American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
September 2018 Issue 9

Studies on the Antimicrobial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Whole Plant of Saccharum Spontaneum (Linn.)

J. Amutha Iswarya Devi*1, K. Madhumitha1, N. Venkateshan1

1 Arulmigu Kalasalingam College of Pharmacy, Anand Nagar, Krishnankoil-626 126, Tamil Nadu, India.


In recent years, there has been a growing interest in researching and developing new antimicrobial agents from various sources to combat microbial resistance. Therefore, a greater attention has been paid to antimicrobial activity screening and evaluating methods. The research work was conducted to investigate the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of whole plant of Saccharum spontaneum Linn. (Family: Poaceae). Disc diffusion technique was used for antibacterial and cup plate method was used for antifungal screening. Antibacterial tests were performed by disc diffusion method on nutrient agar, in order to analyze the percentage zone of inhibition. Whole plant’s extract showed the significant zone of inhibition (mm), against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Modified agar well diffusion method was used to measure the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Antifungal method was performed by cup plate method against Candida albicans. Due to presence of tannins, polyphenolic compounds and flavonoids, it inhibits the growth of bacteria on most regulatory levels.

Keywords: Saccharum spontaneum, ethanolic crude extract, agar diffusion method, cup plate method. 


Formulation and Evaluation of Dry Powder Inhaler Containing Inhaled Carticosteroids and Long Acting Beta Agonist of Different Fill Weight

Anil Jadhav*1, Yogesh Sharma1, Mahesh Giri2, Sachin Aglawe1, Amol Gayke1, Ramesh Kalkotwar3

1. Department of Pharmaceutics, S.N.D. College of pharmacy Babhulgaon, Yeola, Maharashtra, India.

2.Principal Scientist Vamsi Pharma Pvt. Ltd., Kothur, Hyderabad

3. Department of Quality Assurance, S.N.D. College of pharmacy Babhulgaon, Yeola, Maharashtra, India.


The overall objective of this research project was to study the in DPI formulations containing ICH and LABA to achieve efficient drug deposition goals. Hence, this project focused on the formulation development of DPIs and impact of different fill weight or fill volume in performance as well as other physicochemical parameter. The performance mainly APSD of dry powder inhalers containing LABA & ICS was found to be optimum when it is formulated with 30% of fine grade lactose monohydrate. The APSD evaluation was concluded that the deposition of particle of (F8) 12.5 mg is better than (F4) 25 mg. It’s may due to more void space in the 12.5 mg capsule formulation than 25 mg capsule formulation. Due to this good turbulence occurs and separation drug particle form carrier surface is more and give better deposition compared to 25 mg fill weight formulation per capsule. The overall project concluded the 12.5mg formulation (F8) is good. These formulations are advantages over 25 mg formulation such as less carrier residue, cost effective, good therapeutic result.

Keywords: Dry powder inhaler, ICH, LABA, lactose monohydrate, 12.5 mg, 25 mg.


Formulation and Evaluation of Fast Dissolving Buccal Film containing Vildagliptin

Savita V. Pol1*, Jagtap R.S2, Doijad R.C3, Smita Takarkhede4, Jagtap S.R4

1.Department of Pharmaceutics, Ideal College of Pharmacy, Kalyan, Thane, India

2.Department of Pharmaceutics , Annasaheb Dange college of B.Pharmacy ,Ashta

3.Department of Pharmaceutics, Shree Santkrupa College of pharmacy, Ghogoan

4.Department of Pharmaceutics , Annasaheb Dange college of D.Pharmacy Ashta


The present study deals with the formulation of fast dissolving films of vildagliptin that is used for the treatment of Diabetes. The concept of fast dissolving drug delivery emerging from the desire to provide better patient compliance and avoid first pass metabolism. In the present research work, various trials were carried out using film forming agents such as HPMC, Maltodextrine, Polyethylene alcohol, to prepare an ideal film. Solvent casting method was used for the preparation of films. The prepared films were evaluated for weight uniformity, drug content, film thickness, folding endurance. The in vitro dissolution studies were carried out using ph-6.8 phosphate buffer. This approach increase therapeutic efficiency of pharmaceutical actives by avoiding hepatic first pass metabolism, deliver drug molecule in control manner, enhance absorption and improves patient compliance

Keywords: Fast dissolving buccal film, Vildagliptin, HPMC, Maltodextrine, poly-ethylene oxide, tween 80,  aspartame Glycerin Solvent casting method, In vitro drug release, Ex-vivo drug diffusion studies,


Clostridium Difficile Infection: in Human Diagnosis and Management

Krushnarao Bhorgir*, Kuldip Dhumal, Rohit Palve

Loknete Shree Dadapatil Pharate College of Pharmacy, Mandavgan Pharata, Pune. Maharashtra, India 412211.


Clostridium Difficile (CD) is the most important cause of nosocomial diarrhea in adults. Illness may range from mild watery diarrhoea to life-threatening colitis. CD has now also emerged in the community in populations previously considered low risk. Emerging risk factors and disease recurrence represent continued challenges in the management of CDI. Diagnosis is based primarily on the detection of C. difficile toxin A or toxin B. These toxins primarily disrupt the cytoskeletal structure and the tight junctions of target cells causing cell rounding and ultimately cell death. The toxins trigger a complex cascade of host cellular responses to cause diarrhoea, inflammation and tissue necrosis- the major symptoms of CDI. The factors responsible for the epidemic of some C. difficile strains are poorly understood the organism has evolved over the last 8 years to become more virulent and resistant to antimicrobials causing a more severe form of the disease that has increased mortality and healthcare costs. The guideline provides recommendations for the diagnosis and management of patients with CDI as well as for the prevention and control of outbreaks while supplementing previously published guidelines. New molecular diagnostic stool tests will likely replace current enzyme immunoassay tests. We suggest treatment of patients be stratified depending on whether they have mild-to-moderate, severe or complicated disease. This chapter highlights the current knowledge on C. difficile how to produce infection in human, transmission, guidelines, Epidemiology, risk and diagnosis.

Keywords: Clostridium difficile, pathogenesis, guidelines, Epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis.


Case Report on Wellens Syndrome

Assem Babbar*1, Rahul Rawat1, Ankit Sharma1, Prashant Mathur1

1. SGRRITS, Patel Nagar, Dehradun-248001, Uttarakhand


Wellens syndrome is a pattern of electrocardiographic T-wave changes associated with critical, proximal left anterior descending (LAD) artery stenosis. We are presenting a case of wellens syndrome where 58 years old male patient admitted in the hospital with intermittent chest pain and dryness of mouth from last one month. He was diagnosed with Wellens Syndrome by ECG findings and treatment started accordingly. This syndrome may lead to major infarction if left unrecognized or untreated.

Key word: Wellens syndrome, LAD, ECG, Myocardial Infarction.


In Vitro Anti Cancer Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Eclipta Alba (L.)

Y. Anil Kumar*1, Konda Ravi Kumar2, Y. Sirisha3, B. Gopikrishna3, S. Yashita raga3.

1.Department of Pharmacology, Hindu College of Pharmacy, Amaravthi road, Guntur.

2.Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Hindu College of Pharmacy, Amaravthi road, Guntur.

3.Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, SIMS College of Pharmacy, Mangaldas Nagar, Guntur


Cancer is a group of diseases involving uncontrolled and abnormal growth of cells with potential to invade (or) spread to other parts of body. The aim of present study is to evaluate the invitro anti cancer screening of ethanolic extract of whole plant of Eclipta alba against HL-60 cell lines by SRB (sulphorhodamine) assay, besides this property it has many other therapeutic uses. The plant with methanol is kept in closed vessel for seven days and the obtained extract is subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis and in vitro anti cancer screening, these test reveals the presence of secondary metabolites and LD50 concentration of extract was >80 µg/ml respectively i.e) the extract can inhibit the growth of cancer cells rather than killing them. For killing the cancerous cells very high concentration of extract is required.

Key words: Eclipta alba, Anti-cancer activity, SRB assay, HL-60 cell lines.


Pharmacological and Phytochemical Evaluation of Clitoria ternata flower and Tribulus terristris seed

S. Naga Subrahmanyam1*, Tagoore Vijaya Lakshmi1, M.Venkata Padma1, G.V. Pavan Kumar1,  G.V. Naga Raju1

1. Koringa College of Pharmacy, Koringa- 533461, Kakinda, A.P, India


To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic potential of extracts Clitoria ternate flower (CTF) AND Tribulus terristris seed (TTS) by in-vivo pharmacological models using rats. Ternate flower (CTF) AND Tribulus terristris seed (TTS). Extraction by cold maceration techniques using hydro-alcoholic solvent. Evaluation of chemical constituents by various chemical tests. Acute toxicity studies as per OECD guidelines and calculation of ED 50 Anti-inflammatory activity by Carragenan induced rat paw models. Anti-diabetic activity by Alloxon induced diabetes in rats. Statistical analysis by Students t Test. Extraction by Cold Maceration method. Estimation of Phytochemicals by various chemical tests.(3) Acute Toxicity studies by OECD guidelines and dose selected were 200mg and 400mg/kg(4) Phytoconstituents are mostly presents in the Clitoria terneta flower and photosterols and flavonoids are not present in the Tribulus tertaris seed which are highly present in Clitoria terneta flower.Anti-inflammatory Activity of Clitoria ternata flower and Tribulus terristris seed highly seen in group III and V of CTF AND TFS. Least amount present in group II of 39% in CTF and 45% of group IV in TTS..Anti-diabetic Activity of Clitoria ternata flower and Tribulus terristris seed values are Mean ± SEM of Six Animals. Statistical Significance: a = p < 0.001 and b = p < 0.05 as compared to control From the acute toxicity studies the ED 50 of the extract were fixes as 200 and 400 mg/kg. The anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activity of both CTF & TTS were calculated by in-vivo methods using rat models. The 400mg/kg of both Clitoria ternata flower (CTF) and Tribulus terristris seed (TTS) extracts showed potential anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activity. Further studies are required for structural elucidation of the active component(s) involved in the anti-hyperglycaemic and anti-inflammatory activity of Tribulus terrestris L. and Clitoria ternate