American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
August 2016 Issue 8

Review on Epidemiological Study of Antibiotic Consumption In Various Countries

Basheer.SK1, Satyanarayana.V2*, J. N. Suresh Kumar3

1. Narasaraopeta Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Narasaraopet, Guntur (Dt), Andhra Pradesh, India-522601.


Antimicrobial resistance is an increasingly serious problem recognized as one of the greatest global threats to human health. Despite the successful effects to control infection disease, the continuous decline of therapeutic effectiveness of antimicrobials due to among others increasing antimicrobial resistance has become a worldwide problem. Although globally antimicrobial resistance is an emerging threats to public health, the problem is more severe in developing countries like Ethiopia where the burden of infectious diseases is relatively grater and healthcare spending is low. Drug resistance can be a natural phenomenon. Its proliferation, however, is attributed to multifaceted factor such as overuse and misuse of antibiotics. Nonprescription   sale of antibiotic is one of the major reasons to increase antibiotic consumption which facilitates emergence of drug resistance.  

Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, effectiveness of antibiotic consumption, drug resistance, proliferation, infection, therapeutic effectiveness.


Acupressure and Magnetic Healing In relation To Elaeocarpus Ganitrus Seed (Rudraksha)

Subhashish Tripathy* 1, Anil Mida2, Sudhansu Ranjan Swain2

1.Dept. Pharmaceutical Science OPJS University1-2, Churu, Rajasthan- India

2.Director at Moradabad Educational Trust Group of Institutions Faculty of Pharmacy, Moradabad Ylrededores, India


Elaeocarpus Ganitrus Seed (Rudraksha) beads have several amazing medicinal property due to its electromagnetic property even when we keep a genuine original Rudraksha beads  between two cupper  coin it response to it by physical movement. When it touches to human body it control human bioelectric energy and give the wearer better coordination with his body and mind giving better concentration, mental strength and Antiageing property .Sometime it is believe that Rudraksha has natural piezoelectric effect that mean  that it has the ability to generate electric charge in response to applied mechanical stress. Acupressure is solid, controlled and timed pressure applied by thumb, fingers, or elbow, on specific pain-causing sore point of the muscles. No drugs or other medicines or other medicinal device are used. Acupressure points generally called potent points are spot on the skin that are especially sensitive to bioelectrical impulses in the body and conduct those impulses readily there by reliving pain in our body. Similarly magnetic field also affects our body and mind. In the lack of a magnetic field, the stage of charge of subatomic particles diminishes, ensuing in the reduced overall charge of atoms. This process causes nutritional elements in our body to become depolarized, thus rendering them almost unusable by the body. Therefore the biological system may develop character of imbalance and impaired functioning so  exposing the body to certain magnetic fields restores the subatomic and Bioenergetics balance of the biological organism, thereby naturally alleviating many existing Health conditions. . This review article is aimed at explaining the effect of Elaeocarpus Ganitrus Seed (Rudraksha) medicinal property in response with acupressure and magnetic healing.

Keywords: Rudraksha, Antiageing property, Acupressure, electromagnetic property, magnetic healing.


HPTLC Estimation and Antibacterial Effect of Methanolic Extract of Andrographis Paniculata Stem Under Accelerated Storage Condition

Mrinalini Damle1*, Shivani Rao1, Namrata Gujar1

1. Department of Quality   Assurance, AISSMS College of Pharmacy, Kennedy Road, Near R.T.O., Pune-411001, Maharashtra, India.


Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceace) commonly known as “kalmegh” and also called as “king of bitters” is used from ancient time. The main active constituents present in Andrographis paniculata is Andrographolide. The present study deals with comparative study of assay by HPTLC method and antibacterial activity for Andrographis paniculata extract at accelerated storage condition for a period of 6 months. The antibacterial activity of methanolic extract of dried stems of Andrographis paniculata was determined by broth dilution method against gram-positive bacterial strain (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative bacterial strain (Escherichia coli). For HPTLC method, the active marker, andrographolide and extract was spotted on the plates precoated with silica gel 60 F254 and developed using chloroform: methanol(9:1v/v) as mobile phase. Densitometric analysis was carried out at 226 nm. The method showed high sensitivity with good linearity over the concentration range of 200-1000ng/spot. The peak for andrographolide was observed at Rf of 0.34 ±0.02. The aim of our study was to observe the effect of accelerated storage on assay of pure marker and marker in the extract. The analysis was carried out at 1,2,3,6 months study as per ICH guidelines for stability testing of drug at storage condition of 40ºC ± 2ºC/75% RH ± 5% RH.

Keywords: Andrographolide, Andrographis paniculata Antimicrobial activity, accelerated storage condition.


Evaluation of the Antidepressant Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Clitorea ternatea Leaves In Mice.

Purnima Bordoloi1*, MandeepSarma Basistha2, Shreyashi Dasgupta3

1.Department of Pharmacology, Gauhati Medical college Hospital


The study was conducted to evaluate the antidepressant activity of ethanolic extract of Clitorea ternatea leaves in mice.  This test was done using healthy albino mice weighing 20-25gm each of either sex in the Department of Pharmacology of Gauhati Medical College. They were housed in standard laboratory condition at 25ºC and fed on standard diet and water ad libitum. Five groups were selected each containing six mice. The groups were Group I (Normal Control), Group II (Disease Control), Group III (Fluoxetine 10mg/kg i.p),Group IV (Ethanolic extract of Clitorea ternatea leaves 150mg/kg i.p) and Group V (Ethanolic extract of Clitorea ternatea leaves 300mg/kg i.p). Reserpine (2mg/kg i.p) was used to induce depression in all the groups except the Normal Control. After 24 hours, the standard and test drugs were given and the mice were subjected to tail suspension test (TST) after 30 mins and forced swim test (FST) after 1 hour of injecting the drugs.  Mean±SEM values were calculated for each group. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and post analysis was done by Dunnett’s test. Results were found to be significant (p<0.05). The period of immobility was found to be reduced in the test groups in a dose dependent manner as compared to the Disease Control. However, the episodes and the duration of immobility was minimum in the Standard group. Ethanolic extract of Clitorea ternatea leaves has been found to be effective in reversing reserpine induced depression in mice.

Keywords: Clitorea ternatea, Reserpine, Antidepressant, Forced Swim Test,Tail Suspension Test .


Antibacterial And Antifungal Activity of Mimosa pudica Linn. Against the selected bacterial and fungal strains.

Bhargab Jyoti Sahariah1*, Rama Kanta Sharma2, Mangala Lahkar3, Nayan Talukdar1

1. Department of Pharmacy & Biotechnology, Assam down town University, Panikhaiti, Guwahati, Assam, PIN-781026

2.Department of RS & VK, Govt. Ayurvedic College,Guwahati-781014

3.Department of Pharmacology, Guwahati Medical College, Guwahati-781032


The Mimosa pudica Linn. is a plant having multi activity and has been using as a single herb or as in polyherbal preparation from the prehistoric time. The plant is claimed to be Anthelminthic, antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antitussive, antiviral, calmative, contraceptive, depilatory, diuretic ,emetic, expectorant , poison, sedative and tranquilizing by different traditional practitioner, different community and in different literature. While in Ayurveda it was mentioned that the decoction of the whole plant was used to wash the vaginal infections. From different literature, it is come to know that in Bangladesh and in Sudan it is used in UTI and Oral infections. A clear justification arises that the plant may have antimicrobial activity.  Finally plant were tested against six microbial strain out of which two were gram positive bacteria, two were gram negative bacteria and two were fungal strain. Staphylococcus aureus  MTCC 3160, Straphylococcus saprophyticus MTCC 96 , Klebsiella pneumonia MTCC 4032, Escherichia coli MTCC 1303, Aspergillus niger MTCC 281 & Candida albicans MTCC 1637 obtained from department of microbiology, down town hospital, Guwahati were the choice of test organisms. The inhibition of zone were tested using the disc diffusion method. Ciprofloxacin and Fluconazole were used as positive control for the bacterial and fungal strain respectively whereas DMSO was used as negative control. The activity indexes were determined.

Keyword:  Mimosa, Ayurveda, Vaginal, UTI, Herb.


Isolation and Screening of Extracellular Lipase Producing Fungi From Soil

Arun Kumar Sharma1, Vinay Sharma1*, Jyoti Saxena2,

1Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Banasthali University, Rajasthan, India

2Department of Biochemical Engineering, Bipin Tripathi Kumaon Institute of Technology, Dwarahat, Uttrakhand


Microbial lipases (extracellular in origin) are the most broadly utilized industrial enzymes. Some industries (detergent, food, oil and paper) demand for lipolytic microbes to fulfill several applications. Therefore, identification and isolation of lipolytic fungi from soil is very significant for such industries. Soil is the best habitat for several microorganisms, secreting enzymes of extracellular origin thus soil samples were obtained from five diverse oil mills of Newai town and were utilized in the current study. Soil samples were processed by serial dilution agar plate method for the isolation of fungi in PDA (Potato dextrose agar) plates. Isolated fungi were further qualitatively evaluated for extracellular lipase production on tributyrin agar (TBA) medium. Lipolytic activity was identified by the formation of halo zone (clear zone of tributyrin degradation) around colonies of fungi. Formation of clear zone around the colonies indicated the production of extracellular lipase, which hydrolyzed the tributyrin and opacity of the medium around such colonies was not retained. Among the all tested thirty one fungal isolates for extracellular lipase production in TBA media, twelve isolates demonstrated zone of hydrolysis. Based on the interpretation of primary screening, four fungal isolates (LPF-5, LPF-9, LPF-17 and LPF-28) were further confirmed for extracellular lipase production in SmF using quantitative method. Among the four isolates, Maximum lipase production (82.21 ± 0.90 U mL-1 min-1) was obtained by isolate LPF-5 at 72 h of incubation at 28 ºC.

Key words: Lipase, lipolytic microbes, tributyrin agar medium, zone of hydrolysis, quantitative assay


Pattern of Antimicrobial Use In The Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Gauhati Medical College Hospital, Assam, India

Diptimayee Devi1*, PurnimaBordoloi1, BinitaSingha1, Shreyashi Dasgupta1, DibyajyotiDeka1

1.Department of Pharmacology, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati-32, Assam, India


The aim of the present study was to study the pattern of antimicrobial drug use in the OPD of the Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Guwahati with reference to the drugs prescribed, dosage forms and routes of administration, average number of drugs per prescription and prescriptions by generic names. This was a prospective cross-sectional observational prescription based study conducted for a period of three months from September, 2015 to December, 2015. Regular visits were made to the OPD and data regarding patient demographics and drugs prescribed were collected in a predetermined format. The data was then recorded in Microsoft Excel and analyzed. A total of 114 prescriptions were analyzed of which 73(64%) were male patients and the rest, female. Most patients belonged to the age group of 51-60 years. Fluoroquinolones were the most commonly prescribed antimicrobial class. Among individual drugs, Moxifloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Gatifloxacin, Fluconazole, Cefixime, Natamycin, Amoxycillin-Clavulanic acid, Ceftriaxone-Sulbactam and Metronidazole were the antimicrobials prescribed in descending order of frequency. The commonest dosage form prescribed was eye drops followed by tablets, eye ointment and intravenous injection. Most prescriptions contained only two drugs per patient. 19% of the total drugs were prescribed by their generic names. Antimicrobial drugs are one of the commonly used drug classes in most cases attending the Ophthalmology OPD either to treat ocular infections or to prevent them. Steps must be taken to sensitize the prescribers regarding rational use of antimicrobials and emphasis should be laid on strengthening the hospital drug supply chain.

Keywords: Prescription pattern, Antimicrobial, Ophthalmology


Role of HPT Markers in β Thalassemia Major Patients

Surbhi Choubey*1 , Anupama Patne1

1.Peoples college of medical science and research centre, Bhopal(M.P.)


Patients of beta thalassemia major undergo frequent blood transfusion along with chelating therapy as a part of their treatment regimen which considerably prolonged survival of patients. However, hyper-perfusion results in iron deposition in multiple endocrine glands which leads to endocrine dysfunction. Hypoparathyrodism is a well known syndrome which is associated with beta thalassemia and seems to be cause of hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. The cause of hypoparathyrodism is assumed to be due to iron deposition in parathyroid glands. This study is conducted to determine the serum calcium and phosphorous in 30 patients of beta thalassemia major. We recommend parathyroid hormone profile should be checked regularly in all patients with transfusion dependent beta thalassemia major and suggest that these tools may be applicable to other cases of suspected HPT.

Keywords: Beta thalassemia, Hypoparathyrodism, Calcium, Phosphorous



Evaluation of Antiretroviral-Related Problems and Interventions by the Clinical Pharmacist in Hospitalized HIV-Infected Patients At Omdurman Management And clinical unit of HIV/AIDS Center (OMACU) Sudan, Khartoum, Omdurman

Nada Abdelrahman Mohamed Ibrahim

Department of pharmacy practice ,unaizah  college  of pharmacy  ,Qassim university ,Alqasssim, Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia 


The aim of the study was to identify antiretroviral-related problems in the prescribing of medication to Sudanese HIV-infected inpatients and to determine the degree of acceptance of the pharmacist's interventions. This study was carried out at Omdurman Teaching Hospital (OTH) by a clinical pharmacist trained in HIV pharmacotherapy for one year prospectively. The interaction of antiretroviral was checked for contraindicate combination. Inpatient antiretroviral prescriptions were compared with outpatient (hospital records) dispensing records for reconciliation. Renal and hepatic functions were monitored to check dose adjustments whenever it is needed. The prescriptions for 100 admissions (80 patients) were reviewed. Thirty antiretroviral-related problems were identified in 40 patients (50%). The most common problem was contraindicated combinations (n=10; 33.33%), followed by incorrect dose (n=5;16.7%), dose omission (n=4;13.3%), lack of dosage reduction in patients with renal or hepatic impairment  (n=4;13.3%) ,omission of an antiretroviral (n=3; 10%), incorrect schedule according to outpatient treatment (n=2 ;6.7%),prescriptionofalternativeantiretroviraldrugs(n=2;6.7%).Fifteen out of 20 errors were made during admission. A multivariate analysis, the factors associated with an increased risk of HAART-related problems ,were renal impairment OR 4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.400 to 11.320, treatment with lopinovir (OR 3.75; 95% CI 0.0198 to 50.44) and admission to a unit other than an infectious diseases unit (OR2.515; 95% CI 0.0300 to 5.00). Prescription1.5 to7.558 of a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor was a protective factor (OR 0.30; 95% CI 0.1339 to 0.850). Ninety per cent of the pharmacist's interventions were accepted.
Antiretroviral-related errors affected more than one-in-three patients. The most common causes of error were contraindicated or not recommended drug–drug combinations and dose-related errors. A well-trained clinical pharmacist would help to detect medication problems and promote for antiretroviral drugs use rationally

Keywords: antiretroviral drugs, HIV-infected inpatients