American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
December 2016 Issue 12

A Review On: Cyclodextrins

Anuradha Kameshwar Salunkhe*1 ,Surya Anandrao Shinde1

1.Department of Pharmaceutics, Satara College of Pharmacy, Satara, Plot No. 1539, New Additional MIDC, Behind Spicer India Ltd., Degaon, Satara (M.S.)


Cyclodextrins are non-toxic cyclic polysaccharides. They form inclusion complexes with numerous organic molecules. The physical and chemical properties of the guest molecules change due to complex formation. Cyclodextrins (CDs) are chemically cyclic oligosaccharides which have been recognized as useful pharmaceutical excipients. Cyclodextrins are versatile pharmaceutical excipients used to enhance the solubility, stability, safety and bioavailability of drug. Besides, being used to reduce gastrointestinal drug irritation, convert liquid drug into microcrystalline or amorphous powder, and prevent drug-drug and drug-excipients interactions. The solubility of slightly soluble molecules may be increased by cyclodextrin inclusion complex. As a result of molecular complexation phenomena cyclodextrins are widely used in many industrial products, technologies and analytical methods.

Keywords: Cyclodextrins, Solubility, Complexation, Applications 


A comparative effect of calcium with vitamin D3 and simvastatin in treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

Qayssar Joudah  Fadheel

Al-Kufa University, faculty of Pharmacy , Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology , Iraq


Osteoporosis is a disease where reduced bone strength enhances the risk of a broken bone. It is the most common cause for a broken bone among the elderly. Bones that are commonly break include the bones of the forearm, the back bones, and the hip. Until a broken bone happens  there are typically no symptoms. Bones may weaken to  a degree that a break may occur with minor stress or spontaneously. Cronic pain and a reduced ability to accomplish normal activities may occur following a broken bone.  The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of simvastatin in treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and compare it's effect with calcium plus vitamin D3 . Twenty four postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were randomly divided into two groups( each group include twelve women) , in addition to apparently healthy group include twelve postmenopausal women without osteoporosis considered as a control group .The duration of treatment was 6 months . First group was given simvastatin tablet 20mg once daily, second group was given calcium plus vitamin D3(calcium 600mg plus vitamin D3 500 I.U.) once daily .The following parameters were measured for two groups at baseline and at 6 months intervals bone mineral density(BMD) and T-score , total cholesterol , and triglyceride . There were a significant increase in BMD, T- score in group treated with simvastatin after 6 months as compared with baseline and with group treated with calcium plus vitamin D3 . Also there were a significant reduction in mean serum total cholesterol and triglyceride in group treated with simvastatin e and group treated with calcium with vitamin D3 after six months as compared with baseline(P<0.05) .   

Keywords: simvastatin, calcium with vitamin D3, osteoporosis, BMD, TG


Development and Evaluation of a Chocolate Based Dosage Form Containing Shankha Bhasma

S. H. Majumdar1, A. S. Bhongale*1, N. H. Aloorkar1, A. S. Kulkarni1

1. Department of Pharmaceutics, Satara College of Pharmacy, Satara-415001, India.


Osteoporosis is a rising threat for wide-reaching inhabitants, to treat this calcium supplements are suggested but available option of calcium supplements are not satisfying the need of the therapies, nor the patients’ acceptability. To explore traditional system of medicine in osteoporosis, concept of bhasma was opted for the study. Preparing bhasma with traditional method is a stepwise and complex process, hence to check any alteration is possible or not; preparing bhasma in electrical muffle furnace is tried out. Prepared bhasmas were evaluated by different parameters (varna, varitara, rekhapurana, nischandra) mentioned in Ayurveda literature and few modern parameters (ash value, pH, LOD, NPST, XRD, particle size, calcium content).  These evaluation parameters give a scientific background to bhasma as nanomedicine that could be better absorbed in the body. To overcome the problem related to organoleptic properties (taste, appearance), delivering bhasma in chocolate base was attempted and this chocolate dosage form were evaluated by for its patients’ acceptability. Findings of the study reveals that chocolate could serve as a patient friendly dosage form to deliver bhasma as a source of calcium.

Keywords: Shankha bhasma, osteoporosis, calcium supplement, nanomedicine, chocolate.


Anti-Ulcer Activity of 3-methoxysalicylaldehyde-2-aminobenzoylhydrazone Derivatives in Rats

Imad Uddin MD1*, Firasat Ali1, Parvinder Singh1, Chandrashekar VM1

1. Department of Pharmacology, Pulla Reddy Institute of Pharmacy, Annaram, Jinnaram, SangaReddy, Telangana-502313.

2. Department of Pharmacology, HSK College of Pharmacy, Bagalkot–587101, Karnataka, India.


Peptic ulcer is a one of the major ailment effecting 10% of the population. Drugs are found by screening compounds against an animal model of human disease. Main aim of the present study is to evaluate anti-ulcer activity of cobalt and nickel derivatives of 3-methoxysalicylaldehyde-2-aminobenzoylhydrazone by pylorus ligation method in albino rats. Anti-ulcer activity was compared with standard drug diclofenac sodium. In pyloric ligation induced ulcer model, the studied parameters were gastric volume, pH, total acidity, free acidity, ulcer index and percentage of ulcer protection. In treated groups of nickel and cobalt derivatives total acidity and ulcer index were significantly decreased, gastric pH was increased and there is no significant change in volume of gastric acid secretion, free acidity as compared to control group. Percentage protection increased dose dependently in animal treated with both the derivatives. Group treated with Nickel derivative showed good results as compared to cobalt derivative treated group. These results indicate that both nickel and cobalt quinazolinone derivatives have better potential against ulcer.

Keywords: Quinazolinone, Peptic ulcer, pylorus ligation, ulcer index.


Determination of maturity stages in Labeo dyocheilus from Mid-Central Himalayan landscape, Uttarakhand

Rakesh Verma

Department of Zoology, Government Post Graduate College Pithoragarh, Uttarakhand, (India)


The maturity stages were determined in fish gonads generally by means of the macroscopic study (morphological description of developmental stages of the ovarian and testicular cycle) and microscopic study (histological description of developmental stages of the ovarian and testicular cycle). The different maturity stages determined by modified ICES scale and histological studies of gonads were done by a method described by Humason. In the present study the ovarian and testicular development of Labeo dyocheilus was observed and was divided into seven stages. Male and female fish mature at the same time in the year and show similar as well as same maturity stages. The name given to all stages were Stage I (Immature or Virgin), Stage II (Maturing virgin), Stage III (Developing), Stage IV (Maturing), Stage V (Ripening), Stage VI (Spawning or Running) and Stage VII (Spent).

Keywords: Central Himalaya, Labeo dyocheilus, maturity stages