American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
September 2016 Issue 9

Pregnancy and Skin: A Review

Atul Mohankar1*, Minakshi Mandhare

1. Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, Chhattishgarh Institute of Medical Sciences (CIMS), Bilaspur, Chhattishgarh , 495001.

2. Dept Of Obstretics and Gynaecolgy, Apollo Hospitals Bilaspur, Chhattishgarh , 495006.


During Pregnancy, alterations in the appearance of the skin are not uncommon. The skin changes in pregnancy can be either physiological, changes in pre-existing skin diseases or development of new pregnancy specific dermatoses. Pregnancy specific skin dermatoses include an ill-defined heterogeneous group of pruritic skin eruptions which are seen only in pregnancy. These include Prurigo of pregnancy, Polymorphic eruption of pregnancy, Pemphigoid gestationis and Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Prurigo of pregnancy is the most common of these disorders. Most skin eruptions resolve postpartum and require symptomatic treatment only. Antepartum surveillance is recommended for patients with pemphigoid gestationis and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy as they carry risk to fetus. This Review article deals with the classification, clinical features and treatment of the specific dermatoses of pregnancy.

Keywords: Dermatoses; pregnancy; skin.


The “Tuberculosis” In Otorhinolarygology as extrapulmonary sites

Shamendra Kumar Meena1*, Anju Gupta1, Deepti Ramchandra Meena1, Ramraj meena1

1.Medical Officer (Clinical Tutor) E.N.T. Dept. G.M.C. Kota Rajasthan 324001


TB is a disease with a very long history and one which has sprung up again and been affecting various countries. Among the factors responsible for this resurgence, HIV should be mentioned. HIV has been regarded as responsible for changing the characteristics of TB, such as its epidemiology, natural history, clinical presentation, and resistance to drugs. The manifestations of TB in cervico-cephalic regions are frequent and have aroused interest. TB may present in Ear, Nose, Larynx, Pharynx Also in neck any part of the body.

Keywords: Tuberculosis, HIV


Immunomodulating Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Leptadaenia Reticulata

Aditi Dubey1*, Neelgagan Singh1, D.K. Saraf2

1.Department of Zoology, A. N. D. College, University Of Delhi India

2.Department of Zoology, Dr H. S. Gour Vishwavidyalya Sagar (M.P) India


The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of Leptadaenia reticulata for immunomodulating activity. The ethanolic extract of plant of Leptadaenia reticulata holds potential as a protective agent against cytotoxic drugs. The extracts when studied on humoral and cell mediated immunity in normal, as well as cyclophosphamide induced immunosuppressed rats. It produced both increase for some parameters and decrease response in some other parameters. The present investigation established pharmacological evidence to support the folklore claim that it is an immunomodulating drug plant.

Keywords: Leptadaenia reticulata, Immunostimulant, Cyclophoshamide, Carbon clearance test, Delayed type hypersensitivity, Antibody titre


Initiation and Maintenance of Diseases and Diagnostics Database for Bangladeshi Individuals

Md. Elias-Al-Mamun1*, Tushar Saha1 , Muhammad Rashedul Islam1

1. Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh


The pharmaceutical sector of Bangladesh is uprising day by day and the quality of drugs is touching an expected level, thereby is recognized by US FDA (United States Food and Drug Administration) and UK's MHRA (United Kingdom's Medicines and Health products Regulatory Agency).  However, the health sector of Bangladesh has not yet well developed due to antibiotic resistance, adverse drug reactions and improper management of drugs. On the contrary, Bangladesh is developing enormously in the information and communication technology sectors. So, it is very much possible to introduce a network based health care system by which the health sector of Bangladesh can be improved. Information and communication technology can be used to overcome those healthcare drawbacks by maintaining a proposed Diseases and Diagnostics Database system (DDD). Thus, we conducted a survey based on the necessity of DDD among Health professionals (MBBS doctors, Students, Intern doctors, Emergency medical officers), Pharmaceutical company executives and Faculties of Pharmacy, University of Dhaka. According to our survey, 100% agree with the poor condition of our health sector and the emergency of DDD.  So, proper initiation and maintenance of DDD may be a strong weapon to develop health sectors relating to patients compliance and pharmaceutical development which will foster the economy of our country.

Keywords: Diseases and diagnostics database (DDD), adverse drug reactions (ADR), antibiotic resistance and information & communication.


Toxic Effect of Microcystis Extract on Haemolymph Protein Profile In Cockroach Periplaneta Americana

Neelgagan Singh1*, Aditi Dubey1, and Uma Shankar Gupta2

1.Department of Zoology, A. N. D. College, University Of Delhi, India

2.Department of Zoology, Dr H. S. Gour Vishwavidyalya Sagar (M.P.), India


The present study has been made to study the effects of microcystin on the physiology of cockroach. Toxic effects of microcystin have been reported in rat, fish etc. this toxin effects the liver thus the metabolism of the organism is much affected. In cockroach, intracoelomic treatment of Microcystis extract showed some fluctuations in concentration of protein fractions especially in fractions 3, 4, 5 and 6. A common decrease in protein concentration is observed in 4, 5 and 6 but fraction 3 showed an increase in concentration. Fractions 7 and 8 failed to separate both in male and female cockroach. Reduced protein concentration for fraction 4 and 6 observed in male cockroach. The concentration of protein in the haemolymph generally decreases due to the microcystin treatment. Similar observation was recorded for the insects in spectrophotometric analysis of protein concentration.

Keyword: Microcystin, cockroach, haemolymph, protein, toxin



Helicobacter pylori cagA Genotyping by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Isolated from Patients with Gastro-Duodenal SymptomsHelicobacter pylori cagA Genotyping by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Isolated from Patients with Gastro-Duodenal Symptoms

Saleh Mohammad Shahedul Islam1*, Chandan Kumar Roy2, Abu Naser Ibne Sattar3, Ahmed Abu Saleh3, Humayun Sattar3

1.Lieutenant Colonel, Medicine Specialist & Gastroenterologist, Combined Military Hospital, Bogra, Bangladesh. Phone: +8801715287756.

2.Senior Lecturer, Microbiology Unit, Lab Based Department, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kuala Lumpur Royal College of Medicine Perak, Ipoh 30450, Perak, Malaysia

3.Department of Microbiology, Bangabondhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Shahbag,Dhaka-1000.Bangladesh.


Helicobacter pylori colonize the gastric mucosa, related with different gastro-duodenal diseases and the clinical outcome linked to these diseases has been associated with pathogen virulence genes and their polymorphism. The aim of the study is to detect Helicobacter pyloricagA gene and to investigate the distribution of their genotypes in the patients with gastroduodenal symptoms. Total 51 patients were enrolled in the study on the basis of clinical and endoscopic findings. Written informed consent was obtained from each patient prior to the endoscopic procedure and collection of gastric biopsy specimens. Histopathological examination was done for detection of H. pylori in tissue specimens. The H. pylori histopathology positive specimens are considered as Helicobacter pylori positive and PCR were done for cagA detection and the positive specimens further tested by RFLP to detect the cagA polymorphism. Among the histopathology positive H. pylori cases 90% were positive for cagA gene by PCR and almost 100% cagA were β genotype by PCR-RFLP. No α genotype of cagA was found. Mean age of the patients were 46.9 ± 14.2 years starting from 22to 76 years. Out of 51 patients 39(76.47%) were male and 23.52% were female. According to the age group distribution, 22 (43.13%) were in 41-60 years age group and 39.21%and 17.64% were in 20-40 years and 61-80 years age group respectively. Among the 09 cagA positive cases 55.6% are in the 41-60 years age group and most (66.6%) of the cagA positive cases found in male patients. Significant percentage (33.3 and 50) of cagA was found among the patients suffering from melena and hematemesis. The result of the present study by PCR-RFLP pattern analysis revealed only β genotype for H. pylori cagA positive strains, which were typical genotypes in strains from Western countries. Therefore, it seems that the evaluation of genetic diversity in H. pylori-associated cagA gene can be attributable to the colonial relationship and epidemiology of H. pylori in defined population.

Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, cagA, polymorphism & RFLP


A Clinical Study to Evaluate the Effect of An Ayurvedic Formulation in the Management of Pittaja Mutrakrchra W.S.R To Urinary Tract Infection

Phull Rekha1*,Mehra B.L3,Phull Gaurav2

1.Kayachikitsa/ Lecturer Kayachikitsa/ MLRA College Charkhi Dadri, Haryana, India

2.Phull Gaurav, M.S(AY.) SHALYA TANTRA/ Clinical Registrar Sangyaharan/ CBPACS New Delhi, India

3.Professor, kaya chikitsa department, RGGPGAC, Paprola.H.P  


Mutrakrchra is one of the commonest ailments which causes significant morbidity in females in developing countries.. Approximately 40-50% of adult females were reported to have UTI’s/Mutrakrchra. Almost every classical texts mentioned this disease in one or other way. Therefore, a clinical study was carried out as to explore Mutrakrchra from literary as well as management point of view, keeping in mind the scientific knowledge. Inspite of voluminous work done on Mutrakrchra and its management in Ayurveda, it still remains a common serious problem related to fatal complications. Therefore, in the present research work ,an indigenous and cost effective drug “Eladi  churna with Shatavryadi kwatha” was evaluated for its efficacy on scientific grounds to check or reduce the incidence of Pittaja Mutrakrchra. To evaluate the effect of “Eladi  churna with Shatavryadi kwatha” in the management of Pittaja Mutrakrchra. It is a double blind randomized study which was carried out by registering 34 patients of Pittaja Mutrakrchra. Eladi churna was given in a dose of 5gm TID with Shatavaryadi Kwatha  in a dose of  50ml BID for 21 days. It was seen that though the trial was of 21 days but patients were relieved in 7-15 days interval symptomatically and the repeat urine tests were also sterile after 15 days. Therefore, it can be concluded that both these drugs are quite effective in Pittaja Mutrakrchra patients. However, the drug can be made more palatable by converting churna form into vati.

Keywords-Pittaja Mutrakrchra , Eladi Churan, Shatavryadi Kwatha, UTI.


Young obese are susceptible to decline in bilateral visual acuity.

Syed NajamuddinFarooq1*, Muhammad Amir Mustufa1, Ammad Ahmed2, Muhammad Irfan Safi Rizvi1, Abdulhalim Serafi1

1. Department of Physiology, Faculty of medicine, Umm al Qura University, Makkah, KSA.

2.Department of hematology and Immunology, Faculty of medicine, Umm al Qura University,  Makkah, KSA


Obesity is a growing health issue of all age groups throughout the world that leads to increasing prevalence of different diseases including eye problems. However, there is scarcity of literature available showing association of obesity and refractive errors like myopia especially among young Saudi males. Therefore we design this study to investigate the incidence as well as relation of myopia with obesity in young male Saudi medical students. Around 104 young Saudi medical students were included in the study. Height and weight were measured using standard procedure; Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage were calculated. Visual Acuity (VA) for both right (Rt) and left (Lt) eyes were recorded separately using E letter chart. Results of the study showed 56% of the participants were overweight or obese with BMI more than 25. Obese group demonstrated significantly higher values of weight, BMI and body fat percentage. Mean values of visual acuity obtained from non-obese and obese subjects were significantly different for Rt. eye(1.29+0.06 and 1.0+0.07) and Lt. eye (1.23+0.06 and 0.98+0.07) respectively. Myopia is common among medical students and myopics are taller, heavier and have higher BMI.

Keywords: Visual Acuity, Obesity, BMI, E-Chart


Phytochemical, Anti-microbial analysis and structural elucidation of Urena Lobata root extracts.

Aningo, G.N*1, Ajiwe, V.I.E1, Alaekwe, I.O2, OJI, N,3 and Umeobika, U. C1

1. Department of pure and industrial chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka P.M.B. 5025 Awka. Anambra state Nigeria

2.Department of Chemistry, Federal University Gusau. P.M.B 1001 Gusau, Zamfara State Nigeria

3. Department of Chemistry, Federal University Ndufu – Alike IKWO. P.M.B 1010 Abakaliki Ebonyi State Nigeria


The Harbone method of extraction was used in the extraction of Urena Lobata roots. The crude extracts were separated using TLC. Result of the phytochemical screening showed the presence of saponins, cardiac glycosides, and tannins. The pure chloroform extract of the roots of Urena lobata and that of ethyl acetate were analyzed using spectroscopic instruments; Fourier Transform Infra-red(FTIR), UV-Visible, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), and GC-MS. Combination of the results from these analysis suggested the compounds Phathalic acid, dibutylglycolate (C18H24O6) for the  chloroform extract and  1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 2-methylpropyl, 3- methylbutyl ester (C17H24O4 ) for ethyl acetate extract as the active compounds. These compounds are phthalates which are known to have antimicrobial properties. Antimicrobial analysis carried out on the extracts and the chloroform extract showed very high sensitivity to the test organisms: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Candida albican; S. aureus, E. coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Streptococcus species, Bacillus species, Pseudomonas pyocyania and Klebsiella aerogenes.

Keywords: Phytochemical, Anti microbial, urena lobata, phathalates


Eco-friendly preparation of schiff bases by natural acid catalysts.

AR.Malviya1*, Z. M. Gadhawala1

1.Department of Chemistry, The H.N.S.B. Ltd. Science College Himmatnagar Gujarat, 383001


Recently it has been confirmed in a number of chemical transformation & organic synthesis that the use of green chemistry techniques are very useful to decrease reaction time & chemical waste. To illustrate these advantages in preparation of organic compounds, a variety of environmentally nicely protocols have been considered. The most important thing of present research work is utilization of greener approach to preparation of Schiff bases with the utilization of fruit juices like natural acid catalysts. The produced compounds were resolute by T.L.C., melting points & IR analysis. We find this method of synthesis were offer high % of yield & suitable, prove highest efficiency held with no creation of effluence in small time, low cost, easy to run & safer to analyst.

Keywords: Chemical transformation, Chemical waste, Greener approach


Hypothesis on Novel Bioflavonoid Formulations towards Treating Diabetes Mellitus

Nandhakumar L1*, Mohan S2

1.Department of Pharmacy, Shri Jagadish Prasad Jhabharmal Tibrewala University, Rajasthan. 333001 India.

2.Faculty of Pharmacy, Karpagam College of Pharmacy, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu 641032 India.


Bioflavonoids are the principle component of most of the plant species and are found be abundant. All most all of these flavonoidal components have the potential to control the blood glucose level. There has been limited research works performed on to these flavonoids, because of its low solubility and bioavailability, its utilization is rarely pronounced. However, exploring the areas of utilization of these flavonoids, by enhancing their solubility and bioavailability by suitable method like nanonizing the flavonoids using biodegradable polymers as formulation have the great advantage in treating diabetes. By the way the fullest potential of flavonoids would be explored in treating diabetes safely. We suggest that implementing the nanotechnology to convert the natural bioflavonoids having antidiabetic potential like naringin, hesperidin, rutin, silibinin etc., into nanoparticles using biodegradable polymers would increase the activity of bioflavonoids. It may give the chance of utilizing such nanoformulation clinically to treat and alleviate the problems associated diabetes effectively.

Keywords: Bioflavonoids, biofavonoid formulation, nanonizing, biodegradable polymers, solubility


Evaluating Some Clinical And Laboratory Parameters for the Identification of Other Health Related Problems In Cervical Cancer Patients In Maiduguri-City, Nigeria

John David Ohieku1*, Oluchukwu Theresa Anagboso1

1.Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Administration, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B. 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria


The cervical cancer patients may face several other health related conditions that may complicate their disease conditions or affect the outcome of management modalities. The objectives were to assess values in laboratory parameters during care so as to identify other related emerging problems that have serious clinical implications, and to assess disease specific risk factors. A total of 66 cervical cancer patients were assessed between year 2010 and 2015 through cross sectional observation study. Demographic information were retrieved from the case note while laboratory parameters like electrolyte levels, albumin, total protein, uric acid, creatinine, urea levels, white blood cell and packed cell volume were evaluated. The mean age of patients was 51.3 ± 13.2 years. Cervical cancer peaked at sixth decades and family histories were positive in 1.5% cases while 90.9% were married. The mean serum ion are Na+ (136 ± 5.8 mEq/L), K+ (3.7 ± 0.94 mEq/L), Cl- (98.8 ± 7.7 mEq/L), and HCO3- (19.7 ± 2.1 mEq/L). The anion gap ranges from 1.2-49.4 mEq/L. The mean creatinine (237.8µmol/L), urea (7.7 mmol/L) and uric acid (631.7 µmol/L) were higher than normal range. The packed cell volumes during treatment of 85.4% patients were below normal but significantly improved (P< 0.05) from baseline. Sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate levels were below normal in 22(39.3%), 14(25.0%), 20(35.1%) and 44(77.2%) respectively. The anion gaps were high in 35 (62.5%) patients. The kidney markers like creatinine and urea were elevated in 24(51.1%) and 20(36.4%) cases respectively. Serum albumin levels were low in 19(59.4%) patients. Cervical cancer patients are prone to electrolyte abnormalities, anaemia, low albumin, and kidney damage which may have serious implication or potential for poor prognostic outcome. These findings underscore the need to always monitor the chemotherapy and other treatment procedures adopted for cervical cancer patients.

Keywords: Cervical Cancer, hyponitramia, packed cell volume, albumin, electrolyte imbalance