American Journal Of Pharmacy And Health Research

ISSN NO.: 2321-3647
DOI: 10.21276/ajphr
April 2018 Issue 4

Free Radicals and their Management

Majaz A. Qazi 1*, Khurshid I. Molvi 2

1.Ali- Allana College of Pharmacy Akkalkuwa, District Nandurbar, MS, India

2.Ibn. Sina National College for Medical Studies, Jeddah, Kingdom of  Saudia Arabia 


Free radicals are molecules containing one or more unpaired electrons in their outmost atomic or molecular orbital have emerged as double edged swords. current investigation showed that they can be both beneficial (e.g. required for normal physiological functioning) or deleterious (e.g. produce oxidative stress and responsible for various disease). Thus, it is important to understand all the aspects of free radicals while working in the this field.  The present review provides a brief overview on free radicals and their role in normal physiology,  oxidative stress, antioxidants and their evaluation.

Keywords Free radicals, Antioxidant, Oxidative stress


Design, Development and Evaluation of Amlodipine Besylate IR and Metformin HCl SR Bilayer Floating System.

Susomya Mahapatra1, Amiyakanta Mishra1, Bijay Ku. Sahoo1*

1.PG Dept. of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Puri-Konark Marine Drive Road, Baliguali, Puri, Odisha, 752002


The scenario of pharmaceutical drug delivery is rapidly changing. Conventional pharmaceutical dosage forms are being replaced by new drug delivery systems. These new drug delivery systems are having border over conventional ones in terms of many biopharmaceutical parameters. One such drug delivery system is bilayer floating sustained release drug delivery system. The research envisaged in the present study is an attempt towards developing a formulation of anti-diabetics and anti-hypertensive drug in a single dosage form. The main aim of present study is to formulate and evaluate bilayer tablets of Amlodipine Besylate as IR and Metformin Hydrochloride SR combination tablets for effective treatment of type II diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Preformulation studies including drug excipient compatibility were conducted for both drugs. Different formulations of sustained release, floating Metformin HCl tablets were prepared by using hydrophilic polymers like HPMC K100M, HPMC K4M etc., were evaluated. Amlodipine immediate release formulations were prepared using sodium starch glycolate as superdisintegrant and starch as disintegrant and were evaluated. Based on the in vitro dissolution data F6 and F3 were selected as the best formulations from Metformin and Amlodipine formulations respectively. From the bilayer tablet Amlodipine layer disintegrated within 5min , Metformin layer started floating after 5 min and showed total floating time ?12 hrs with good swelling index, good post compression parameters. In vitro dissolution study of bilayer tablet was done in USP type II along with UV spectrophotometer bestowed cumulative % drug release of Amlodipine as 98.75% at 30 min and 99.32 % of Metformin at 12 hrs. From the study it was found that, HPMC K100M showed good sustained release for 12 hrs. Among the disintegrants used sodium starch glycolate and starch showed good disintegration of Amlodipine layer. Overall this FDC formulation could be more effective, convenient & patient compliance.

Keywords: Amlodipine Besylate (AMB), Metformin Hydrochloride(MFH), Sodium starch glycolate, FDC,HPMC K100M, HPMC K4M.


Effect of Altitude (2500 M) on The Pharmacokinetics of Diclofenac Sodium and Cefadroxil After Oral Administration To Human Volunteers

Fergany.A. Mohammed1*, Mostafa.A. Hussein2

1.College of Clinical Pharmacy, Albaha University, Albaha, P.O. Box (1598) Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA)

2. Faculty of Pharmacy, Assiut University, Assiut-Egypt


This paper reports, for the first time, the data on the pharmacokinetic characteristics of diclofenac sodium and cefadroxil at Albaha, 2500 M altitude (ALT) , KSA. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the plasma concentrations and  pharmacokinetic parameters of diclofenac sodium (VoltarenÒ 50 tablets, Ciba Geigy, USA) and cefadroxil (UltrcefÒ 500   capsules, Bristol L. Germany)  at altitude of 2500 M (ALT) and at sea level (SEA) after oral administration to 12 healthy volunteers.  A two-way cross over study design was used to compare pharmacokinetic parameters  at ALT and SEA. Following drug administration, blood withdrawn into heparinized test  tubes  over a period of  12 hours. Drug concentrations were determined   in the withdrawn  samples by fully validated and optimized HPLC methods for the two drugs. The pharmacokinetic parameters including Cmax, tmax, t0.5e, t0.5a, Ke, Ka , Vd, ClT, AUC 0-12h, and AUC 0-? were determined by a computer programs. Statistical analysis of the obtained plasma drug concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters were performed using ANOVA computerized system. Results obtained showed significant differences in the plasma concentrations and all pharmacokinetic parameters of the two drugs at ALT as compared to SEA.  There was a significant increase in Cmax and AUC 0-12h, of both drugs  at ALT as compared to SEA.  The values of  Vd and ClT were significantly lower at ALT than SEA. ALT could markedly inhibit the metabolism  and renal excretion of both drugs as indicated by significant increase in the elimination half-lives (t0.5e) and decrease in the elimination rate constant (Ke ) at ALT as compared to SEA. The obtained results clearly indicate that the plasma concentrations and all the  pharmacokinetic parameters of both diclofenac sodium and cefadroxil are  significantly modified by ALT. Therefore, dosage regiemens adjustment  is important when diclofenac sodium and cefadroxil are prescribed for administration at ALT to maintain drug efficacy and safety and to avoid drug,s toxicity.

Keywords: altitude- ALT- SEA- diclofenac sodium- cefadroxil- fully validated HPLC- drug concentrations- pharmacokinetic parameters- statistical analysis - significant differences- dosage regimen adjustment -avoid drug,s toxicity


Development and Validation of UV-Spectrophotometric Method for Estimation of Sparfloxacin In Gastric Simulatory Media In Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

Kaushal kumar

Department of Pharmacy, M.J.P. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly.


The main objective of this study was to develop and validate an UV-spectrophotometric method for the estimation of sparfloxacin in 0.1 N HCl (gastric simulatory media) as per ICH guidelines. The ?max for sparfloxacin in 0.1 N HCl was found to be 296 nm. The drug follows linearity in-between the concentration range of 2-12?g/ml with a correlation coefficient value of 0.999. The proposed method was applied onto the bulk and marketed pharmaceutical formulation (tablets) so as to find out contents of drug. Estimated drug was found to be in-between 98.43 to 101.57 % in marketed tablets, a good agreement with the claimed level. The accuracy of the method was verified by recovery experiment performed at three different levels- 75%, 100%, and 125%. The % recovery was found to be in the range of 97.31-101.45%. The accuracy and reproducibility of the method was indicated by low values of % RSD. The precision of the method was studied through intraday and Interday variations and repeatability. The % RSD value< 2 confirmed the precision of developed method. Ruggedness of the proposed method was studied with the help of two analysts. The proposed method was found to be a rapid yet successful tool for routine analysis of sparfloxacin in the bulk and in the pharmaceutical dosage forms.

Keywords: Fluorquinolone; sparfloxacin, Quantitative determination, UV, validation.


Spectrophotometric Determination of Procainamide by Charge-Transfer Complexation

B. Eswara Naik1,3, C. Narasimha Rao2, S. Ramanaiah1 and P. Venkateswarlu2*

1 Department of Chemistry, Rayalaseema University, Kurnool, 518002, Andhra Pradesh, India.

2. Department of Chemistry, S. V. University, Tirupati, 517502, Andhra Pradesh, India.

3. Department of Chemistry, IIIT-R.K.Valley, RGUKT-A.P., Kadapa, 516330, Andhra Pradesh, India.


A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of procainamide (PA) in pure and pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method is based on the formation of charge-transfer complex between the drug and 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB). PA in the presence of CDNB formed yellowish red colored complex, which showed a maximum absorbance at 410 nm. The limit of detection and quantitation were 0.1183 mg/ml and 0.3940 mg/ml respectively. The influence of commonly used excipients on the determination of PA was studied.

Keywords: Spectrophotometric method, Procainamide, CDNB, Charge-transfer complex.


Spectrophotometric Determination of Amphetamine In Pure and Pharmaceutical Formulations

B. Eswara Naik1,3, C. Narasimha Rao2, S. Ramanaiah1 and P. Venkateswarlu2*

1.Department of Chemistry, Rayalaseema University, Kurnool, 518002, Andhra Pradesh, India.

2.Department of Chemistry, S. V. University, Tirupati, 517502, Andhra Pradesh, India.

3.Department of Chemistry, IIIT-R.K.Valley, RGUKT-AP., Kadapa, 516330, Andhra Pradesh, India.


A simple, sensitive and rapid spectrophotometric method has been developed for the estimation of Amphetamine (AM) in bulk and in pharmaceutical formulations using 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinone (DDQ). The proposed method is based on the formation of charge-transfer complex between AM and DDQ. AM in the presence of DDQ formed pale wine red color complex which showed a maximum absorbance at 465 nm against the blank. The limit of detection and quantitation were 0.1395 mg/ml and 0.4644 mg/ml respectively. The results of analysis were validated by recovery studies, accuracy, precision, LOD, LOQ, robustness and ruggedness, which indicated that the present method can be successfully applied for the determination of AM in pure and in pharmaceutical formulations.

Keywords: Spectrophotometric method, Amphetamine, Charge-transfer complex, DDQ.


Simultaneous UV Spectroscopic Estimation of Cefpodoxime Proxetil and Clavulanic Acid In Tablet

S. Malathi*

PSG college of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical analysis, Coimbatore-641004


Simple, rapid, accurate and economical method has been developed for the simultaneous Estimation of cefpodoxime proxetil and Clavulanic acid in a synthetic mixture. The linearity was observed in the concentration range of 35 to 63 µg/ml for cefpodoxime proxetil and 10 to 18 µg/ml for Clavulanic acid. The method is based on the simultaneous equations, absorbance of both the drugs were determined at 232 nm (? max of cefpodoxime proxetil), and at 269 nm (? max of Clavulanic acid). The method was validated in terms of accuracy and precision. The Proposed method was found accurate, reproducible and economical for the routine analysis of both the drugs in synthetic mixture.

Keywords: Cefpodoxime Proxetil, Clavulanic acid, UV spectroscopic analysis, Simultaneous Equation.


A Comparative Study of Antimicrobial Activity of Crude with Branded Medicinal Plant Oil

Koli PG., Murshad PM.,Tole.SB*.,Patil SM.

K.T. Patil College of Pharmacy, Osmanabad.


For various health related problem medicinal plant oils are widely used in traditional Indian society. In present study Antimicrobial activity of different crude oils compare with standard medicinal oils. Crude oils are extracted from different parts of plants such as leaves of Eucalyptus globulus (Eucalyptus oil), Flower buds of Eugenia caryophyllus (Clove oil), Leaves of Cymbopogen citritis (Lemon grass oil), seeds of Recinus communis (Castor oil), and seed of Sesamum indicum (Sesam oil) by using Steam distillation process. The antimicrobial activity of these crude oils with standard medicinal oil was studied by disc diffusion method, against one gram +ve Bacterial species Bacillus subtilis,two gram -ve Klebsiella pneumonia & Pseudomonas aeruginosa and one fungal strain Aspergillus niger. Comparing zone of Inhibition of crude oils with standard oils and also perform the phytochemical test for crude & standard oils. 

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Clevenger apparatus, Medicinal plant oil, phytochemical test