American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
August 2014 Issue 8

A Review on Anxiolytic and Antiepileptic Effects of Oleo –Gum -Resin of Ferula asafoetida

Prabhat Kumar Upadhyay*1,Omvir Singh2, Amit Yadav3, Raghvendra Sharma3

1. Institute of Pharmaceutical Research, GLA University, Mathura, (281406) U.P. India

2. J.K. Institute of Pharmacy and Management, Khurja, (203131), Bulandshahr,U.P. India

3. Aligarh College of Pharmacy, Aligarh, (202001) U.P. India


Asafoetida oleo-gum resin is obtained as an exudation by incising the rhizomes and roots of different Ferula species belongs to Family: Umbelliferae which are distributed from the Mediterranean region to Central Asia and contains about 40-64% resin (ester of asareninotannols, ferulic acid, pinene, vanillin and free ferulic acid), 25% endogeneous gum and 4-20 % volatile oil. Various activities of different Ferula species like antispasmodic and hypotensive activity, Molluscicidal activity, antioxidant activity, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity, antifungal activity, antibacterial, Influenza A (H1N1) Antiviral and cytotoxic activity  have been reported. The root acetone extact of Ferula gummosa is reported for its anticonvulsant property. Asafoetida is regularly consumed by the Indian population in food preparations so we decided to conduct our studies on regular available Asafoetida in India. In Ayurveda, asafoetida is considered to be one of the best spices for balancing the vata dosha. Asafoetida oleo-gum-resin is used traditionally for digestion, asthma, bronchitis, hysteria and as contraceptive/abortifacient and also has been claimed to be antiepileptic in classical Unani as well as ethnobotanical literature. So the present study was carried out to evaluate the anxiolytic and antiepileptic effect of Asafoetida.

Keywords: Asafoetida, Oleo-gum resin, Ferula species.


A Review: Immediate Release Dosage Forms and Legislative Guidelines

Neeraj kumar Pandey*, Ajay Tiwari1

1.Department of pharmaceutics, School of pharmaceutical sciences, Jaipur National University, Jaipur. 



Most popular drug delivery in current days was solid drug delivery system it was more suitable in term of manufacturing and testing.  In solid oral dosage forms different grade of filler, binder, disintegrating agent, sweetener, lubricant, glident are used, which play important role in tablet hardness, disintegration and dissolution. Filler, binder, and disintegrating agent, were found to influence tablet dissolution and disintegration, with the filler and disintegrating agent exerting the most significant influence. Slower dissolution was observed with increasing disintegration time when either the filler or the disintegrating agent was kept constant. Generic formulation cover app 90% of all over market. Lots of regulatory body was developed guidelines for industry to develop and testing prepared genric formulation. Generic formulation same in term of strength, shape, release rate, colour, etc. Lot of generic formulation in market for one molecule with same effect in term which show more significant in term of cost and availability.

Keywords: Solid Dosage forms, Immediate Release, Disintegration, Generic Formulation.


Dental Caries Vaccine - A Current Update

Sosa George1, Anitha Roy1*

1.Faculty of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, India


Dental caries is a bacterial infection that causes progressive demineralisation and destruction of the calcified structures of the teeth leading to cavitations. It is a multifactorial disease. Dental caries involves the formation of a biofilm around the tooth structure. Biofilm consists of cariogenic bacteria and the substrate upon which it acts. Cariogenic bacteria release acids during the process of fermentation of the substrate and these in turn cause demineralisation There are numerous intraoral microbes that play a key role in the development of dental caries or tooth decay. Streptococcus mutans are the most important group of cariogenic bacteria. The other bacteria playing key roles in caries development are Streptococcus sobrinus and Lactobacillus .The worldwide prevalence of dental caries is very high. The incidence of dental caries can be prevented to a certain extend by good oral hygiene habits, dietary modifications and fluoride application. Recent advances in immunology have raised a possibility for an effective vaccine against dental caries. Active immunisation, Passive immunisation and DNA vaccines for the prophylaxis of dental caries are under research. Active immunisation for dental caries utilizes the protective effect of salivary IgA antibodies to S.mutans or S.sobrinus.  The S.mutans components that are involved in adhesion, glucan formation or binding, or in cell wall synthesis are targeted by the vaccine. Passive immunisation may be achieved by administration of pre-formed immune-reactive serum or antibodies. Murine monoclonal antibodies, egg-yolk and bovine milk immunoglobulins generated against S.mutans has been used to control the dental caries in humans. Research studies have shown that DNA vaccines are capable of inducing the synthesis of IgA antibodies against S.mutans which would further prevent the adhesion of the bacteria to the tooth surface .This article reviews the current status of dental caries vaccination.

Keywords: dental caries, vaccination, S.mutans, biofilm


Optimization of Process Variables for the Preparation of Gellan Gum-Raloxifene Nanoparticles Using Statistical Design

Jaya Prakash. S1*, A. Santhiagu1, S. Jasemine 2

1. Bioprocess Laboratory, School of Biotechnology, National Institute of Technology, Calicut-673601, Kerala, India

2. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, National College of Pharmacy, Calicut-673602, Kerala, India


Raloxifene loaded gellan gum nanoparticles were prepared using emulsion cross linking method.  A central composite design was applied to optimize the concentration of gellan gum, di-octyl sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) and raloxifene to obtain an optimum formulation of gellan gum-raloxifene nanoparticles. The percentage of encapsulation, particle size and zetapotential were taken as response variables. A second order polynomial equation obtained from the regression analysis of the data was used to find the optimum level of the variables. The optimum concentrations were found to be gellan gum 1.31%, w/v, AOT 9.88%, w/v, raloxifene HCl (Drug) 1.08%, w/v. The optimized nanoparticle preparation showed 97% encapsulation, 256 nm particle size and zetapotential of -49 mV.

Keywords: Polymer Nanoparticles, Biopolymer, Gellan Gum, Sphingomonas Paucimobilis, Drug Delivery, Raloxifene HCl.


Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Some Novel 4-Thiazolidinone Derivatives

Akthar Sultan1*, RajendranSumathi2, Suban Syed Shafi2

1. Department of Chemistry, Islamiah College, Vaniyambadi-635 751, Tamilnadu, India

2. Department of Chemistry, Thiruvalluvar University, Seradu-632 115, Vellore District, Tamil Nadu, India


New series of (E)-methyl-2((E)-2-((Z)-(3-methyl-2,6-diarylpiperidin-4-ylidene)hydrazono)-4-oxothiazolidin-5-ylidene)acetate have been synthesized from 2,6-diaryl-3-methyl-piperidin-4-one as a starting material by microwave method.  Excellent yield was obtained in shorter reaction time as these reactions were carried out under microwave irradiation, it reduces the cost and time period of reaction.  The synthesized compounds exhibited moderate to strong antibacterial activity and antifungal activity against some selected bacteria and fungi. The structures of all the synthesized compounds were confirmed by chemical and spectral analysis such as IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectroscopy.

Keywords: 3-methyl-2,6-diaryl-piperidin-4-thiosemicarbazone, Dimethylacetelenedicarboxylate (DMAD), thiazolidin-4-one, microwave, Montmorillonite K-10, antibacterial activity.


Stress degradation studies on Sibutramine HCl and development of a validated stability-Indicating HPLC assay for bulk drug and Pharmaceutical dosage form

A Rajasekaran1*, R Dhatri1, J.V Kavitha1, C Sirisha1, S Lakshmi Narayanan1, V Suriya1

1.KMCH College of Pharmacy, Coimbatore, India


A stability indicating HPLC assay method was developed for the quantitative determination of Sibutramine HCl in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. It involved a 250 mm x 4.6 mm i.d 5 µm Phenomenex C-18 column. The mobile phase consisted of phosphate buffer with pH adjusted to 5 with ortho-phosphoric acid and acetonitrile in the ratio of (60:40, v/v) and was pumped at a constant flow rate of 1 mL/min. Measurements were made at a wavelength of 222 nm. The retention time of Sibutramine HCl was found to be 4.52 min. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 2.5-12.5 µg/mL (correlation coefficient (r2) = 0.9990). The limit of detection (𝑆/𝑁 = 3) was 12.12 ng/mL and the limit of quantitation (𝑆/𝑁 = 10) was found to be 36.46 ng/mL. Sibutramine was subjected to different stress conditions prescribed as per ICH guidelines such as acid hydrolysis, base hydrolysis, oxidation with hydrogen peroxide and photolysis. Degradation was not observed in all the tests performed. The evaluation of stress samples was calculated against a reference standard. The method developed was validated with respect to linearity, accuracy and precision.

Keywords:liquid chromatography; method validation; Stability indicating assay; Sibutramine 


Statistic in Mixed procedure for Clinical Trials QTRS Studies

Vasanth Kumar Kunitala1*, Abhilash Reddy Y2, Purnachander K3, ChandraShaker T4, Nujamuddin Junaid K5 , Jagruti D6.

1.PAREXEL International, India, building no:-20, mid space, raheja IT park, Hyderabad.


As an very important aspect of the clinical evaluation of a phase-I trails is to administration of new drug then check the QT/QTc interval to determine the risk of cardiac repolarization Prolongation based on International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) E14 guidelines. To justify the safety of the patient is checking by the Electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters including PR and RR intervals, QTc Duration, QRS duration, T wave morphology, presence of U waves, and Outlier assessment. Hypothesis is Administration of a single dose of drug does not prolong the QTc interval to a clinically significant degree. Primary assessment of the true mean difference (drug-placebo) of QTc change from baseline is less than 10msec. We can estimate this Primary assessment by using more flexible and advance method proc mixed procedure. To identify a dose of the preliminary market formulation (PMF) of new drug that can achieve a safe and well tolerated maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) at least 5X higher than the Cmax associated with the clinical dose of new drug that can be known and justified by statistical assessment using Proc Mixed Procedure. Based upon this procedure we can estimate very import statistics like sample calculation, LS-means, CI, F-stats, Probability, chi-square etc. which can be justify the safe and tolerated of new drug.

Keywords: - Proc mixed, QT/QTc interval, LS-means, Probability, Benefit–risk assessment


Restorative effect of Withania somnifera on histology of chlorpyrifos induced ovary of Swiss albino mice

Preety Sinha1, Anshupriya1*

1.Department of Zoology, A.N. College, Magadh University, Bodhgaya


Pesticides are widely used in agriculture for protection of crop from pests. Chlorpyrifos is a pesticide of organophosphate group which is used for both agricultural and non-agricultural purpose. Chlorpyrifos elicits a number of adverse effects including hepatic and reproductive dysfunctions. Withania somnifera, commonly known as Ashwagandha, possesses anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antistress, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, hemopoetic, and rejuvenating properties. It also appears to benefit the endocrine, cardiopulmonary, and central nervous systems. The study is designed to evaluate the bioremedial effect of Withania somnifera on ovary of chlorpyrifos exposed mice. The control group received distilled water as drinking water. The ‘treatment’ groups received Chlorpyrifos 6 mg/kg b.w daily by Gavage method for four and eight weeks followed by two and four weeks administration of alcoholic extract of root of Withania somnifera (50 mg/kg/b.w/day). Animals were sacrificed after the scheduled treatment. Chlorpyrifos administered group showed degenerated corpus leuteum. Ova were also degenerated with degeneration of granulosa cells of mature Graffian follicle. These changes finally may lead to infertility in female mice. Withania somnifera causes remarked restoration in ovarian follicle with restored germinal epithelium. Mature Graffian follicles were also observed. Thus the study indicates that Withania somnifera plays a vital role against chlorpyrifos toxicity on ovary and may restores normal fertility in female mice.

Keywords: Chlorpyrifos; Corpus leuteum; Graffian follicle; Withania somnifera; Gavage.


Insulin Plant (Costus pictus) Leaves: Pharmacognostical Standardization and Phytochemical Evaluation

Ajithadas Aruna1*, Ramraj Nandhini1, Venkatachalam Karthikeyan1, Pandi Bose1, Shanmuganathan Jegadeesh1, Kannappan Vijayalakshmi1

1.Professor, College of Pharmacy, Madurai Medical College, Madurai-20, Tamil Nadu, India.


To explore the micro morphology and physicochemical parameters of the leaves of Costus pictus D. Don (Costaceae). Macroscopy, microscopy, physicochemical analysis, preliminary phytochemical screening and other WHO recommended parameters for standardizations were performed. Costus pictus D. Don is a perennial herb and hardy vigorous growing ginger. The leaves are simple, spirally arranged, oblong-lanceolate with the length 10 to 25cm and width 2.5 to 6cm. The midrib consists of thin epidermal layer of small squarish cells on the adaxial side and fairly thick cylindrical epidermal cells on the abaxial side. The vascular system of the midrib includes an abaxial band of three vascular bundles and adaxial single median bundle. The adaxial epidermal layers of the lamina consist of thick, cylindrical cells. The abaxial epidermis is thin which consists of narrow tubular cells. The adaxial epidermis is apostomatic and abaxial side is stomatiferous. Calcium oxalate crystals of minute particle are aggregated into large masses in the mesophyll cells. Hexacytic type stomata are present. Vein islet numbers, vein termination numbers, stomatal number, stomatal index and other physico chemical tests like ash values, loss on drying and extractive values were determined. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of carbohydrates, triterpenoids, proteins, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, sterols and volatile oil. Powder microscopy of the leaf showed fragments of unicellular trichomes, hexacytic stomata, abaxial solitary bundle and calcium oxalate crystals. Microscopic analysis was informative and provides useful information in the botanical identification, standardization for purity & quality and immense value in authentication of the leaf.

Keywords:  Costus pictus, Insulin plant, Costaceae, Microscopical evaluation, Physico chemical analysis.


In Vivo and In Vitro Antimicrobial Efficacy of Crude Extracts From Clerodendrum Inerme Linn

Jasvinder Kaur Chahal*1, Renu Sarin2

1. Laboratory of bioactive compounds from Plant Tissue cultures, Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, 302004 India.


Herbal medicine represents one of the most important fields of traditional medicine all over the world. To promote the proper use of herbal medicine and to determine their potential as source for new drugs it is essential to study medicinal plants .The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of crude extract isolated from callus and different plant parts (leaf, stem and root) of a medicinal plant - Clerodendrum inerme. In vivo and in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of various extracts of Clerodendrum inerme was assessed by disc diffusion method against Gram positive bacteria - Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633) (B.s.), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) (S.a.) Gram negative bacteria - Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) (E.c.), Psedomaonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) (P.a.) and fungal strains Aspergillus niger (ATCC 16404) (A.n.), Aspergillus flavus (ATCC 9807) (A.f.), Candida albicans (ATCC 5027) (C.a.) and Candida glabrata (ATCC 66032) (C.g.)on the basis of inhibition zone and minimum inhibitory concentration.  The crude extract of selected plant parts and callus with methanol showed significant and more pronounced antimicrobial activity on the used microorganisms.

Keywords: Clerodendrum inerme, Antimicrobial activity, Inhibition zone, Minimum inhibitory concentration


U.S. News and world report and extramural funding rankings of United States pharmacy schools are predicted by their association with other types of professional schools

Inder Sehgal DVM*1

1. Marshall University School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, One John Marshall Drive, Huntington WV, 25755


American universities with pharmacy schools often have at least one other doctoral health professional school; however, the frequency of these professional school pairings and the specific types of other doctoral programs most often associated with pharmacy schools is not reported.  In addition, the potential influence of other doctoral schools on a pharmacy school’s academic ranking is also unknown.  This study determined if an institutional association with another type of medical school predicted either a U.S. pharmacy school’s US News and World Report rank or its total research funding ranking according to the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy.  Pharmacy schools were grouped by association with no other professional program vs. any other professional program or with 0, 1 or more than 1 other programs.  A relationship with ranking was modelled through fixed effects regression.  Next, pharmacy schools were compared by their association with specific types of other schools.  These analyses demonstrated that over one-half of universities with a pharmacy program also offer at least one other professional doctoral degree.  The most common is a medical school granting an MD degree, followed by dental and then veterinary schools.  Other schools, particularly the MD/DDS combination at the same university, predicted higher rankings for pharmacy schools.  This study indicates that an association with specific types of other doctoral health programs correlates with higher peer rankings and greater extramural funding.

Keywords: DDS, DO, DVM, MD, professional schools, ranking, funding 


Isolation of microorganisms from petroleum contaminated soil and its effect on degradation of polythene bag and plastic cup.

Nirmala. P*1, Harini. C1

1. Post Graduate and Research Department of Microbiology, Mohamed Sathak College of Arts and Science, Sholinganallur, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India.


Plastic waste accumulation is still an increasing problem all over the world. In this view, the biodegradation of polythene bag and plastic cup (both in native and in-vitro conditions) by various group of microorganisms isolated from petroleum contaminated soil is investigated. Five bacterial strains, five fungal strains and five Actinomycetes strains were isolated and identified biochemically.  In native conditions, at the end of 6th month, the degradation percentage of plastic was noted as 2.37±0.25% in petroleum contaminated soil and in normal soil as 1.70±0.20% and polythene samples got degraded up to 4.60±0.34% in petroleum contaminated soil and 3.33±0.20% in normal soil. In in-vitro condition, among the five bacterial organisms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed highest degradation percentage of both plastic cup (1.34%) and polythene (26.7%). Among the five fungal organisms, Aspergillus niger showed highest degradation percentage of both plastic cup (8.13%) and polythene (32.4%). Among the five Actinomycete sp, Actinomycete sp.1 showed highest degradation percentage of both plastic cup (11.3%) and polythene (34.9%). On comparing to all organisms, Actinomycete strain 1 showed highest degradation percentage. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed it as Streptomyces clavuligerus MTCC 7037. It may be concluded from this work that the petroleum contaminated soil sample is a good source of microbes capable of degrading plastic cup and polythene bag.

Keywords: Biodegradation, petroleum contaminated soil, polythene bag, plastic cup, gene sequencing.


Evaluation of Antitussive and Mast cell stabilizing Activity of Piper longum fruits extracts. A therapeutic approach for treatment of Asthma.

Sweta Srivastava*, G.P Choudhary

1.Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy Indore (M.P.), India


The mast cell and cough has long been associated with asthma, since it releases a variety of preformed and newly synthesized mediators that account for several features of asthma. Among the mediators, histamine is a well characterized and the most potent vaso-active mediator in acute broncho-constriction. The present study was carried out to evaluate In vitro and In vivo mast cell stabilizing and anti-tussive activity of ethyl acetate and methanolic extract of fruit of Piper lignum

Keywords: Asthama, Mast cell stabilizing, Antitussive, Piper longum


Cardio-vascular risk factors Senegalese military personnel: a looming threat

Ndiaye AA1,2, Seck SM2,3, Gueye B1, Tall AB1, Sow PG1, Gaye A1, Tal-Dia A4.

1. Community Health Department, University Alioune Diop of Bambey, Bambey City, Senegal.

2. Army Health Service, Camp Dial Diop Dakar, Senegal.

3. Faculty of Health Sciences, Gaston Berger University, Saint-Louis, Senegal.

4. Public Health Department, Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar, Senegal.


Chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCDs) are a public health issue. The epidemiological transition coexists with infectious diseases and international guidelines recommend that resources-limited countries make population surveys on CNCDs. In absence of national data this study aimed to assess CNCDs risk factors in the senegalese armed forces personnel. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among active military people aged 25 to 60 years. Participation was voluntary. A two stages stratified sampling method was used. The adjusted sample was 1513 individuals. All data were analyzed using R software. A five factors risk score was determined. We included 1125 participants in the study with a mean age of 39.7±9.1 years and sex ratio of 28.6. The prevalence of current smoking was 17.3 %.  Mean intake of fruits and vegetables was about 4. About 72% of participants had a moderate or intense activity at least three times a week. The prevalences of overweight and hypertension were 30.5% and 28.4% respectively. More than one third presented a high cardiovascular risk (at least three risk factors). The high prevalence of CNCDs risk factors, can predict a real threat in general population. A program for CNCDs prevention and screening is needed.

Keywords:  Senegalese, CVS,


Oviposition deterrent activity of acetone leaf extract of Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv. (bignoniaceae) against Chikungunya vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera :Culicidae)

Y.Pravin1,  M.Saranya1, T.Sivakumar 1, R.S. Mohanraj1& B.Dhanakkodi2

1.PG& Research Department of Zoology,Government Arts College , Coimbatore – 641018, Tamilnadu , India.

2.PG& Research Department of Zoology , Kongunadu Arts and Science College ,  Coimbatore Tamilnadu, India.


Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects and serve as the most important vectors for spreading human diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever and filariasis. The continued use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in resistance in mosquitoes. Synthetic insecticides are toxic and affect the environment by contaminating soil, water, and air then natural products may be an alternative to synthetic insecticides because they are effective, biodegradable, eco-friendly and safe to environment. Botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative bio control techniques in the future. The present study assessed the oviposition deterrent activity of acetone   leaf extract of Spathodea  campanulata against Aedes aegypti. For determining the influence of acetone leaf extract of S. campanulata on the ovipositional pattern of Ae. aegypti, the mosquitoes were subjected to choice – oviposition test and no – choice oviposition test.  The acetone   leaf extract of S.  campanulata were found to deter mosquitoes from oviposition. Oviposition Active Index and Oviposition Deterrent Index indicated a low preference of Aedes aegypti to leaf extract treated medium for egg laying. From the results, it can be conclude the acetone   leaf extract of S. campanulata was an outstanding potential for controlling the dengue vector mosquito Aedesaegypti.

Key words: S.campanulata, leaf extract, Ae.aegypti,  oviposition deterrent activity


Demographic and Clinical Profile of HIV Patients Accessing Care at Art Centre, Palakkad, Kerala

Krishnan Chithra R1*, Sajeeth CI1, Sivakumar R1, Sukumaran Lekha2

1. Department of Pharmacy Practice, Grace College of Pharmacy, Palakkad, Kerala, India

2 .ART Centre, District Hospital, Palakkad, Kerala, India- 678001.


The aim of the work is to assess the socio- demographic and clinical profile of HIV/AIDS patients at antiretroviral therapy (ART) centre. The study was carried out District hospital Palakkad, Kerala, India from January to July 2014. Two hundred and sixty one HIV positive patients coming to ART centre were included in the study. A preformed questionnaire was made which included socio-demographic characteristics like age, sex, literacy status, marital status, occupation and clinical presentation. The male (49.8%) and female (50.1%) patients were almost equal in number. More number of patients was between the age group of 28-37 years constituting about 40.2%. Majority of the population was married (63.6%) and of their family members were infected (48.2%). The literacy level of most of the patients were only up to secondary school(47.1%).The most predominant route of transmission was heterosexual (81.2%). Most of the affected population was from the reproductive age group i.e., 28- 47 years which increases the economic burden and affects the overall development of the family, community and country. The education status and lack awareness about the disease is also associated with the spread of HIV infection, so health education regarding the prevention of HIV can be given with the help of video, charts and posters. Timely initiation and continuous antiretroviral therapy helps to prolong the survival, prevent opportunistic infections and also prevent the transmission of disease.   

Keywords: HIV, AIDS, Antiretroviral Therapy, Opportunistic infection. 


Study of Air Pollution in Tehran Pharmaceutical Companies

Sona Kebriaeezadeh1*, Leyla Gheyrati Arani2, Mostafa Adelizadeh3

1.Department of Environmetal Managemen, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad university, Tehran, Iran

2.Faculty member of Agriculture Department, Payame noor University. IR of Iran

3.Department of Environmental Training, payamenoor university, Tehran, Iran


Modern technology advancement, increasing population and human need to this technology causes problems such as environmental pollution, especially air pollution. However, the critical situation of air pollution in Tehran is obvious and since the pharmaceutical industries considered as one of the main industries in Tehran, this study focuses on air pollution in two pharmaceutical industries during 2009 to 2013 in the eastern and western regions of Tehran and comparing with the global standard. The results indicate that Aburaihan pharmaceutical company shows more pollution than other one, which more likely is due to its proximity to Tehran’s major highways.

Keywords: Air pollution, pharmaceutical, Tehran.





Evaluation of Selected Medicinal Plants for Its Antilithiatic Potential under In Vitro

Shrinidhi T1, Kalpana S1, Nirmaladevi R1*

1.Avinashilingam institute for Home Science and Higher Studies for WomenCoimbatore-641043



Kidney stones are hard mineral and crystalline material formed within the kidney or urinary tract as a result of an imbalance between inhibitors and promoters of the kidney. Traditional medicinal practices have been known for centuries and are being exploited today for treatment without the risk of unwanted side effects. Extract of Tribulus terrestris (leaf), Aerva lanata (Flower), Scoparia dulcis(leaf),  and Tridax procumbens (leaf), with solvents of different polarity was used to study its inhibitory effect against crystal nucleation, growth and aggregation. Based on results of the analysis, it can be concluded that there was a concentration dependent action of the extracts against the crystals. The Aerva lanata aqueous extract was found to be most effective in inhibiting all the three critical stages of stone formation.

Keywords: nucleation, growth, aggregation, calcium oxalate stones, lithiasis.


Evaluating the role of Majoon Falasfa (Herbal Formulation) in health promotion of elderly: A randomized single-blind placebo controlled study

Basharat Rashid1*, Zarnigar2

1. P.G Scholar Dept.of Preventive and Social Medicine, National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore 91, India

2. Lecturer Dept.of Preventive and Social Medicine, National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore 91, India


The present study was conducted to evaluate the role of Majoon Falasfa in health promotion of elderly. A randomized single-blind placebo controlled trial was carried out on 30 patients at National Institute of Unani Medicine Bangalore. After obtaining ethical clearance, 30 eligible patients were randomly assigned into test and control groups. Test group was  administered with 10 gm  of Majoon  Falasfa  orally in the morning  and  same  dose  in the evening for two months while control  group was given placebo for the same period of time as that of test drug. Written informed consent was sought from every subject before inclusion in the study. Present study was completed within a period of one year. Response was measured by the assessment of Haemoglobin%, Physical activity score, Appetite score, Weight, Dementia score and Grip strength score. Patients were called for follow up on every 15th day. The results were statistically analyzed by applying Student’s ‘t’ test, two tailed dependent for intra group comparison and two tailed independent for intergroup comparison. Test group showed strongly significant increase in Weight (p<0.001), Appetite score (p<0.001), Grip strength score (p<0.001) and Dementia score (p<0.001). The study revealed that test drug appeared to be promising in health promotion of elderly and exhibited significant effects in improvement of weight, grip strength, appetite, memory and haemoglobin content hence can be safely recommended as a prophylactic measure in old age to counter the effects of ageing.

Keywords: Unani Medicine, Ageing, Elderly, Health Promotion, Majoon Falasfa


Preventive Effect of Irvingia Wombolu Pulp and Peel Extracts against High Fat-High Fructose Diet Induced Insulin Resistance in Rats

Ngondi JL*1 , Matsinkou SR1, Mbong Angie MA1 Takussi Nguemto Guy and Oben EJ1

1. The University of Yaounde I Faculty of Science department of Biochemistry


Production of free radicals is a normal metabolic process which if uncontrolled can result in metabolic disturbances such as hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance. The management of metabolic syndrome as well as  type II diabetes, therefore should take into account the existence of these conditions: free radical production, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Irvingia wombolu (IW) has been previously shown to have antioxidant and antihyperglycemic potential in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. This study was conducted to establish the preventive effect of the aqueous pulp extracts (APE) and hydroethanolic peel extracts (HPE) of IW on a high fat-high fructose (HFHF) diet induced insulin resistance in rats. Chemical analysis and antioxidant capacity of the extracts were determined. The animals were divided randomly into four groups of five rats each; the control group (C), those receiving only HFHF diet; rats receiving HFHF diet + APE and the group receiving HFHF + HPE. After an experimentation period that lasted six weeks, fasting blood glucose levels, triglycerides and total cholesterol concentrations, body and liver weight were measured. A protective effect of extracts during induction of insulin resistance by diet was notified by less increase of: fasting plasma glucose and triglycerides, post-prandial glycaemic peak.  Antioxidant status measured by FRAP antioxidant capacity; SOD, catalase, reduced glutathione and the level of reduced protein groups were also ameliorated. These results suggest that early APE and HPE administration to HFHF fed rats could prevent diabetes complications and modulate insulin resistance.

Keywords: High fat-high fructose diet, insulin resistance, Irvingia wombolu extracts


Modulatory effect of a polyphenolic rich extract of Dacryodes macrophylla berries on biomarkers of metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress in rats fed High Fat- High Sucrose diet

Ngondi JL*1, Mbong-Angie Mary Ann1, Ndongang Elvis Samou1, Nguimkeng Signing Boris1 and Oben EJ1

1.University of Yaounde I, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry


Bioactive compounds in fruits have been associated  with improvement of markers of metabolic syndrome as well as the prevention of oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effect of the extract of Dacryodes macrophylla against weight gain and oxidative stress in Wistar rats fed with a High Fat-High Sucrose (HFHS) diet. Changes in body weight, lipid profile, transaminases, creatinine, oxidative stress markers, catalase, nitric oxide, and total antioxidant capacity of plasma (TAC) were evaluated. To achieve this, the hydroethanolic of D. macrophylla fruits was prepared, by maceration in the water: ethanol(1:1v/v), for 48hrs. The obtained extract was used to evaluate its preventive effect against weight gain/obesity and oxidative stress in rats fed with HFHS diet for 45days. The HFHS diet was observed to increase body weight, plasma triglyceride (TG), Total Cholesterol (TC), Malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) levels and decrease thiol proteins and catalase activity. Treatment, especially with the 200mg/kg/bw dose of hydroethanolic extract of Dacryodes macrophylla (DMHE) reversed the effects of the diet on these parameters. From these results it can be concluded that the crude organic extract of Dacryodes macrophylla berries could have anti-obesity/overweight and antioxidant properties.Bioactive compounds in fruits have been associated  with improvement of markers of metabolic syndrome as well as the prevention of oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effect of the extract of Dacryodes macrophylla against weight gain and oxidative stress in Wistar rats fed with a High Fat-High Sucrose (HFHS) diet. Changes in body weight, lipid profile, transaminases, creatinine, oxidative stress markers, catalase, nitric oxide, and total antioxidant capacity of plasma (TAC) were evaluated. To achieve this, the hydroethanolic of D. macrophylla fruits was prepared, by maceration in the water: ethanol(1:1v/v), for 48hrs. The obtained extract was used to evaluate its preventive effect against weight gain/obesity and oxidative stress in rats fed with HFHS diet for 45days. The HFHS diet was observed to increase body weight, plasma triglyceride (TG), Total Cholesterol (TC), Malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) levels and decrease thiol proteins and catalase activity. Treatment, especially with the 200mg/kg/bw dose of hydroethanolic extract of Dacryodes macrophylla (DMHE) reversed the effects of the diet on these parameters. From these results it can be concluded that the crude organic extract of Dacryodes macrophylla berries could have anti-obesity/overweight and antioxidant properties.

Keywords: Weight gain/Obesity, Oxidative stress, Dacryodes macrophylla, High Fat-High Sucrose diet.


Determination of Heavy Metal Levels in Pakistani Branded Herbal Medicines Used for Cardiac and Liver Disorders by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

Riaz Ahmad1, Shuja Abbas Khan1, Farhat Abbas1, Nadia Bukhari1, Mirwase Khan2, ShaukatShujah1*

1. Department of Chemistry, Kohat University of Science and Technology Kohat 26000, KPK, Pakistan.

2. Ajmal Tibbia College Rawalpindi, Pakistan.


Heavy metals levels in Pakistani branded herbal medicines used for cardiac and liver disorder were investigated using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The collected samples were prepared for analysis by wet digestion method using nitric acid and per choleric acid. Five metals iron, lead, copper, manganese and zinc were analyzed. Iron has the highest concentration with a range of 91.25-10.00 ppm and Pb the lowest with values in the range 8.15-0.50 ppm in the herbal medicines used for heart disorder. Copper and zinc was found in the range of 18.35-1.40 ppm and Zn 49.20-8.65 ppm respectively whereas manganese was below detection limit. In herbal medicines used for liver disorder zinc has the highest concentration with a range of 70.20-15.60 ppm and Pb the lowest values in the range of 28.40-4.70 ppm. Iron and copper were found in the range of 59.20-11.90 ppm and 33.40-0.50 ppm respectively, where manganese was below detection limits. Results are comparable with the reported values in literature. The heavy metal levels were below toxic limits in all of the samples.

Keywords: Heavy metals, herbal medicines, atomic absorption spectroscopy


Clinical Evaluation of Coded Herbal Medicine Fertinorm for the Treatment Female Infertility

Halima Nazar1*, Khan Usmanghani1

1.Department of Surgery and Allied Sciences and Department of Basic Medical Sciences Faculty of Eastern Medicine, Hamdard University, Karachi, Pakistan


The aim and objective was to analyze the comparative efficacy between Fertinorm (herbal medicine) and Clomiphene citrate (allopathic medicine) for the treatment of female anovulatory infertility. A double blind, prospective, randomized two arm parallel groups clinical trial was conducted in WHO group II anovulatory female patients. The trial was executed on 200 subjects of ages between 20-37 years in four consecutive cycles. End results data analysis revealed no significant efficacy difference between two treatment arms as p > 0.005 and conception rate was same between these two groups however adverse effects were not seen in test group. In conclusion, on the basis of statistical analysis done by chi square test, Mann-Whitney U test and Kaplan-Meier method null hypothesis is accepted in female anovulatory infertility treatment (p>0.05) and strongly rejected with regard to safety as p<0.05. However, based on statistical analysis drawn by chi square test and Kendall's   tau-b test, significantly greater side effects were noted in group B as p = 0.001 and p = 0.028 respectively.

Keywords: Female anovulatory infertility, herbal alternate treatment, Clomiphene citrate therapy


The Histological Effects of Guava Leaf Aqueous Extract on The Liver of Adult Wistar Rats.

Udemezue O.O1, Ukoha Ukoha1, Ezejindu D N*1, Okafor J I2, Obilor AD1

1.Department of Anatomy, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria.

2.Department of Anatomy, College of Health Sciences,  Anambra State University, Uli, Anambra State, Nigeria.


Guava leaves are among the herbs thought to be safe because they are natural yet herbs may contain hundreds of components that causes ill effects directly or through interaction with orthodox drugs. This work is aimed at investigating the histological effects of guava leaf extract on the liver of adult wistar rats. Twenty wistar rats weighing between 160 to 300g were used for the study. They were divided into four groups of five animals each. Group A served as the control and received only distilled water. The experimental groups B, C and D. received oral doses of 250mg/kg, 500mg/kg and 750 mg/kg of guava leaf extract respectively for fourteen days. The animals were sacrificed using, chloroform vapor inhalation method and dissected. Liver tissues were removed, weighed, trimmed down and fixed in 10% formal saline for histological studies. There were no histological alterations in the liver cell of the experimental groups compared with the control.

Keywords: Guava, Liver weight, Body weight, Wistar rats


Physico-Chemical Properties and Determination of Heavy Metal Levels in Honey by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

Shuja Abbas Khan1, Riaz Ahmad1, NaeemUl Haq1, Rehan Naeem2, Farina Kanwal3, Shaukat Shujah1*

1. Department of Chemistry, Kohat University of Science and Technology Kohat 26000, KPK, Pakistan.

2. Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Kohat University of Science and Technology Kohat 26000, KPK, Pakistan.

3. Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR) Laboratories Complex, 25120 Peshawar, Pakistan.


Physicochemical properties and heavy metals in honey are of interest not only for quality control but also for determination environmental contamination. The present study was carried out to investigate the physicochemical properties and heavy metal levels in branded and non branded honey samples purchased from different areas of Peshawar, Islamabad, Mardan, Swabi and Charsadda. The main objective of this study was to compare the branded and non branded honey samples obtained from the different regions. The collected honey samples were analyzed for pH, ash content, moisture and electrical conductivity and  four heavy metals i.e. Iron, Lead, Copper & Zinc and levels of these metals were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The samples in this study were prepared by ashing method. The concentration ranges obtained for the metals analyzed in honey samples were as follows; Fe (1.26±0.05-7.21±2.01), Pb (0.07±0.06-0.53±0.03), Cu (0.02±0.01-0.17±0.01) and Zn (0.81±0.13-7.73±0.02) in mg/kg. The results shows that the geological strata may affect the physicochemical properties and the metal content in the honey samples.

Keywords: Honey samples, physicochemical properties, heavy metals, AAS.


Identification of Multidrug Resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Strain from Vellar Estuary Sediment, Tamil Nadu

Pingal Kumari*1, Arun Kumar1, S. Thirugnanasambandan Somasundaram1

1.Annamalai University, Parangipettai -608502, Tamilnadu, India


Stenotrophomonas maltophiliahas arisen as an important opportunistic pathogen, causing infections whose management is often difficult due to its intrinsic resistance to many antibiotics. Objective of the study was to identify accurately S. maltophilia isolates from environmental samples; the site selected being the Vellar estuarybased on the extent of pollutants being discharged and the land waterways being polluted by aquaculture discharge, wastes and effluents being dumped by hospital as well as households. The surficial sediment sample from the site was tested for species isolation and identification.The isolate was identified as S. maltophilia; the identity was confirmed by conventional biochemical analyses and molecular techniques. The strain’s antibiotic sensitivity/resistivity was checked by doing disk diffusion assay. The proposed approach enables isolation and identification of S. maltophilia from nonclinical environments. The drug resistant strains may associate with the indigenous microbial communities resulting in the rise of resistant varieties. The main risk for public health is that drug resistance genes are transferred from environmental bacteria to human pathogens. So awareness should be created among hospital staff and nearby communities.

Keywords: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia; Estuary; Multi Drug Resistant; Soil; Resistance