450 drugs were analyzed in the study. A mean value of 3 drugs per patient was observed during the study. In total, 216 drug interactions were found, which corresponds to 2.08 interactions per prescription. Among them, Ampicillin and Gentamicin was found in 65 prescriptions. Mild drug interactions are more but these are potential interactions. The presence of drug interactions is major risk in hospitalized patients. This study highlights the need for screening prescriptions for potential drug-drug interactions by utilization of computer programs, the pharmacist presence in the multidisciplinary team to minimize the occurrence of possible adverse drug reactions.

Keywords: Potential Drug Interactions, Prospective Observational study, Micromedex


Performance Evaluation of Melt in Films of Rizatriptan Benzoate Using Different Film Forming Agents

Jobin Jose*1, Jayaprakash V1

1. Department of Pharmaceutics, NGSM Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Paneer, Deralakatte, Mangalore-18, Karnataka, India.


The present study was aimed to formulate and evaluate melt in mouth films of Rizatriptan benzoate using polymers pullulan, carragennan, xanthan gum and guar gum as the film forming agents. Rizatriptan benzoate is a 5 HT 1 receptor agonist of the triptan class of drugs, used in the management of migraine. Glycerol was incorporated as plasticizer to improve flexibility of films. Sorbitol as sweetener. Sodium starch glycolate used as a disintegrant. An attempt was made to prepare melt in mouth films of Rizatriptan benzoate with the purpose of developing a dosage form for quick onset of action, which will be beneficial in managing severe condition of migraine attack, aiding in enhancement of bioavailability and easy for administration. The films were prepared by solvent casting method. They were evaluated for physicochemical characterization such as uniformity of weight, thickness, folding endurance, uniformity of drug content, surface pH, percentage elongation and tensile strength all of which showed satisfactory results. The formulations were also subjected for in vitro disintegration and in vitro drug release. Melt in mouth films of Rizatriptan benzoate containing single polymer pullulan (FRA1) showed best results, in terms of tensile strength, percentage elongation, folding endurance (>300), in-vitro disintegration time, surface pH, thickness and percentage content uniformity. Satisfactory dissolution profile was obtained with maximum release of 96% of drug within 120 sec. The stability studies showed that there was no appreciable change in parameters when stored at three different temperatures.

Keywords: Melt in Mouth Films, Solvent Casting, Rizatriptan benzoate, Rapid disintegration.


Evaluation of Phytochemicals and Antimicrobial Activity of Litchi Chinensis Against the Various Disease Conditions

Swathi Putta1*, Eswar kumar Kilari1, Nagendra Sastry Yarla2

1. A.U. College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam.

2. Department of Biochemistry, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, India.


Phytochemical techniques played a significant role in searching raw materials and resources for pharmaceutical industry. Preliminary Phytochemical tests are helpful in finding and locating chemical constituents which are source of pharmacologically active principles.  were carried out by employing standard methods for conducting Qualitative phytochemical analysis for studying the presence of active compounds like alkaloids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, tannins flavonoids, volatile oils, reducing sugars and steroids. Aqueous pericarp extract of Litchi chinensis showed presence of phenolic compounds, except flavonoids, volatile oils alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, reducing sugars and steroids. The antimicrobial activity of aqueous pericarp extract of Litchi chinensis was studied by agar well diffusion method in vitro.   The effect of antimicrobial potential was examined Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholerae, Shigella dysenteriae, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The aqueous extract of the fruit pericarp has showed consistently significant inhibitory activity on different bacterial species tested and found the significance of antimicrobial activity of Litchi chinensis.

Keywords: Litchi chinensis, Phytochemicals, Antimicrobial activity