American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
June 2015 Issue 6

A Review on Incretins

Sujatha Byna*1, Krishnaveni Manubolu1, Munna Sreenivasulu2, P Yanadaiah3

1. Department of Pharmaceutics, Narayana Pharmacy College, Chintha Reddy Palem, Nellore- 524002, Andhra Pradesh, India.

2. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Narayana Pharmacy College, Chintha Reddy, Palem, Nellore-524002, Andhra Pradesh, India.

3. Department of  Pharmacology, Narayana Pharmacy College, Chintha Reddy, Palem, Nellore-524002, Andhra Pradesh, India.


Now a days Diabetes is a dreadful disease which alter the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fatty acids. Most commonly occurring type is non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus which may affect 90-95% of the people. Incretins are becoming popular these days. Incretins are gut hormones secreted in response to food. They mainly increase the secretion of insulin. Now a days Incretin mimetics, DPP- IV inhibitors are used in the treatment of type-2 diabetes. However, many oral hypoglycemics are available, but still there is a need to overcome the problems associated with oral hypoglycemics.

Keywords: Diabetes, Incretins.


Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Risk Factors Among Senior Citizens Attending NIUM Hospital Bengaluru

Abdul Azeez Rizwana1*, Arish Mohammad Khan Sherwani2, Mohamed Haniffa Mohamed Hafeel3

1. PG scholar, Dept of Tahaffuzi wa Samaji Tib, National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bengaluru.

2. Reader, Dept of Tahaffuzi wa Samaji Tib, National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bengaluru.

3. PG scholar, Dept of Moalijat, National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bengaluru.


The study was designed with the objective to find the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and risk factors among senior citizens. This hospital based, cross sectional study was conducted among 250 elderly aged 60 years and above, including senior citizens of either sex, newly diagnosed and known cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus attending community medicine and geriatric OPDs of NIUM hospital, Bengaluru during stipulated period of study. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and risk factors were assessed. Survey data has been processed and analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 16.0 for windows. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus was found 45.6% as a whole. The highest and lowest prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus found among 60-65 years and above 75 years, respectively. Prevalence among Males was 30% and Females was 15.6%. Mean ± SD of FBS and PPBS of type 2 DM were observed as 162.27 + 75.18 and 257.11 + 91.95, respectively. Higher prevalence of type 2 DM patients were found among BMI above 25 kg/m2. 38.8% of prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus was observed among central obese senior citizens. 26% of higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus was observed among patients had positive family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results confirmed an increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among senior citizens. Higher prevalence of type 2 DM was exhibited among senior citizens those were having obesity, overweight, hypertension and family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Newly screened cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus showed paramount importance of extension of screening programme in elderly.

Keywords: Senior citizen, Diabetes mellitus, Risk factors, Prevalence.


Development and Evaluation of Fast Dissolving Tablets of Valsartan Using Different Binders

Kanav Midha1*, Manju Nagpal1, Garima Singh1, Hudson C Polonini2, Sandeep Arora1

1. Chitkara University, Chandigarh-Patiala National Highway, Rajpura 140401.

2. Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil.


The aim of present work was to develop fast dissolving tablets of Valsartan by direct compression method using different binders such as acacia, sucrose, starch, gelatin, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) H7509, and Polyvinyl-pyrrolidone (PVP). During the compression of tablets, binders keep the composition of these fast dissolving tablets together. The right selection of binder or combination of these is essential to maintain the integrity and stability of the tablet. The prepared tablets were evaluated for parameters such as hardness, friability, drug content, weight variation, wetting time, water absorption ratio, in-vitro disintegration time, in vitro dissolution studies and stability studies. The study reveals that formulations prepared by direct compression (F5) exhibits better dissolution (90.57%) with lowest disintegration time (40 seconds) containing sucrose as binding agent.

Keywords: Fast dissolving tablets, Superdisintegrants, Direct Compression, Disintegration


Comparative Study on Effect of Natural and Synthetic Super disintegrants in the Formulation of Fast Dissolving Palatable Tablets of an Antiemetic Drug

Ankit Acharya1*, Ayush Acharya2, Saroj Paudel3

1. Dept of Pharmaceutics, Sri Adichunchanagiri College of Pharmacy, B.G. Nagara-571448 Karnataka, India.

2. Dept of Pharmaceutics, R.R College of Pharmacy, Bengaluru-560 090, Karnataka, India.

3. Dept of Pharmacy practice, Sri Adichunchanagiri College of Pharmacy, B.G. Nagara-571448 Karnataka, India.


The main objective of the present work was to formulate fast-dissolving tablets of an antiemetic drug using natural (xanthum gum, Isapgula husk and banana powder) and synthetic (crospovidone and croscarmelose) superdisintegrants by direct compression method and compare their effect on tablet formulations. This study was also aimed to find out the best superdisintegrants for the prepared formulations with better disintegrating property and better in-vitro dissolution profile. The infra red spectra of pure drug with different excipients showed no shift in peak, hence no interaction between drugs and excipients. The tablets were subjected to the various parameters like weight variation, hardness, thickness, friability, dispersion time, disintegration time, drug content and in-vitro drug release. All the powder blend showed good to acceptable flow ability as the powder blends showed angle of repose below 30°, bulk density in the range between 0.486 to 0.522 g/cm3, tapped density in the range between 0.568-0.590 g/cm3, and the compressibility index was found to be between 12.71 and 14.98 which ensures the powder blends may be suitable for direct compression. In vitro disintegration time for all formulation batches i.e. F1 to F15 showed wide variation in the range between 23 to 36 seconds. Percentage drug content for all tablets were in between 94.4 to 97.25%. In vitro dissolution study for all tablets was performed and formulation F11 containing Isapgula husk as natural superdisintegrants showed 97.25% drug release within 8 minutes, which might be due to swelling ability of Isapgula husk.

Keywords: Domperidone maleate, fast dissolving tablets, super disintegrants, direct compression.


Effect of Aquatic Weed Ulva Rigida on Growth and Proximate Composition of Sailfin Molly, Poecilia latipinna

Felicitta J1*, Sornaraj.R1

1. Dept of Advanced Zoology and Biotechnology, Kamaraj college, Tuticorin- 628003


The impact of different concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20%) of the seaweed, Ulva rigida on the growth performances and proximate composition on Poecilia latipinna was examined. Better growth performances in terms of weight gain, FCR, SGR, ADG and RWG were recorded in E2 (10%) Ulva rigida group. Beyond that concentration, the growth started declining. As far as the body composition was considered, E2 showed the highest and significantly different (p<0.05) protein content. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the carbohydrate and lipid levels among the groups.

Key words: Ulva rigida, growth performances, proximate composition, Poecilia latipinna.


A Comparative Study between the Effect of Simvastatin and Sitagliptin Combined and the Effect of a Large Dose of Each in an Early Treatment of Experimentally Induced Colitis in Mice

Rania Elkatary1, Karawan Abdelrahman1, Amal Hassanin1*, Ahlam Elmasry1, Amr Elkaref2

1. Clinical Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt

2. Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt


Ulcerative colitis is a chronic-relapsing, progressive inflammatory bowel disease characterized by diffuse mucosal inflammation of the colon. Repeated damage and injury of the intestinal surface are key features of inflammatory bowel disease. It can be concluded that sitagliptin is partially effective for treatment of experimentally induced ulcerative colitis model in mice. Furthermore, it can be also concluded that effects of simvastatin treatment were mostly dose dependantfor treatment of experimentally induced ulcerative colitis model in mice. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate effect of combination of sitagliptin and simvastatin as an early treatment of experimentally induced ulcerative colitis in mice. Furthermore in this study, effect of large dose of either sitagliptin or simvastatin will be compared with combination of both drugs. Thirty mice were equally divided into the following groups: control group, non-treated DSS-induced colitis group, DSS-induced colitis mice treated with simvastatin(50mg/kg/d)group, DSS-induced colitis mice treated with sitagliptin (100 mg/kg/day) group, DSS-induced colitis mice treated with sitagliptin (20mg/kg/d) combined with simvastatin (5mg/kg/d) group. Combination of sitagliptin 20 mg/kg/d + simvastatin 5 mg/kg/d produced a significant decrease in serum TNF-α, colonic tissue MDA & NO levels.Furthermore, reduced glutathione was significantly increased up to near normal level. As regard colon length, it returned to nearly normal length. Combination of small dose of both drugs showed 66% decrease in DAI. This combination restored normal histological appearance of the colon. This is a very good combination as regards to their small doses and consequently less adverse effects.

Keywords:  Sitagliptin, Simvastatin, TNF-α, MDA, Ulcerative colitis


Formulation and Evaluation of Etodolac Tablets as Immediate Release

T.Mangilal*1, K.S.K Rao Patnaik1,M.Satish Kumar2, L.Thirupathi2, I. Nagaraju2, P. Veeresh Kumar3

1. Department of pharmacy, UCT, OU, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

2. Geethanjali college of pharmacy, cheeryal, rangareddy district,T.S, India.

3. JPNES Group of institutions, Faculty of pharmacy, Mahabubnagar, T.S, India.


The development of an immediate release (IR) dosage form can minimize the problems associated with controlled release systems of etodolac tablets with its higher ability to release drug into blood circulation, increased bioavailability and patient acceptability. In the present study, an effort has made to formulate and evaluate an immediate release etodolac tablet works against the rheumatoid arthritis and human prostate cancer. These immediate release etodolac tablets were prepared by wet granulation process. Eighteen formulation trials were taken to optimize the final formula. From these, formulation F18 have been optimized as a final formulation. Pre-formulation studies were evaluated to measure the flow properties of pre-compressed powder blend of formulations. Then, post-compression studies include weight variation, thickness, hardness were conducted to evaluate the physical parameters of the final formulation. In vitro drug release studies were conducted to know the intrinsic drug releasing ability of etodolac tablets in dissolution medium. In addition, IR etodolac tablets shown a good stability profile. All results from pre and post-formulation studies were within the acceptable limits which are prescribed by USP. These results suggesting that optimized F18 was a stable formulation, suitable for preparation of immediate release etodolac tablet and also has good dissolution profile with that of innovator product.

Keywords: Immediate release dosage form , Etodolac, In vitro dissolution studies.


Is ischemia Modified Albumin is a Marker in Preeclampsia? A Case Control Study in Kolar Population-a South West of India

C D Dayanand*1, Vanishree Bambrana2, Nagarjuna Sivaraj3, Mary Shobha Rani Inala4

1. Department of Biochemistry, Head of Allied Health Sciences, Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College, SDUAHER, Kolar, Karnataka, 563101.

2. Department of Biochemistry, Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College, Sri Devaraj Urs academy of higher education and research, Kolar, Karnataka 563101.

3. Sri Devaraj Urs academy of higher education and research, Kolar, Karnataka 563 101.

4. Department of Allied Health Sciences, Sri Devaraj Urs academy of higher education and research, Kolar, Karnataka 563101.


Preeclampsia is a syndrome occurring in pregnancy that affects multiple systemic functions and leads to increased maternal and foetal morbidity as well as mortality. Ischemia Modified Albumin is a well-known marker of cardiac Ischemia. We aimed to test the hypothesis that variation in maternal serum Ischemia Modified Albumin (IMA) in preeclampsia during pre and post labour within 48 hours. A Longitudinal observational study was conducted between June 20 to April 2013in subjects with normal pregnancy (n=30), women with preeclampsia (n=30) and non-pregnant women (n=30) to evaluate the levels of IMA. The women studied were in 20-35thweeks of gestation visited obstetrics clinic in R.L. Jalappa hospital& Research center, Kolar, in a southern state of India. We estimated the maternal serum IMA levels before and after the delivery within 48 hours by using Albumin Cobalt Binding procedure. The results obtained were analysed by using Microsoft Excel 2013 and Quick R.  p value < 0.05 is considered as statistically significant. The Median IMA level in the preeclampsia group before delivery 1.071ABSU [inter quartile range (IQR) 0.453-1.708ABSU] and the same within 48hrs after delivery 1.013ABSU [inter quartile range (IQR) 0.526-1.774 ABSU)] was significantly lower (p<0.02) than in normal pregnant group before delivery 0.328 ABSU [inter quartile range (IQR) 0.154-0.592 ABSU] and the same within 48hrs after delivery 0.570ABSU [inter quartile range (IQR) 0.060-0.751 ABSU. However, a significant increase in IMA concentrations (p<0.001) when compared to non-pregnant women 0.101 ABSU [inter quartile range (IQR) 0.049-0.358ABSU]. In vivo modification of albumin at the amino terminal residues loose in vitro Cobalt (Co (II)) binding ability. The trend of Modified albumin as IMA in preeclampsia shows the gradual increase after the delivery within 48 hrs. However the levels of IMA in normal pregnancy show a tenfold increase than the non-pregnant women.

Keywords: Ischemia Modified Albumin, Intrauterine Hypoxia, Preeclampsia.


Implementation of Clinical Pharmacists Activities in Identifying Drug Therapy Problems and Improving Medication Adherence to Provide Better Patient Care

Ravali Gundu*1, Madhu Kandi2, Anusha Yaruva3

1. 2-2-1164/1/1, Tilak Nagar, Hyderabad-44.

2. 17-3-306/3, Nanamiya Thota, Kareemabad, Warangal-02.

3. 24/7/56, Fathima Nagar, Hanumakonda-02.


The role of a clinical pharmacist is to maximize the clinical effects of medicines by ensuring the selection of the most effective drugs for each patient, minimizing adverse drug events by monitoring the drug therapy course of the patient and improving the patient’s adherence with the drugs. To implement the clinical pharmacist activities in identifying drug therapy problems and improving medication adherence for a better patient care. The prospective observational study was conducted over a period of 6 months. The necessary data was collected from in-patient case notes, treatment charts, interview with patients or patient care givers and nursing staff. The collected data was analyzed to determine the patient drug therapy problems. This study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital for a period of 6 months. A total of 112 patients drug therapy were followed during the six months study period out of which 95 patients had drug therapy problems (DTPs). A total of 182 DTPs were identified in 95 patients, the frequency of DTPs was 1.9 percent per patient. Among 182 DTPs 102 (56%) were identified in males and 80 (43%) were identified in females. The identified DTPs are Adverse drug reactions 4 (2.19%), Interactions 118 (64.84%), Drug selection 56 (30.77%), Drug use 3 (1.65%), Monitoring 1 (0.55%) and Patient/Provider 12 (35.29%). In our study we have showed the importance of clinical pharmacy services in identifying drug therapy problems, so that they can be minimized to decrease the chances of morbid condition and improve better patient care.

Keywords: Clinical pharmacists, Drug Therapy Problems, medication adherence.


Designing of a Thermosensitive Chitosan/Poloxamer In Situ Gel for Ocular Delivery of Lomefloxacin HCl

Pooja Pawar1*, Lalita Naiknaware1, Sonali kale1

1. D.S.T.S.M’s college of pharmacy, Solapur-413004.


To increase the low bioavailability and short ocular residence time of lomefloxacin eye drops, aqueous solutions of drug in chitosan/ Pluronic (poloxamer) were prepared to identify suitable compositions with regard to gel forming properties and drug release behaviour. Mixtures of solutions of Pluronic (10-25% w/w) with chitosan (0.1-0.3% w/w) of different molecular weights (Mw) were prepared. Lomefloxacin release was determined using a membrane less dissolution model in artificial tear solution up to 8 hours and the samples were analyzed spectrophotometrically at 281nm. The rheological behaviour of solutions in response to dilution or temperature changes and also the phase change temperature (PCT) were determined using a brookfield’s viscometer. Antimicrobial effect of the solutions was studied in nutrient agar using Staphylococcus aureus by using agar well diffusion method. The formulation consisted of 15% Pluronic and 0.1% low Mw chitosan, with the highest release efficiency (41.952 %) , is suggested as a suitable ophthalmic preparation for sustained release of lomefloxacin HCl. It was liquid in non-physiologic conditions (pH 4 and 25ºC) and transferred to the gel form upon physiologic conditions (pH 7.4 and 37ºC). The PCT of this in situ gel did not change upon dilution.

Keywords: Ocular drug delivery, in situ gels, chitosan, poloxamer, phase transition temperature.


Design and Characterization of Sustained Release Nevirapine Matrix Tablets Containing Tamarind Seed Polysaccharide

Lalita Naiknaware1*, Pooja Pawar1, Sonali kale1

1. D.S.T.S.M’s college of pharmacy, Solapur-413004.


The present study was aimed to develop generic formulation of sustained release matrix tablets of Nevirapine using TSP as a hydrophilic polymer. The tamarind seed polysaccharide was extracted from tamarind kernel powder and this polysaccharide was utilized in the formulation of matrix tablets containing Nevirapine by wet granulation technique and evaluated for its drug release characteristics. TSP is a hydrophilic and rate controlling polymer. Granules were prepared and evaluated for loose bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index and angle of repose, shows satisfactory results. Formulation was optimized on the basis of acceptable tablet properties (hardness, friability, drug content and weight variations.), in vitro drug release and stability studies. All the formulations showed compliance with pharmacopoeial standards. The in vitro release study of matrix tablets were carried out in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 for 12hr. Among all the formulations, F5 shows 99.062% better controlled release at the end of 12 hr. The results indicated that a decrease in release kinetics of the drug was observed by increasing the polymer concentration. The release data was fitted to various mathematical models such as, Higuchi, Krosmeyer-Peppas, first-order, and zero order to evaluate the kinetics and mechanism of the drug release. The drug release of optimized formulations F5 follows Krosmeyer-Peppas kinetics and the mechanism was found to be diffusion coupled with erosion (non-Fickian diffusion). The stability studies were carried out according to ICH guideline which indicates that the selected formulation were stable.

Keywords: Nevirapine, Extracted tamarind seed polysaccharide, matrix tablet, sustained release, Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI’s)


Workplace Noise Induced Plasma Cortisol in Some Workers of Thoothukudi

K. Gayathri1*, A. Amutha Jaisheeba1, R. Sornaraj2

1. Research Department of Zoology and biotechnology, Kamaraj College, Thoothukudi, India


The effects of work environmental noise and perceived stress on early morning free cortisol levels after awakening were investigated in a group of workers. Previous studies revealed that cortisol levels showed a significant increase after awakening, with high intra individual stability.The aim of this study is to evaluate whether Workers exposed to environmental noise and possible psycho-social stressors could be at risk for alterations on plasma cortisol levels compared to a control group in Morning and Evening. Plasma cortisol levels were determined in 100 Construction workers, 100 Teachers and 50 Drivers.The mean cortisol values of different workers were significantly higher when compared with the control of both male and female. The mean cortisol level detected both in morning and evening were very high inWorkers when compared to the Controls. The authors hypothesise an effect on plasma cortisol levels in workers exposed to environmental noise and possible psycho-social stressors.

Keywords: Cortisol, Work environmental noise, Stress.


Phytochemical Screening and In vivo Evaluation of Anti inflammatory Activity of Fruits of Lagerstroemia speciosa L

Prasenjit Das1*, Asish Bhaumik2*, Rabindra Tripura1, Sanjoy Das1, R. Nagababu2

1. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Regional Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Abhoynagar, Agartala-799005, India.

2. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Teja College of Pharmacy, Kodad, Nalgonda-508206, Telangana State, India.


Jarul (it is also known as Banaba) is a flowering plant that grows in warm climate like the Philippines, India and others.In India, Jarul  is also used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes. The Jarul leaves and flowers contain corrosolic acid, a substance being studied for its insulin like effect of lowering the glucose in the body. Jarul is also being studied as a weight-loss supplement for its ability to delay or reduce the absorption of carbohydraes. Jarul is also rich in vitamins and minerals including zinc and magnesium. Jarul is also rich in dietary fibers. The scientific name the Jarul or Banaba is Lagerstroemia speciosa L (Lythraceae). The main objective of the present work is to evaluate the Antiinflammatory activity of fruits seeds of Lagerstroemia speciosa L. Based on this, a new series of constituents had been planned to extract by Ethanol (ELN),Methanol (MLN), Acetone (ACT)and Chloroform (CLF)from the fruit seeds of  Lagerstroemia speciosa L. The in-vivo Anti-inflammatory activity was carried out by carrageenan induced paw edema method in rats. The present experimental data displayed that all the extracts exhibited mild to good anti-inflammatory activity. All the extracts exhibited highest Anti-inflammatory activity at 120 min with the percentage protection of 63.18% (ELN), 48.95% (MLN), 44.95%(ACT) and 65.5%(CLF). Among these four extracts ELN and CLF displayed the highest antiinflammatory activity.

Keywords: Lagerstroemia speciosa L, anti-inflammatory activity, Carrageenan, Paw edema.


Synthetic Novel 1, 4-Dihydropyridine Derivatives Act as Potential Anticancer Agent Against Both Human Small Cell Lung DMS 114 Cancer Cell Line and Human Colon Cancer Cell Line HCC 2998

Asish Bhaumik1*, Bhargav Bhongiri2, K. Devika1, P. Yadagiri Reddy3, Prasenjit das4

1. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Teja College of Pharmacy, Kodad, Nalgonda-508206, Telangana State, India.

2. Department of Pharmacology, Vikas College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suryapet, Nalgonda-508213, Telangana State, India.

3. Department of Pharmaceutics, Teja College of Pharmacy, Kodad, Nalgonda-508206, Telangana, State, India.

4. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Regional Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Abhoynagar, Agartala-799005, India.


The objective of the present work was the synthesis of 1-[5-acetyl-4 (4-substituted phenyl)-2,6-dimethyl-1,4-dihydroxypyridine-3-yl]-ethan-1-one and evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity. Based on this a new series of compound had been planned to synthesize by reacting acetyl acetone with various aromatic aldehydes in the presence of ammonium acetate. The in vitro anticancer activities were carried out against Human small cell lung DMS 114 cell line and Human colon cancer cell line HCC 2998 and MTT assay was used to analyze the cell growth inhibition of the both. The results had been displayed that compound B1-B4 were possessed an excellent anticancer activity (at 25 µg/ml) against both Human small cell lung DMS 114 cancer cell line and Human colon cancer cell line HCC 2998 and doxorubicin (at 10µg/ml) was used as a standard drug for Human small cell lung DMS 114 cancer cell line and 5-Fluro uracil (5-FU) for Human colon cancer cell line HCC 2998. In the present study IC50  values below 4 µg/ml were displayed by the  compound B1 (IC50 of 4.0 µg/ml), B2 (IC50 of 3.4 µg/ml), B3 (IC50 of 3.2 µg/ml) and  B4 (IC50 of 3.1 µg/ml) against Human  small cell lung DMS 114 cancer cell line and  B1( IC50 of 3.5 µg/ml), B2 (IC50 of 3.2 µg/ml), B3 (IC50 of 2.9 µg/ml) and B4 (IC50 of 2.9 µg/ml) against Human colon cancer cell line HCC 2998. The IC50 values of standard drugs doxorubicin and 5-FU were found to be 1. 2 µg/ml and 1.1 µg/ml.

Keywords: IR, NMR, Anticancer activity, DMS 114, HCC 2998, MTT assay, IC50


Drug Utilization Evaluation of Cephalosporins in the General Medicine and General Surgery Departments in Atertiary Care Teaching Hospital

C Suhas Reddy1*, Hamid Reza Davoudi1, Binai K Shankar1, Ahamada Safna Mariyam.M1

1. Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Acharya & B.M Reddy College of Pharmacy, Bangalore, India.


Aim was to conduct a prospective observational study on Drug Utilization Evaluation of cephalosporins, to determine the frequency of usage of Cephalosporin and to study the indications for which cephalosporins were prescribed. A total of 250 patients were enrolled in the study, 200 from general medicine (n1) and 50 from general surgery (n2) department. Data were collected, by scrutinizing the inpatient case sheet from both departments, for a period of 6 months. Out of 250 patients’, majority of patients’ 58 (23.2%) belonged to age group of 31- 40 years. The average age of male and female patients’ were (41.37±16.13) and (44.69±16.14), (41.87±15.96) and (31.06±18.63) in general medicine and general surgery respectively. This study observed that cephalosporins were prescribed to 58 (29%) of patients with Respiratory Tract Infection (RTI). Out of 250 patients enrolled in the study from both the departments, 182 (72.8%) patients received only third generation cephalosporins, while the remaining received a combination of cephalosporin with a β-lactam inhibitor. The most prescribed drug in the general medicine department was ceftriaxone121 (60.1%).The average duration of use of Cephalosporin was 5 and 8.5 days in general medicine and general surgery departments respectively. Prescriber should follow the standard treatment guidelines for improving the Rational Use of Drugs and to prevent the development of resistance. The duration of use of cephalosporins is in partial compliance with the guidelines.

Keywords: Cephalosporin, Drug Utilization Evaluation, Defined Daily Dose, Average cost.


Development and Validation of Common RP-HPLC Method for Estimation of Selected Triptans

K.Veditha1*, T.E.G.K.Murthy2

1. Vignan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi, Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh.

2. Bapatla College of Pharmacy, Bapatla, Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh.


This paper describes the common analytical method suitable for the estimation of selected triptans (Naratriptan, Sumatriptan succinate, Zolmitriptan) by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Chromatographic separations were conducted on Phenomenex Luna, C18 250 X 4.6 mm, 5 microns column at room temperature using 6.8 pH phosphate buffer: acetonitrile (60: 40) as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0ml min-1, while UV detection was performed at 225nm. The retention time was found to be 3.130, 3.153, 2.143min respectively for the selected triptans. The method was found to be linear in the range of 2-10µg ml-1 for all the drugs. The proposed method is having good sensitivity due to low LOD and LOQ values. Analytical recovery was >99.3%. The method was validated statistically and applied for the quantitative analysis of triptans in bulk and formulations.

Keywords: Triptans, RP-HPLC, analytical method, validation.


Cyclophosphomide Induced Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection and Pancytopenia in Lupus Nephritis Patient

Sudhakar Reddy1*, Yasaswini Bandlamudi1, Ahamada Safna Mariyam.M2

1. Pharm.D Interns, Nandha College of Pharmacy, Erode

2. Acharya & B.M Reddy College of Pharmacy, Bangalore.


Lupus nephritis occurs about 30-40% of adult with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Focal and diffuse proliferative forms of lupus nephritis are known to progress to chronic renal failure unless treated by immunosuppressive drugs. Lupus nephritis remains a major cause of deaths among patients of Hispanic and African-American ethnicity. Generally renal involvement is more common in blacks, Indians and Chinese, with less prevalence Caucasians and Arabs. Cyclophosphamide and glucocorticoids are considered to be the standard care for the patients with proliferative lupus nephritis. Intravenous Cyclophosphamide use is limited due to its potentially severe toxic effects. Here we report a case of Cyclophosphamide induced recurrent occurrence of Urinary Tract Infection and Pancytopenia in lupus nephritis patients and it was treated by using the Mycofenolate Mofetil and Prednisolone.

Keywords: Lupus Nephritis, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Cyclophosphamide, Urinary Tract Infection and Pancytopenia.


D2 and D4 Receptors Involved in Methamphetamine and p-Chloroamphetamine-induced Amnesia in the Step-through Passive Avoidance Test in Mice

Yi-Kuei Wong1, Hui-Hung Wang4, Ming-Kuan Chou1, Jiin-Cherng Yen1, Li-Kang Ho1, Shi-Kwang Lin2, Yuh-Chiang Shen3,5,6, Jyh-Fei Liao*1

1. Department and Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan;

2. Taipei City Pschiatric Center, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan;

3. National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan;

4. Institute of BioMedical Science, Academia Sinica;

5. Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan;

6. National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Science.


Dopamine D2 and D4 receptors play an important role in cognitive functions. Acute administration of both methamphetamine and p-chloroamphetamine induced amnesia in animals but mechanisms of action remained unclear. The aim of this study was to exam both D2 and D4 receptor activation involved in methamphetamine and p-chloroamphetamine induced amnesia. Dopamine D2 and D4 receptor antagonists were challenged proceeding of acute administration of methamphetamine or p-chloroamphetamine in a passive avoidance test, an amnesia murine model. Acute administration of methamphetamine (3 mg/kg, i.p.) before the training trial induced cognition impairment in passive avoidance test. The amnesic effect could be ameliorated by pretreatment of haloperidol (a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist) and L-745,870 (a dopamine D4 antagonist). Methamphetamine also induced locomotor hyperactivity that was improved by pretreatment of haloperdiol but not by L-745,870. p-Chloroamphetamine (5 mg/kg, i.p.) also induced amnesia in passive avoidance test which was significant attenuated by haloperidol, eticlopride (a selective D2 antagonist) and L-745,870 when these antagonists were administrated 50 min before the training trial or immediately after the training trial. We proposed that both D2 and D4 receptors activation were participated in impairment of memory acquisition induced by methamphetamine and p-chloroamphetamine while dopamine D2 receptors activation was also involved in locomotor hyperactivity induced by methamphetamine.

Keywords: p-Chloroamphetamine.Methamphetamine.Haloperidol.L-745,870.Amnesia.Passive avoidance test


Evaluation of the Centrally-Acting Mechanisms of Some Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs

Rana Arslan1*, Nurcan Bektas1

1. Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Anadolu University, Eskisehir, Turkey.


Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) whose main mechanism is inhibition of cyclooxygenases are commonly used for the management of pain. However, this mechanism is inadequate to explain the central analgesic activity of these drugs. We aimed to examine and to compare the central analgesic activity of diclofenac, etodolac, and indomethacin and the possible involvement of serotonergic and adrenergic mechanisms in their effects by using the hot plate and tail immersion tests. All drugs were assessed at same single doses (10 mg/kg). Mice were pretreated with prazosin and yohimbine, adrenergic antagonists, (1 mg/kg; i.p., 30 min. before testing) for investigating adrenergic mechanisms. Ondansetron and ketanserin, serotonergic antagonists, (0.5 mg/kg; i.p., 30 min. before testing) were also used for investigating serotonergic mechanisms. In tail immersion test, yohimbine and ketanserin decreased the antinociceptive effects of all tested NSAIDs. Ondansetron only antagonized the antinociceptive effect of diclofenac while prazosin was found ineffective. In the hot plate test, prazosin attenuated the antinociceptive effect of indomethacin and etodolac. Yohimbine, ondansetron, and ketanserin reversed the antinociceptive effects of all test drugs. The antinociception induced by tested drugs appears to be mediated either serotonergic (5-HT2/5-HT3) or adrenergic (α12) receptors in spinal/supraspinal level. 5-HT2/ 5-HT3 and α12 receptors are more associated with the supraspinal antinociceptive effect of NSAIDs while 5–HT2 and α2 receptors are predominantly involved in antinociceptive effect at the spinal level.

Keywords: Diclofenac; etodolac; indomethacin; pain; central mechanisms.