American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
July 2016 Issue 7

Mouth Dissolving Tablets: A Novel Drug Delivery System

Gagandeep Chawla1*, Ajeet Singh1, Gurcharan Singh1, Ankush Kumar1, Pankaj Kumar1

1.Regional Drugs Testing Laboratories, Chandigarh


Mouth dissolving tablets have becomes the most demanding application during last decades and in the pharmaceutical industry this field has become a rapidly area. These mouth dissolving tablets can be given anytime, anywhere to anyone who needs this without the presence of water and these will show the effective action in few minutes. Mouth dissolving tablets during insertion in the mouth should have to dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth within 15sec to 3 minutes without the help or need of any drinking agent like water.

Keywords: Mouth dissolving tablets, Novel drug delivery System, Patient’s compliance.


Susceptibility of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae against chloroform fraction of ethanol extract of Pongamia pinnata leaves as mosquito repellent and larvicidal agents

Anbu Jeba Sunilson J*1,2, Anandarajagopal K2, Anita Gnana Kumari AV2, Abdullah Khan2

1.Centre for Postgraduates Studies, KPJ Healthcare University College, Lot PT 17010, Persiaran Seriemas, Kota Seriemas, Nilai, Malaysia

2.School of Pharmacy, KPJ Healthcare University College, Lot PT 17010, Persiaran Seriemas, Kota Seriemas, Nilai, Malaysia


Organic repellents and insecticides derived from plant products have been evaluated as alternatives to synthetic products used as repellents and chemical insecticides. Leaf extracts of Pongamia pinnata were evaluated for repellent and insecticide activity against Culex quinquefaciatus. 100% mortality and no survival of C. quinquefaciatus was observed in the ethanol extract (1000mg/l) treated group. Also the ethanol extract exhibited significant (P<0.05) larvicidal activity at the concentration of 250 mg/l. The chloroform soluble fraction of ethanol extract (25mg/l) exhibited significant (P<0.05) larvicidal activity against C. quinquefaciatus, and also showed significant (P<0.05) repellent against adult C. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.  The larvicidal activity of the leaf extracts was similar to the synthetic insecticide, malathion at different concentrations. Results demonstrate a potential alternative application for leaves of P. pinnata for the control of C. quinquefaciatus.

Keywords: Pongamia pinnata, Culex quinquefaciatus, Ethanol extract, Chloroform fraction, Larvicidal, Repellent


Analysis of Mother Tinctures with the help of High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography

Atul Balasaheb Rajgurav1, Parth Aphale1*

1.Dr. D.Y. Patil Homoeopathic Medical College & Research Centre, Pune


HPTLC is an analytical technique based on TLC, but with enhancements intended to increase the resolution of the compounds to be separated and to allow quantitative analysis of the compounds. It is a sophisticated and automated form of TLC. The procedure simultaneously processes the sample and standard that results in better analytical precision and accuracy at a faster pace. It allows several analyses to be done at the same time. HPTLC is a highly sophisticated equipment used for qualitative as well as quantitative analysis of drug ingredients i.e. glycosides, alkaloids etc. that are present in the tinctures and extracts. It is also used for developing in-house standardization of mother tinctures and developing analytical methods for testing mother tinctures. HPTLC method is very simple, powerful, rapid, reliable and cost effective with respect to the accuracy of the result based on both qualitative and quantitative analysis. For homoeopathic formulations, development of standard procedure through HPTLC is a new approach which may lead to proper standardization of different homoeopathic tinctures based on fingerprinting characteristics. This investigation shows that these particular characteristics may be used as standardization tool for homoeopathic tinctures more effectively and most accurately and is utmost essential which could enable the society in general to have quality homoeopathic formulations on one hand and to gain a momentum in homoeopathic medicine on the other. These types of findings, however, cannot rule out the need of further standardization and evaluation of various homoeopathic formulations but definitely it may lead to a new way in the development of standard procedures for different homoeopathic mother tinctures as well as various other formulations.1

Keywords: Standardization of homeopathic mother tinctures; Qualitative as well as quantitative analysis of drug ingredients.


A study on Utilization of antibiotics in Paediatric In – patient department of SVRR Government general hospital, Tirupathi

P. Yanadaiah1*,  Bandla. Aswani1, Purushothama Reddy. K

1. Department of Pharmacy Practice, Narayana Pharmacy College, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, South India. PIN - 524002.


Antibiotics are the most commonly prescribed drugs in paediatrics and can be a biggest threat of growing   resistance in children. It is always preferable to choose a single drug with a narrowest spectrum effective for pathogen. Combination antibiotic therapy may provide synergistic effect but there is a chance of getting drug resistance particularly in paediatrics. Paediatrics, a specialized population is at a significant risk for drug related problems in particular when they exposed to multiple drug therapy and complex illness. Monitoring and control of antibiotic usage and detailed knowledge of antibiotic prescribing practice is important now-a-days. The aim of our study was to analyse the Utilization of antibiotics in paediatric department of Sri Venkata Ramnaraine Ruia Government General Hospital (SVRRGGH), Tirupathi. A Prospective observational study was carried out for 3 months using patient data collection proforma and clinical significance of 120 individual cases were recorded.  The data were analysed by descriptive statistics. The utilization of antibiotics in emergency ward, general ward and ICU were observed. More number of prescriptions was observed in the emergency ward (53.33 %).  Most of the paediatric patients receiving parenteral preparations (81.8 %) and 55.62 % of prescriptions were based on empirical therapy. In our study 66.66 % of paediatric patients were on single antibiotic. Cephalosporins (42.2 %) were the most commonly prescribed antibiotics in three departments followed by Pencillins (22.7 %) and least prescribed group was Fluroquinolones (2.13 %). This information was helpful to analyse the clinical judgment on selection of antibiotics in paediatrics of SVRRGGH.

Keywords: Paediatrics, antibiotics, resistance, emergency ward, general ward, ICU.


Novel anticancer compounds from plant sources

Samer Shamshad

Department of Biotechnology, IMS Engineering College, NH-24, Adhyatmik Nagar, Ghaziabad. Uttar Pradesh - 201009 India.


Plants remain a significant basis of new drugs and new drug leads to the new chemical entities. Plant based drug discovery give rise to the development of anti-cancer and anti-proliferative agents, and continues to add to the new leads in clinical trials. Products of plant drugs play a dominant role in pharmaceutical care and in treatment of various diseases. Several plant-derived compounds are positive results in cancer treatment. There are several classes of plant-derived cytotoxic natural products studied for further improvement and development of drugs. New anticancer drugs derived from research on plant antitumor agents will be continuously discovered. The basic aim of this research article is to explore the potential of newly discovered anticancer compounds from medicinal plants, as a lead for anticancer drug development. It will be helpful to explore the medicinal value of plants and for new drug discovery from them for the researchers and scientists around the globe. In search of novel  anti-cancer compounds I have selected two different medicinal plants Elettaria cardamomum and Ferula assa-foetida.

Keywords: Cancer, Anti-cancer agents, Medicinal plants, Elettaria cardamomum  and Ferula assa-foetida leaves.




Preparation and Evaluation of Donepezil Loaded Nanoparticles

Renu Tiruwa1*,  Sayantan Mukhopadhyay1, Preeti Kothiyal1

1.Shri Guru Ram Rai Institute of Technology and Science, Patel Nagar, Dehradun, Uttrakhand.248001.


The purpose of the present study was to formulate and evaluate donepezill loaded nanoparticles for effective treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Drug loaded nanoparticles was prepared by using modified nanoprecipitation technique, for this Ethyl Cellulose was selected as polymer in different ration with drug. The prepared nanoparticles were then subjected to several evaluation parameters like measurement of particles size, zeta potential, surface morphology, surface entrapment and drug content, in vitro dissolution study and stability study. Experimental results revealed that % yield was in range of 33.5% to 40.83% and drug entrapment was 70.003% to 86.8%. Particle size evaluation clearly state that prepared formulation within nano range (61.21 to 265.6 nm). Zeta potential value was find in the range of -32.9 to -17.4 mv and surface morphology study indicate smooth surface without fracture. In vitro release study shows that drug was released at a control rate and release rate depends on polymeric concentration. By kinekic study it was observed that zero order model is dominant for all five formulations and in all cases a super case II transport mechanism is dominant. After comparing all the evaluation parameter, formulation F4 was selected as optimized formulation and subjected for stability study which indicate that optimized formulation was stable. From this experiment it was clearly concluded that Donepezil Hydrochloride (model drug) can be successfully delivered to brain by preparing the nanoformulation at a control rate.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Donepezil, Modified nanoprecipitation method, Stability study


A Clinical Study of Surgical Management of Intestinal Obstruction

Banesh jain*¹, Anandkrvijay1, Pratik porwal1, R S meena2

1.  3rd year Resident, Department of General Surgery, Government Medical College and Associated Group of Hospitals , Kota (Rajasthan), 324001, India

2.Senior Professor and Head Department of General Surgery, Government Medical College and Associated Group of Hospitals , Kota (Rajasthan), 324001, India


In routine practice every surgeon has to come across this surgical emergency and treatment would largely depend on early diagnosis and skillful management. The objective is to study various causes, symptomatology, various modalities (surgical) of treatment, the role of imaging studies in determining the etiology and intervention and complications of various surgical procedures of intestinal obstruction. A total number of 50 cases of intestinal obstruction have been studied between April 2014 to june 2015, patients who attended OPD and emergency department at Govt Medical college and Associated Group of Hospitals, KOTA Rajasthan with history and clinical picture suggestive of intestinal obstruction, also the patients who had hernia with recent onset of irreducibility, pain, vomiting and constipation were also included in this study. Paediatric  patients and patients who were having sub acute or adynamic intestinal obstruction treated conservatively were excluded from the study. The study was of 50 patients  done in all age groups ranging from 11 to 80yrs with a mean age of 44.8 years. Maximum incidence was seen between age group of 51-60 yrs (22%) followed by the age group 41-50 (20%). Males are more commonly involved (4.5:1) than females and small bowel is more commonly involved (70%). And adhesion followed by obstructed hernia are common cause of intestinal obstruction. Apart from postoperative adhesion other causes of intestinal obstruction like obstructed inguinal hernia, tubercular stricture, large bowel volvulus and large bowel neoplasms should be dealt promptly to prevent strangulation. Early diagnosis and emergent management are the key of better outcome.

Keywords: Small intestine, Large intestine, Intestinal obstruction, Adhesions, obstructed inguinal hernia, Volvulus,  Intussusception, Ultrasonography, CECT scan, Serum electrolyte, Resection and anastomosis.


Formulation and Evaluation of Pulsatile Release Tablets of Meloxicam

Siva Jyothi. J1*, Sujatha. S2, Jyothi .N 3, Rami Reddy. G4, Kishore Kumar. K5

1.Department of Pharmaceutics, St. Ann’s College of Pharmacy, Chirala-523 155

2.Department of Pharmaceutics, Narayana Pharmacy College, Nellore-524 002

3.Department of Pharmaceutical analysis, Shadan   College of pharmacy for women, Hyderabad-500 004.

4.General manager  Aurobindo Pharma Limited, The Water Mark Building, Kondapur, Hitech City, Hyderabad- 500 084

5.Department of Pharmaceutics, Malla Reddy College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad-500 100


The aim of the present work is to develop a pH and time dependent pulsatile release tablets of Meloxicam for delivering the drug into colon. The system consists of a drug containing core, coated by a combination of natural polymer locust bean gum and hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMCK100M) in various proportions to control the onset of release. The whole system was coated with Methacrylic acid copolymers to prevent the drug release in stomach and also to prolong the lag time. Meloxicam was used as a model drug and varying combinations of locust bean gum and HPMCK100M were used to achieve the desired lag time before rapid and complete release of drug in colon takes place. It was observed that the lag time depends on the coating ratio of LBG and HPMC and also on press coating weight. The drug release was to be increased by 15-30% in the presence of colonic microbial flora. The present study demonstrates that the Meloxicam enteric coated tablets could be successfully formulated as a pulsatile drug delivery by the design of a time and PH dependent Chronotherapeutic formulation.

Keywords: Pulsatile drug delivery, Meloxicam, Locust bean gum, Chronotherapeutics, hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose, Methacrylic acid copolymers, press and enteric coated tablets. 



Synthesis and Characterization of N-N- {Bis(2′-Chloroethylamino)- Nitroso}-2-Benzylidene-1-Benzofuran Derivatives as Antileukemic Agents

V. Murugan1, Shrideep Bhattacharjee1, AR Mahesh1*

1.Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dayananda Sagar University, Bengaluru


Aurones [2-benzylidine-1-benzofuran-3(2H)-ones] and its derivatives constitute a class of heterocyclic compounds have an extensive applications in drug development containing benzofuranone molecule. Aurones have been isolated from various natural sources and have been reported for their potent Anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory activities. Alkylating neoplastic agents such as nitrogen mustards interfere with cellular proliferation. Based on the above consideration we have synthesized around eight benzofuran derivatives containing nitrogen mustard and screened for their In-Vitro Cytotoxic activity. Synthesis of N-N {Bis(2’-chloroethylamino)-Nitroso}-2-benzylidene-1-benzofuran was carried out by reacting O-hydroxy acetophenones with substituted benzaldehyde in presence of aqueous NaOH and  was neutralized with 1N HCl to get chalcones, which was further refluxed with  a mixture of CuBr2 in DMSO and the reaction mixture was cooled, poured on ice-cold water to get aurones. Aurones was refluxed with hydroxylamine hydrochloride, sodium acetate trihydrate for 48 hours to get oxime, further treating with chloroacetyl chloride gave N-chloroacetyl-nitroso-2-benzylidene-1-benzofuran-3(2H)-one. This was further treated with Bis (2-chloroethyl) amine in pyridine to yield N-N {Bis(2’-chloroethylamino)-Nitroso}-2-benzylidene-1-benzofuran. The newly synthesized benzofuran derivatives were screened for their In-Vitro Cytotoxic activity against Breast cancer cell line. All the synthesized eight compounds showed mild to low cytotoxic activity.

Keywords: Benzofuran derivatives, alkylating agents, cancer, In-Vitro Cytotoxic activity.


Biosynthesis, antimicrobial effect and DNA damage study of gold nanoparticles with Cinnamomum zeylanicum

Sweety S Pulikkottil1*, Sathya M1, Sakthi Shree1

1.P.G. and Research department of Zoology, Government arts college, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu


Objective of the study was to synthesize gold nanoparticles using bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and study its antimicrobial property and DNA damage. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized using powdered aqueous extract of bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum. Green synthesis method was used. It was done using two different concentrations of Chloroauric acid 2mM and 1mM. Characterization studies were done with the synthesized nanoparticles. They were also checked for its antibacterial and antifungal activity through microbiological techniques. Also the plant extract and solution containing were tested for DNA damage through Agarose gel electrophoresis. Cinnamomum zeylanicum supported the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Characterization studies like FTIR, UV – VIS spectroscopy, SEM, and XRD were carried out. GNPs in the range of 35 – 80nm were obtained. The antibacterial and antifungal study showed clear zones of inhibition of microbial growth. The image projected through UV – Transilluminator proves that there is no DNA damage. The results indicate that Cinnamomum zeylanicum is a good support plant for synthesis of gold nanoparticles and also the biologically synthesized GNPs has antimicrobial activity and also it is safe since it does not damage DNA.

Keywords: Cinnamomum zeylanicum, gold nanoparticles, green synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial assay, DNA damage study



Prescription Pattern of Anti Diabetics In Diabetic Patients

Pathan AmanUlla Khan1*, Dr. Sobia Noor2, Ayesha Farhath Fatima3, N. Swati3, Nawaz Mohammed Khan4

1.Clinical Pharmacist, Wood lands Multi-specialty Hospital, Barkatpura, Hyderabad

2. Department of Pharmacy Practice, Anwar-Ul-Uloom College Of Pharmacy, Hyderabad

3. Department Of Pharmaceutics, Anwar-Ul-Uloom College Of Pharmacy, Hyderabad

4. Department Of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Anwar-Ul-Uloom College Of Pharmacy, Hyderabad


Diabetes is a chronic disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The present study objective is to assess the prescription pattern of anti diabetics in diabetic patients. A prospective observational study was carried out for a period of one month in the department of medicine of BMCH&RC teaching hospital. The study result shows that among 56 patient’s 26 (46.4%) males and 30 (51.78%) females were enrolled.  Among these 17 (30.35%) were in the age group of 61-70 years. Among the various anti diabetics, sulfonylureas were accounted for 8.77%. Among the study Population, 40 (70.17%) patients were treated with insulin Inj and 10 (17.54%) of the total drugs were fixed dose combination. our study concluded that insulin and sulfonylurea’s were the most commonly prescribed and more patients were treated with poly-pharmacy. The average numbers of drugs per prescription were 6. Study was conducted for a short period of time hence the no. of patients were less.

Keywords: Diabetes, Poly pharmacy, Prescription patterns, Sulphonylureas, Biguanides.



Experimental Pathological Study of Cell Phone’s Harmful Effect on Blood, BP and Heart Rate with Its Protection by Natural Electromagnetic seed Rudraksha

Subhashish Tripathy* 1, Priyanka Dixit2, Pragya Seth3

1.Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Maharana Pratap college of Pharmacy, Kanpur, UP, India


Today time is the time of digital technology .people accomplished many wonderful things when they get themselves connected to each other and it mostly happens due to the use of mobile phone .but excessive use of mobile phone can affect our health by damaging our body immune system, blood particle and its density, deformability of red blood cell, reproductive system, brain cell, changes neuronal activity .Radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RFEMF) produced by mobile phone is lethal to body because 70% of human body is made of water and due to watery composition of our body the radiation is absorbed in human body and sometime also cause cancer. But this can be protected partially by natural electromagnetic bead known as Rudraksha. Rudraksha are nothing but the seeds of the plant Elaeocarpus Ganitrus which is famous for its medicinal property from the ancient time. It is proven in modern scientific lab that this seed have definite electromagnetic property. In the present experimental study attempt has been made to show natural prevention technique of harmful radiations of mobile phone by the help of Elaeocarpus Ganitrus seed Rudraksha.

Keywords: Rudraksha, Mobile phone, BP, Heart Rate, RFEMF, Electromagnetic Property



Coelomic Fluid of Earthworm In Suppression of Bacterial Pathogens

Padmashree Kulkarni1*, Geeta Kaicker1  Radha D. Kale2

1.Centre for Scientific Research and Advanced Learning, Mount Carmel College  Bengaluru

2.School of Sciences, IGNOU, New Delhi


Since earthworms live in hostile conditions, they have well-developed defense mechanisms to fight against the invading microbes. In the present study antibacterial activity of the coelomic fluid of earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae (EE) was tested against selected Gram positive bacterial pathogens namely, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis procured from MTCC, Chandigarh, India. Two different screening techniques were followed under laboratory conditions to look for efficiency of coelomic fluid in suppressing growth of the pathogens. Coelomic fluid (CF) was collected from earthworm body cavity by cold shock method. In vitro antibacterial assay was done by agar dilution and disc diffusion techniques. The results indicate that S. aureus is the most sensitive organism between the two tested pathogens.  Tetracyclin and Streptomycin standard discs were used for positive control. The level of suppression by CF was almost on par with that of tetracyclin. This preliminary study is an indication that there is a possibility for identifying and using the antibacterial factor from CF of earthworm to suppress these pathogens in place of prevailing antibiotics in the market.

Keywords: Coelomic fluid, Gram positive bacteria, Tetracyclin, Streptomycin, Antibacterial factor