American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
March 2014 Issue 3

Global burden of Tuberculosis

Tauseef Ahmad

1.Department of Microbiology, Hazara University Mansehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

After the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) from a single infectious agent the Tuberculosis (TB) is a second leading cause of death 1. The highest absolute number of TB cases occurred in Twenty-two high-burden countries (HBCs) account for 81% of all TB around the world. Currently about one-third population of the world are carriers of TB. In each year an average 9 million people are infected with active TB disease. World Health Organization (WHO) declares the TB in 1993, a global health emergency by. In 1996, approximately 3 million persons die from the TB 2. In 2008, 9.2 million new cases and 1.7 million deaths from TB (of which 0.7 million cases with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and 0.2 million deaths were in HIV positive patient) were recorded 3. In 2008, worldwide approximately 440,000 cases of MDR-TB were reported 4. While, in 2009, 9.4 million new cases of TB along with 1.7 million deaths were occurred. In 2010 an estimated 12 million people were living with active TB.


Industries Influence on Intellectual Property Negotiations: A Review

Sachin S. Salunkhe*1, Sachin S. Mali2, Neela M. Bhatia1, Koustubh M. Thorawade2, Ashok A. Hajare2, Manish S. Bhatia3

1.Department of Quality Assurance Technique, Bharati Vidyapeeth College of Pharmacy, Near Chitranagari, Kolhapur, 416 013, Maharashtra, India.

2.Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Bharati Vidyapeeth College of Pharmacy, Near Chitranagari, Kolhapur, 416 013, Maharashtra, India.

3.Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Bharati Vidyapeeth College of Pharmacy, Near Chitranagari, Kolhapur, 416 013, Maharashtra, India.


The commercial importance of IPRs has grown considerably, especially since the 1970s. Those national economies in which most IPR-holding corporations are concentrated have experienced a transformation in the composition of their exports in manufactures. Since 1970, for most developed countries, the contribution of advanced technologies to economic performance in terms of manufacturing value-added and exports has increased substantially. “Intellectual Property” those creations of the legal mind in relation to which the state confers upon individuals a statutory monopoly for a prescribed term to prevent their unauthorised exploitation. Present project gives focus on how industrys influence on intellectual property  negotiations, impact of industrys intellectual property on economy of different countries. Multi-agent systems (MAS) offer an innovative approach towards reducing the tremendous time and human resources invested in negotiations since they are particularly suitable for resolving fragmented problems. The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations (UN) system of organizations. Indians law relating to Intellectual property statute has undergone changes to bring it in harmony with the corresponding laws in developed countries. India is a signature of GATT, and it has be founding member of WTO and mutates mutandis agreements attached to WTO, especially TRIPs. The paper will survey the significant milestones in copyright policy development over the last two decades and conclude with a conceptual model that can be tested through analysis of other case studies of cross-jurisdiction intellectual property relationships.

Keywords: IPR, WIPO, WTO, Indian patent law, TRIPs.


Characterization, Formulation and Evaluation of the Suspending Properties of Achi (Brachystegia eurycoma) Seed Gum In Sulphamethoxazole Suspension

O. Agukwe1, J. Muazu1*

1.Department of Pharmaceutics & Pharmaceutical Microbiology, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria


The purpose of the study is to search for new, cheap, readily available and effective excipient for suspension which can effectively compete with standard suspending agents like Acacia and Tragacanth gums. The suspending properties of Brachystegia eurycoma (Fabaceae) gum were evaluated and compared with Acacia and Tragacanth at concentrations 0.2%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 3.0% in sulphamethoxazole suspension. Sulphamethoxazole was chosen as a model drug because it is an in-diffusible powder and require among other thing a suspending agent. Physicochemical and Organoleptic analyses were carried out on the pure gum extract. Sedimentation volume, re-dispersion, crystal growth and flow rate were employed as evaluation parameters of the suspension. The values obtained were used as basis for comparison. The gum extract was found to have better suspending properties at concentrations evaluated. The gum extract at high concentrations has a high viscosity and can be used as stabilizer where high viscosity is desired and can also serve as thickening agent. Therefore, the gum can be used as an alternative suspending agent to both Acacia and Tragacanth gums.

Keywords: Brachystegia eurycoma, Sulphamethoxazole, Suspending agent, Acacia and Tragacanth


Effects of ethanol extract of Ricinus Communis seed on serum Prolactin, LH and FSH levels in Metoclopramide-induced Hyperprolactinemic female albino rats.

Agbai Emmanuel Onuka1*, Nwafor Arthur2

1. Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Madonna University, PMB 48 Elele, Rivers State, Nigeria.

2. Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, PMB 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.


This present study was undertaken to determine the effects of ricinus communis ethanol extract on serum prolactin and gonadotrophin levels after administering 10mg/kg (body weight) of metoclopramide in female albino rats. A total of thirty female albino rats divided into 5 groups (Groups I, II, III, IV and V) consisting of 6 rats in each group were used for the study. Group I served as Control, while II, III, IV and V served as experimental groups. The experimental groups received 10mg/kg of metoclopramide (i.v.) 4 times daily for 4 weeks. Groups III, IV and V were given respectively 200mg/kg/day, 500mg/kg/day and 900mg/kg/day of ricinus communis orally for 4 weeks. Group I received distilled water and normal rat chow. Results showed statistically significant decrease in prolactin level at P < 0.05 between Group I (13.38 ± 0.92 ng/ml), III (18.73 ± 4.78 ng/ml), IV (17.53 ± 3.33 ng/ml) and V (16.95 ± 1.20 ng/ml) compared to Group II  (44.70 ± 2.77 ng/ml). There was statistically significant increase in serum LH level between Group I (CONT) (7.07 ± 0.71 mIu/ml), Group III (7.82 ± 0.88 mIu/ml), Group IV (8.44 ± 0.53 mIu/ml) and Group V (8.88 ± 0.72 mIu/ml) at P < 0.05 compared to Group II (6.42 ± 1.14 mIu/ml) at P < 0.05. There was also statistically significant increase in serum FSH level between Group III (6.71 ± 1.46 mIu/ml), Group IV (6.84 ± 0.59 mIu/ml), and Group V (7.87 ± 0.41 mIu/ml) at P < 0.05 compared Group I (CONT) (5.20 ± 0.9 mIu/ml) compared to Group II (4.85 ± 0.70 mIu/ml). Data suggested that ricinus communis extract reduced serum prolactin levels and increased serum LH and FSH levels respectively in metoclopramide-induced hyperprolactinemic female rats.

Keywords. ricinus communis. hyperprolactinemia. prolactin. luteinizing hormone. follicle stimulating hormone. metoclopramide.


Synthesis and Biological study of Substituted 1, 2, 4-Triazolines and their acetyl derivatives

Chandrakant Bhaskar*1, Jagannath Makode2, Baliram Berad3,

1. Department of Chemistry,Art’s, Commerce and Science College, Koradi (Nagpur)-441111(MS)

2. Department of Chemistry, Shri Shivaji College of Art’s, Commerce and Science, Akola-444101(MS)

3. Post Graduate Department of Chemistry, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur-440033. (MS)


In the reaction of isoniazid with different aldehydes the respective N1-((un)-substituted benzilidene) isoniazid derivatives were obtained. Further reaction with N1-((un)-substituted benzilidene) isoniazids and hydrazine hydrate yielded dihydroformazans. These dihydroformazans on reaction  with N-phenylisocynodichloride in chloroform medium led to the creation of 1, 2, 4-triazolines. All these 1,2,4-triazolines were further converted into their acetyl derivatives by reacting them with acetic anhydride. The structures of all new compounds were confirmed by using elemental and spectral analysis. All the compounds were screened for their antifungal activities.

Keywords: 1, 2, 4-Triazolines, Dihydroformazans, Synthesis of 1, 2, 4-triazolines.


Antidiabetic Effect of Polyherbal Formulation Instreptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

SinghVirendra1, Kori Mohan Lal*2

1.Research Scholar, Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Research Centre, Bhagwant University, Sikar Road, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India- 305004

2.Vedica College of B. Pharmacy, Constituted Institute of R.K.D.F. University, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India- 462033


The objective of the present study is planned to investigate the antidiabetic potential of polyherbal preparation in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in rats by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg b.wt.). After 72 hrs rats with marked hyperglycaemia (fasting blood glucose ≥250 mg/dl) were selected and used for the study. Antidiabetic effect was evaluated by oral administration of polyherbal formulation consisting of (Helicteres isora, Portulaca oleracea, and Caralluma attenuata) at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg b.wt. for 28 days. In streptozotocin diabetic rats, oral administration of polyherbal formulation in dose dependent manner show reduced blood glucose level, which was comparable to that of reference standard glibenclamide (5 mg/kg b.wt.). Significant decrease in body weight also was observed with diabetic control, which was partially restored upon administration of polyherbal formulation. Hence, these findings demonstrate that polyherbal formulation has potential to treat diabetes mellitus and its complications.

Keywords: Polyherbal formulation, streptozotocin, Helicteres isora, Portulaca oleracea, Caralluma attenuata.


In Vitro Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Arthritic Activity of Polyherbal Formulation (Capsules)

Geetha J1*, Muthusamy P1, Jayshree N1, Vadivu R1, Selvaraj B2

1. Department of Pharmacognosy , College of Pharmacy, Madras Medical College, Chennai-03, Tamil Nadu., India

2. TTK Healthcare Pvt., Ltd. Pallavaram


The present study is aimed to evaluate antioxidant and anti arthritic activity of polyherbal formulation. The polyherbal formulation composed of six medicinal plants namely Asparagus racemosus, Allium sativum, Bacopa monneri, Lippia nodiflora, Smilax zeylanica, Oldenlandia heynei. anti oxidant activity  by using Reducing power assay, Nitric oxide scavenging assay and anti-arthritic activity by using inhibition of protein denaturation, inhibition of protenase enzyme activity, membrane stabilization. Diclofenac sodium was used as a standard drug.

Key words: Polyherbal formulation, anti-arthritis and anti- oxidant.



Fixed Bed Column Study for Ni(II) Removal from Aqueous Solution by Slag

M.K.Dwivedi1*, Rashmi Agarwal2

1. Chemistry Department, Govt. Holkar Science College, Indore 452017

2. Pharmaceutical chemistry Department, Govt. Holkar Science College, Indore 452017.


Adsorption isotherms are normally used for obtaining the operational parameters but in practice the treatment plants use column type operations. The recycling of adsorbent is not practically possible by batch process and the physical and biological changes are not predictable by the adsorption isotherms. Consequently the practical applicability of the product for column operations has been studied to obtain some parameters necessary for a factual design model. The fractional capacity ‘f’ of the column in the adsorption zone at break point to continue to remove solute from solution is 0.84. The percentage saturation at break point is 50.09. BDST model is found to be suitable to fixed bed of slag. The breakthrough capacity of the column is 66.0 mg g-1 which reflects the affinity of the slag quite well.

Keywords :Nickel, Slag, Adsorption, Column Studies.


Health Economics and Outcomes Research: It’s Swot (Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats) Analysis for India

Supriya Shidhaye1*, Chaitali Surve1, Priyank Parikh1, Jyotsna Mehta1, Tejal Budhkar1, Ashwini Dhone1

1.Vivekanand Education Society College of Pharmacy, Chembur, Mumbai – 400074


The application of health economics reflects a universal desire to obtain maximum value for money by ensuring not just the clinical effectiveness i.e. outcomes research, but also the cost-effectiveness of healthcare provision. Outcomes research seeks to understand the end results of particular health care practices and interventions. Health economics and outcomes research(HEOR) now has become a vital part in some leading pharmaceutical companies abroad for demonstrating product value which encompasses aspects such as clinical efficacy, real-world data, budget impacts and cost effectiveness models, which eventually supports the allocation of resources for the acceptance and reimbursements of new products. Implementation of activities in this field has been possible in other countries because of Health insurance system that allows the use of data for research. Pricing pressure and regulatory restrictions across various health-care industries have called for more detailed evidence based on outcomes of healthcare products. Stakeholders including regulators and payers are increasingly relying on HEOR information to understand the product value and its potential in real-world clinical practice. So, the current work aims to study the scope of HEOR for the regulators and healthcare service providers in India and abroad. It emphasizes the role of everyone in health-care system including health insurance companies, benefits experienced by patients as well as pharmaceutical industries and challenges in the execution of this field in India and measures to overcome the roadblocks, which will benefit health-care systems in India.

Keywords: Health economics and outcomes research, health-care systems, insurance companies, pharmaceutical industries.


In vitro Hyperpigmentant activity on the bark of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.

T. Muthu Lakshmi 1*,  R.Radha1,N. Jayshree 1

1.Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy,Madras Medical College, Chennai-03.


Vitiligo also known as Leucoderma is caused by the loss of pigment, resulting in irregular pale patches of skin. Vitiligo develops patches of depigmented skin appearing on extremities. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and in-vitro melanogenic activity on bark of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb (Fabaceae). The various successive bark  extracts have been individually evaluated for trials of spontaneous melanin content, and cell viability by the MTT assay in murine B16F10 melanoma cells in-vitro. Based on the percentage of cell viability assay, graded concentration of extracts were taken for invitro melanogenic activity. The result indicated that Ethyl acetate extract of bark of Dalbergia sissoo was found to be non-toxic and increased melanin activity as compared to Hexane and Ethanol extracts. From the above result, it can be concluded from this study that the bark of Dalbergia sissoo stimulates B16F10 melanogenesis at very low concentrations. These findings support the folk medicinal use of Dalbergia sissoo on the treatment of hypopigmentation diseases, such as vitiligo.

Keywords: Leucoderma, Dalbergia sissoo, Ethanol.


Screening for Antimicrobial efficacy of phytochemicals extracted from two medicinally important plants of Cucurbitaceae

Renu Sarin*1 and Sangeeta Samariya2

1.Laboratory of Bioactive compounds from Plant Tissue cultures, Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India,

2 Senior research fellow, Laboratory of Bioactive compounds from Plant Tissue cultures,

Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India


Medicinal plants are being popular these days to cure diseases due to rapid increase in the rate of infectious diseases day by day and their less side effects over synthetic antibiotics. In the present study two medicinally important plants of family cucurbitaceae vis. Luffa cylindrica Linn. and Citrullus colocynthis Linn. Leaf, stem and calli phytochemical extracts viz. alkaloids, flavonoids and sterols were evaluated against some pathogenic strains of bacteria and fungi viz. Staphylococcus epidermis (MTCC 3615), Micromona spora (MTCC 3296), Fusarium culmorum (MTCC349), Alternaria solani (MTCC 2101), Penicillium chrysogenum (MTCC 161). The antibacterial and antifungal activities were performed by Disc diffusion method. The  on the basis of inhibition zone(IZ) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC).Among all the extracts sterol extracts of both the plant species showed highest antimicrobial activity. Results obtained in the present study indicate Luffa cylindrical Linn. and Citrullus colocynthis Linn. Leaf, stem and calli phytochemical extracts viz. alkaloids, flavonoids and sterols possesses antimicrobial properties that can be exploited for future natural plant based antimicrobial agents.

Keywords: Luffa cylindrica, Citrullus colocynthis, alkaloids, flavonoids, sterols antimicrobial activity, Minimum inhibitory concentration