American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
November 2013 Issue 8

Techniques and approaches based on the metamorphose of liquid nanoemulsion to semisolid and solid intend for lipid based formulations

Md. Habban Akhter1*, Govind Mohan1, Ayaz Ahmad1, Dharmendra Kumar2

1. NIMS Institute of Pharmacy, NIMS University P.O. Box 303121, Jaipur, India.

2. Morepen Laboratories Ltd. Solon Baddi (H.P)


The more compatible mode of dispensing lipid based drug delivery system (LBDDS) had consorted to capsule filling since few decades back. For this hard or soft capsules shell often suffice for early development process. However, on account of some physical challenges to the capsule shell, are less preferred. On the other hand tablets in particular are more convenient mode of drug delivery for patients. The techniques covered hereunder alleviate the metamorphous of liquid or semi-solid formulations into solid particles such as dry powders, granules or pellets in order to fill into capsules, sachets or compressed into single or multilayered tablets.

Keywords: Dry emulsion, nanoemulsion, self nanoemulsifying drug delivery system, spray congealing, and spray drying.


Current updates on self nanoemulsifying drug delivery system and in vitro in vivo correlation of Probucol

Md. Habban Akhter1*, Govind Mohan1, Ayaz Ahmad1, Rachna2

1 NIMS Institute of Pharmacy, NIMS University, Jaipur, India.

2E4e Healthcare Pvt. Ltd. H-33 Sec-62, Noida.


The poor solubility is major drawback in the path of oral bioavailability. The oral bioavailability now a day is being enhanced via different technology. In which formulation of self nanoemulsified system proved to be highly significant in terms of improving oral bioavailability. Self nanoemulsifying drug delivery system is an isotropic mixture of natural or synthetic oils, surfactants, cosurfactants and solvents etc. Under gentle agitation in the intestinal tract this system forms fine oil-in water (o/w) microemulsion prior to absorption and thus dissolution are not a rate limiting step. The current review outlines current updates on self nanoemulsifying drug delivery system and in vitro in vivo correlation of Probucol. Many formulations based on lipid drug delivery was successfully marketed under the trade name of Neoral® (cyclosporine, Novartis), Ritonavir (Norvir®, Abbott laboratories), Fortovase (Saquinavir, Hoffmann‐La Roche lnc.), Agenerase (Amprenavir, GlaxoSmithKline), lipirex (Fenofibrate, Sanofi‐ Aventis).

Keywords: self nanoemulsifying drug delivery system, bioavailability, probucol, in vitro in vivo correlation.


Current Status and Future Perspectives of Herpes Simplex Virus as Oncolytic Virus in Cancer Chemotherapy-A Review

Shivaprakash G1*, Natesh Prabhu1, Priyanka Kamath1, Sanjay Hadigal1, PallaviLC2, Jagadish Rao Padubidri3.

1. Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, LHH Road, Mangalore-575001, Manipal University

2 Departments of Physiology, KVG Medical College, Sullia, Dakshin Kannada-574327

3Department of Forensic Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, LHH Road, Mangalore-575001, Manipal University


Herpes simplex virus 1, by gene modification is emerging as an effective therapeutic agent to kill cancer cells. Various types of herpes simplex virus 1(HSV-1) was studied in preclinical and clinical studies. These vectors were found to be safe and effective due to their selective actions. These vectors were studied in glioma, melanoma, breast, prostate, colon, ovarian and pancreatic cancer. One of the advantage of HSV virus is the capacity to incorporate multiple transgenes within the large genome. Insertion of transgenes like antiangiogenic genes and immunostimulatory genes were found to be a positive developments in oncolytic viral therapy. Arming therapeutic genes merits further investigation for successful translation to the clinical practice. Combining oncolyticviro therapy with other modes like chemotherapy and radiotherapy has shown synergic action. This review summarizes the latest advances from preclinical results and clinical trials and the future of modified HSV1 as therapeutic mode in cancer therapy.

Key words: HSV, Antiangiogenic, Immunostimulatory, Oncolytic, Virotherapy, Radiotherapy


Anti-diabetic Efficacy of Dietary Vegetable Mixtures in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Guinea Pigs.

Nwafor Arthur1, Akunneh-Wariso Chris C*1, Ojeka Sunday Ogbu1, Agbai Emmanuel Onuka2

1.Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, PMB 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt;

2.Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Madonna University, PMB 407 Ihiala, Elele Campus, Rivers State.


The effect of Nigerian dietary vegetable mixtures composed of Vernonia amygdalina, Ocimum gratissimum, Gongronema latifolium, Solanum melongena, Phyllanthus amarus, and Piper nigrumas acclaimed as potent anti-hyperglycaemic agents were evaluated in accordance with local finished medicine products and practices in alloxan-induced diabetic guinea pigs. Blood glucose level analysis was used as diabetic indices. Taken together, the results of the present study, suggests that the strong cooperative additive/synergistic effects of the dietary vegetable mixtures (50/50/50) significantly (p<0.05) with reference to the base value ameliorated alloxan-induced elevated blood glucose level by 24% to 26% after 14 days when compared with that of the positive control (glibenclamide) of 20% or negative control (normal saline) of 41.6%. The demonstration in the present study of the anti-hyperglycaemic activities of the dietary vegetable mixtures is in resonance with its local application and may have important clinical implications in reducing health risks, specifically, type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications.

Keywords: Diabetes, dietary vegetables, phytochenical/antioxidants, micronutrients, blood glucose


Chronic Maltex Drink and Tomato Paste Therapy Effects on Blood Glucose, Haematological and Biochemical Indices in Normal and Alloxan- Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats.

Nworah Doris Chinwe1, Nwafor Arthur*1, Olorunfemi Oluwadare Joyce1, Aburoma Helen Lasbury Shem2

1Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences,

2Department of Nursing, Faculty of Clinical Sciences; College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323, Choba Nigeria


There has not been a study that has directly assessed the potentially health promoting of tomato paste and maltex drink mixtures therapy and disease- preserving properties. In order to directly extrapolate the findings to everyday human health practices the effect of chronic ingestion of tomato paste and maltex drink mixtures on blood glucose, haematological and biochemical profiles in normoglycaemic  and alloxan induced diabetic rat's model system are compared. Results revealed that after 35 days, tomato paste  and maltex drink mixture therapy and/or maltex therapy significantly (p<0.05) lowered blood glycaemic load in normoglycaemic rats when compared with that of tomato paste therapy or control; while  maltex drink therapy have significant anti-diabetic potential in both normoglycaemic and diabetic rats. Overall, the treatments ameliorate cholesterol and body weight lowering with corresponding improvement in some haematological parameters in both normoglycaemic and diabetic rats, with tomato paste and maltex drink mixture therapy having significant anti-obese effect. The anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-cholesterolaemic, anti-obese and erythropoietin-potentiating activities of maltex drink and tomato paste mixture therapy after 35 days, as demonstrated in the present study, may have important clinical implications for improving chronic diseases particularly type 2 diabetes and its complications.

Keywords: Maltex drink, tomato paste, type 2 diabetes, cholesterol, blood indices, obesity, alloxan


A Study on Assessment of Knowledge of Diabetes In Diabetic Patients And Patient Counseling In A Teaching Hospital

Amreena Irfani 1, Arshiya Farheen1, Maimoona Nishat1, Mehraj Fatima1, Arshad Hussain Mohammed*1

1. H.No: 14-8-88, Nizampura,Narsampet Road,Warangal,A.P.,  India. 506002.


Knowledge of Diabetes is an integral component for attaining optimal disease control, and reduce mortality. Patient counseling by Pharmacist would motivate the patients to attain better understanding of their Disease, its treatment and helps them to adopt healthy life style to avoid future complications. Assessment of Diabetes Knowledge in Diabetic Patients and Patient Counseling. A Cross sectional survey study was carried out over 6 months with 305 Diabetic patients in General Medicine department of Owaisi Hospital and Research centre, Hyderabad, India. A questionnaire consisting Demographic details and 21 questions relating to the patients’ knowledge of Diabetes was provided to the participants. The patients were later counseled by using Patient Information Leaflet. The results were expressed as Mean, Standard deviation and in number (%). MS Excel spread sheet have been used to generate graphs, Tables etc. Of the 305 patients 45% were male and 55% were female with a mean age of 55.52±6.9 years (range 20 to 80). About 59.3% of patients had positive family history, 65.9% of participants did not know what diabetes was. 63.5% of people thought mental stress to be the only cause for diabetes and 81.3% of subjects never received patient counseling. Study subjects showed knowledge deficits pertaining to causes, prevention and Medications used in Diabetes and very less number of patients received Counseling. These results highlight the need for educational programmes aimed at improving the knowledge of DM patients.

Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Knowledge, Patient Counseling, Pharmacist role.


Development and Validation of RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Levocetirizine Dihydrochloride and Ambroxol Hydrochloride in Bulk Drug and Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

Farida M. S. E. El Dars1*, Nahla Sayed Ismail2, Rasha El Gohary2, Omnia I. Ali1, Anwar Wassel2

1. Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Ain Helwan, Cairo, Egypt

2. National Organization for Drug Control and Research (NODCAR), Giza, Cairo, Egypt


Levocetirizine dihydrochloride (LCD) and Ambroxol Hydrochloride (ABH) are two chemicals used for the treatment of upper respiratory tract diseases and elevation of allergy symptoms.  Few HPLC methods were reported for the estimation of LCD and ABH in bulk and in tablet dosage form without extraction.  The present work describes a simple, precise and accurate isocratic reversed-phase HPLC method that was developed and validated for the estimation of Levocetirizine dihydrochloride and Ambroxol hydrochloride in bulk and in tablet dosage form. The proposed RP-HPLC method was carried out using Intersil C8 column (5 mm, 25 cm, 4.6 mm i.d.). The mobile phase of water: acetonitrile mixture (50:50 v/v) was adjusted to pH 3.3 using ortho-phosphoric acid and applied at a flow rate of 1mL/min and 20 mL injection volume. The detection was achieved with UV at 225 nm. The retention time of ABH and LCD was 1.80 ± 0.01 min and 3.21 ± 0.07 min, respectively. The proposed method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, LOD and LOQ. The calibration plot was linear over the concentration range of 5-400 μg/ml for ABH and 1-35 μg/ml for LCD. The mean absolute recoveries for ABH and LCD were about 98.97 % and 100.8 %, respectively. From the validation study, it was found that the method was specific, rapid, accurate, sensitive, and reproducible.  The high recovery and low relative standard deviation confirm the suitability of the method for routine pharmaceutical quality control of both these drugs separately and in their combined dosage form.

Keywords: Levocetirizine dihydrochloride; Ambroxol hydrochloride; HPLC, commercial formulations and bulk.


Evaluation of Medication Errors in A South Indian Hospital

Languluri Reddenna *1, Tedlla Rama Krishna*1, Shaik Ayub Basha1, Kanala Siva Kumar Reddy1

1. Pharm-D Intern, Department of Pharmacy Practice, P. Rami Reddy Memorial college of Pharmacy, Utukur, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India-516003


Errors resulting in patient injury and death are occurring in hospitals at significantly high and unacceptable numbers. Evidence from a number of sources over several decades indicates that a substantial number of patients suffer iatrogenic injuries while in hospital. The main aims of this study was to detect, identify and document the onset, underlying cause, type of medication errors and assess the severity of medication errors in the outpatient departments of a south Indian hospital. A prospective observational study was conducted at outpatient departments of general medicine, surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, orthopedics in Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Kadapa for the period of 6 months. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethical Committee, RIMS, Kadapa. Approximately, a total of 1296 medications were prescribed in 390 cases, and the average number of medications prescribed per patient was found to be 3.37.The present study showed a high incidence of medication errors in females (73%) over males and (27.50%) of medication errors in patients between 13-30yrs.The present study showed that prescribing errors 347(96.38%) was the most common among the medication errorsMajority of errors encountered in Anti-microbial agents 84 (23.33%). Severity level assessment of medication errors revealed that majority of errors (84.99%) were fallen under the category-B, C&D (Error, No Harm). A clinical pharmacist can play a major role in this situation appears to be a strong intervention and early detection and prevention of medication errors and thus can improve the quality of care to the patients.

Key words:Clinical pharmacist, evaluation, medication errors


Assessment of Prevalence, Risk Factors, Treatment in Asthamatic Patients in a South Indian Hospital

Languluri Reddenna *1, Tedlla Rama Krishna*1, Shaik Ayub Basha*1, Donthu Venu Gopal*1

1.Pharm-D Intern, Department of Pharmacy Practice, P. Rami Reddy Memorial college of Pharmacy, Utukur, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India-516003


Asthma creates a substantial burden on individuals and families as it is more often under-diagnosed and under-treated. India has an estimated 15-20 million asthmatics. Recognizing the signs and symptoms of asthma is important so that treatment and other interventions can begin early. Prospective observational study was conducted in the department of general medicine, RIMS, Kadapa for the period of 6 months aimed to assess the prevalence, risk factors and treatment in asthmatic patients. Patients were enrolled into the study on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 122 asthma diagnosed patients were recruited under the inclusion criteria. Our study establishes that the prevalence of bronchial asthma was more in males 79 (64.75%) than in females 43 (35.25 %). The prevalence rate of our study was 20.71 %. Our study found that most patients (35.25%) are using multiple drug therapy, followed by triple combination therapy (33.61%). Our study concluded that the asthma has low incidence and prevalence rate among the total respiratory diseases patients admitted in the hospital with the most predominant risk factors as dust, smoke and climate variation. Most patients have used multiple drug therapy for treatment due to severity of disease.

Keywords: Asthma, Prevalence, Risk factors, Treatment


A logistic First Order Difference Equation of Periodic Chemotherapy Model

P.Mohankurmar1, A.Ramesh2*

1. Professor of Mathematics, Aaarupadaiveedu Institute of Techonology, Vinayaka Mission University, Kanchipuram, Tamilnadu, India

2. Senior Lecturer in Mathematics, District Institute of Education and Training, Uthamacholapuram, Salem-636 010, Tamilnadu India


A logistic difference equation  behavior with a periodic chemetherapy model is used to growth of cancer cells. To study the growth rate of behavior of the chemotherapy

Keywords – Logistic, difference equation, Growth cancer Chemotherapy, bifurcation, equilibrium 



Formulation and evaluation of herbal Antitussive Syrup of Methanolic Extract of Lycopus europaeus in Mice

Abdul Aziz1*, Imran Ahmad Khan1, Aqsa Afzal1, Shaukat Hussain Munawar2

1. Faculty of Pharmacy, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan

2. Faculty of medicine and allied medical science, Isra University Islamabad, Pakistan


Methanolic extract of Lycopus europaeus were investigated for their antitussive effect on citric acid induced cough model in mice. The results showed that the formulated cough syrup exhibited significant antitussive activity in a dose dependent manner the activity was compared with the prototype antitussive agent diphenhydramine HCl. It has been observed that the extract has produced 54%, 70%, 75% reduction in cough bouts at the dose level of 1, 2, 3 ml respectively after 1hr of drug administration. It is evident from the data the highest dose of 3 ml was found to be more effective. It is found that antitussive activity produced by the herbal formulation in the minimum dose was much better than the standard drug.

Keysword: Antitussive agent, Polyherbal cough syrup, Diphenhydramine HCl, Citric acid induced.