American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
April 2017 Issue 4

Nutricometics: Boosting A Global Market

Ahad J. Pathan1*, Anand P. Khadke1, Asma A. Pathan1

1.Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, YSPM’s YTC College of Pharmacy 415011, Maharashtra, India


The market of cosmetics is highly dynamic and new product launches happen at a fast rate. Over the last years, new concepts have also been rising, as in the case of cosmeceuticals and more recently, nutricosmetics. This review aimed to explore the concept of nutricosmetics and, through exploratory review; it becomes evident that they are presented as the latest trend in the beauty industry. Nutricosmetics can be defined as a result of the intersection of cosmeceuticals and nutraceuticals, characterized as oral supplementation of nutrients formulated and marketed specifically for beauty purposes.  A growing body of impressive clinical data has shown a positive association between nutraceuticals use and skin health. Along with advancing sophistication in manufacturing technologies and reliable science and expert endorsement, the nutricosmetics sector has great potential in winning over skeptical consumers. India will be a target market for Nutricosmetics in future and many pharmaceutical companies will come up with such products. Present review compiles general introduction, market overview, need, clinical evidence of nutricosmetics. It also includes nutricosmetics available in market and ingredients widely used in formulation of Nutricosmetics.

Keywords: Nutricosmetics, industry, market, consumers.


A Modified Drug Delivery System- Microspheres

Raghuveer Singh1, Rajiv Kumar1*, Parminder Nain2, Jaspreet Kaur2, Stalinjit Singh Sandhu3, Shamsher Singh1

1.Khalsa College of Pharmacy, Amritsar, Punjab

2.Maharishi Markandeshwar University, Mullana, Ambala, Harayana

3.Khalsa College of Pharmacy & Technology, Amritsar, Punjab


Microspheres are multiparticulate drug delivery systems which are prepared to obtain prolonged or controlled drug delivery to improve bioavailability, stability and to target the drug to specific site at a predetermined rate. They are made from polymeric waxy or other protective materials such as natural, semi synthetic and synthetic polymers. Microspheres are characteristically free flowing powders having particle size ranging from 1-1000 μm consisting of proteins or synthetic polymers. The range of techniques for the preparation of microspheres provides multiple options to control as drug administration aspects and to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of a given the drug. These delivery systems offer numerous advantages compared to conventional dosage forms, which include improved efficacy, reduced toxicity, improved patient compliance and convenience. Such systems often use macromolecules as carriers for the drugs. The present review highlights various types of microspheres, different methods of preparation, its applications and also various parameters to evaluate their efficiency. Microspheres are various types like Bioadhesive microspheres, Magnetic microspheres, Floating microspheres, Radioactive microspheres, Polymeric microspheres, Biodegradable polymeric microspheres, Synthetic polymeric microspheres and are prepared by methods like Spray Drying, Solvent Evaporation, Single emulsion technique, Double emulsion technique, Phase separation coacervation technique, Spray drying and spray congealing, Solvent extraction, Quassi emulsion solvent diffusion. Microspheres have wide range of applications because of controlled and sustained release.

Keywords: Microspheres, Bioadhesive, Controlled release, Patient Compliance


Assessment of Drug Utilization Pattern In Obstetric and Gynaecology Department of A Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital

Binu KM1*, Laxmi Marasini1, H. Doddayya11, SM Kodliwadmath2

1.Department of Pharmacy Practice, N.E.T Pharmacy College, Raichur, Karnataka

2. Department of OB & G Navodaya Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Raichur, Karnataka


Rational drug use in pregnancy requires the benefits and potential risk associated with the use of the drug. The adverse effect of drugs on the fetus varies temporarily with time. The study was conducted in the Navodaya Medical College Hospital & Research Center, Raichur for the period of six months. The case files of patients who were admitted in department of OBG were reviewed. The main objective of study was to assess the medicines prescribed to pregnant women during antenatal care, childbirth and lactation at a teaching care hospital. The total numbers of the patients enrolled in the study were 412 out of that 52.45% were in the range of 21-25 years, 71.31% patients were admitted third trimesters of pregnancy, 51.21% were multi- gravida. Common complaints of patients showed that anemia 23.8% and pregnancy induced hypertension (17.8%). Antibiotics (26.10%) were the most prescribed. In category A the maximum number of drugs prescribed in first trimester (41.83%).The study shows considerable medication use during pregnancy, child birth and lactation. Our study suggested that medicine use during pregnancy and lactation should be monitored regularly by analyzing prescription data.

Keywords: Childbirth, FDA, Lactation, Medication, Pregnancy.


Innovative and Sustainable Design for Improving the Hygiene in Pharmaceutical Liquid Packaging

Anurag Kulshreshtha*1, Raj Kumar2, Yuvraj Singh Negi3

1.Adjunct faculty (Packaging Technology), Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Saharanpur Campus, Saharanpur (U.P.). INDIA

2.Researcher- Packaging Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Saharanpur Campus, Saharanpur (U.P.). INDIA

3.HOD and Professor-in-Charge, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Saharanpur Campus, Saharanpur (U.P.). INDIA


Traditional packaging of pharmaceuticals liquid syrup is having lots of constraint of hygiene, accuracy of dose, safely from children and sustainability issues. In this paper, we proposed an innovative design [Indian ordinary Patent Design Application no: 289190] for administering in drug dosing system to facilitate ultimate consumer with greater hygiene, accuracy, easy to use and therapeutically effective amount of drug. This paper is also having emphasis on packaging waste sustainability via development of composite of PET or biodegradable packaging materials for liquid pharmaceuticals packaging system.

Keywords: Hygiene, Pharmaceuticals liquid packaging, Accuracy of dose, Unit dose packaging


Evaluation of HER2 In Breast Cancer Patients of Saudi Arabia using Conventional Immunohistochemistry and Modern Bright-Field Double IN Situ Hybridization

Shrooq Ali Ahmad Alzahrani1,*, Jamal Sabir Muhammad Sabir2, Adeel Gulzar Ahmed Chaudhary3, Abdelbaset Salem Buhmeida4

1.Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

2.Genomic and Biotechnology Division, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P O Box: 80216, Jeddah-21589, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

3.Department of Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, P O Box: 80216, Jeddah-21589, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

4.Center of Excellence In Genomic Medicine Research, King Abdulaziz University, P O Box: 80216, Jeddah-21589, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia


The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) gene/protein amplification/expression patterns in breast cancer (BC) of Saudi patients by using conventional immunohistochemistry (IHC) and bright-field double in situ hybridization (BDISH) techniques. King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 128 consent patients’ (aged 24 to 81 years) samples of breast cancer were subjected to screening for HER2/neu protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and later for amplification by bright-field dual in situ hybridization (BDISH) method. The clinicohistopathological data of all the patients were collected from the patients’ case records. The expression of the HER2/neu protein was evaluated, correlated to HER2/neu gene amplification status in BC and assessed for potential clinical value by correlation measures. IHC data determined that HER2/neu protein expressed in 18-20% (3+) of our BC patients in Saudi cohort. Some samples showed moderate membranous expression of HER2/neu protein and majority of samples showed either negative or 1+ expression. 73% of all the invasive ductal breast carcinoma tissue slides showed non-amplification HER2/neu gene status and 27% showed amplification HER2/neu gene status. Interestingly, there was a reasonable concordance rate (77 %) between IHC and BDISH data in the analyzed cohort. In conclusion, HER2/neu expression/amplification status in breast cancer of Saudi patients is within the range as compared to other ethnic groups. This HER2/neu (over-expression/amplification) status was concordant using either IHC or BDISH and significantly associated with disease aggressiveness and poor outcome.

Keywords: Amplification, BDISH, Breast Cancer, Expression, HER2/neu, IHC.


Protective Role of 5-Aminosalicylic acid and Vitamin-E against the Acrylamide Induced Neurotoxicity in Rats

Nisreen Abdullah Rajeh1*, Fatma Rais Bainmahfuz1, Sharifa Mofareh Alamri1, Dalia Mohamed Khan1, Abrar Fawzi Alhindi1

1.Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia


The aim of this study was to characterize the toxic effect of acrylamide (ACR) on sciatic nerve and brain of rats; and examine the protective effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and vitamin-E on sciatic nerve and cerebrum injury induced by acrylamide. This study was performed at King Fahad Medical Research Centre, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A total of 49 adult wistar rats (250 ± 20g) of 60 days age were divided into seven groups (control, acrylamide alone, acrylamide + 5-ASA, acrylamide + vitamin -E, acrylamide + 5-ASA + vitamin-E, vitamin-E alone, 5-ASA alone). After 5 days of acrylamide treatment, rats were observed for 24 hours and sacrificed. Histopathology for the brain and sciatic nerve were performed. Administration of acrylamide produced neuronal damage in rats. No significant changes were observed in lactate dehydrogenase serum level and rats’ body weight. Injection of acrylamide treated rats with vitamin-E and 5-ASA concomitantly showed strong improvement in general histology of neurons. However, good improvement in morphology of sciatic nerve was observed after injection of 5-ASA to ACR-treated rats. Compared to this improvement by 5-ASA, treatment of vitamin-E to ACR-treated rats also exhibited marked improvement in morphology of sciatic nerve (myelin  and vacuolar-like degeneration).  We concluded that ACR induced neuronal damage in nervous tissue of rats mainly by the induction of lipid peroxidation. 5-ASA and vitamin E as powerful antioxidants, played a protective role against acrylamide neurotoxicity. On histological level, Vitamin-E showed more protection in comparison to 5-ASA.

Keywords: Acrylamide, 5-Aminosalicylic acid, Antioxidant, Neurotoxicity, Vitamin-E.